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Elena Zagar Galvão - ITS - FLUP 2006 Faculdade de Letras da Universidade do Porto Línguas e Literaturas Modernas INTRODUCTION TO TRANSLATION STUDIES Power.

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Presentation on theme: "Elena Zagar Galvão - ITS - FLUP 2006 Faculdade de Letras da Universidade do Porto Línguas e Literaturas Modernas INTRODUCTION TO TRANSLATION STUDIES Power."— Presentation transcript:

1 Elena Zagar Galvão - ITS - FLUP 2006 Faculdade de Letras da Universidade do Porto Línguas e Literaturas Modernas INTRODUCTION TO TRANSLATION STUDIES Power Point November 21 November 2007

2 Elena Zagar Galvão - ITS - FLUP 2006 TAXONOMIES in T Linguistic approach to the analysis of translation process Linguistic approach to the analysis of translation process List of changes: Catfords shifts (1965) occuring when translating from one language into another or departures from formal correspondence in the process of going from SL to TL; List of changes: Catfords shifts (1965) occuring when translating from one language into another or departures from formal correspondence in the process of going from SL to TL; Illusion of translation strategies Illusion of translation strategies Useful to describe translation as product Useful to describe translation as product

3 Elena Zagar Galvão - ITS - FLUP 2006 Vinay and Darbelnet Authors of Stylistique comparée du français et de langlais, 1958, containing probably the most famous taxonomy of modern TT. Difference between strategy and procedure: Difference between strategy and procedure: -Translation strategy --> whole texts (general approach) -Translation procedures --> sentences and smaller units of language (the unit of translation is the smallest segment of the utterance whose signs are linked in such a way that they should not be translated individually (lexicological unit; unit of thought) -Translation procedures --> sentences and smaller units of language (the unit of translation is the smallest segment of the utterance whose signs are linked in such a way that they should not be translated individually (lexicological unit; unit of thought)

4 Elena Zagar Galvão - ITS - FLUP procedures Direct translation covers: 1.Borrowing (e.g., glasnost; sometimes used for local colour) 2.Calque (e.g., Compliments of the Season) 3. Literal Translation

5 Elena Zagar Galvão - ITS - FLUP 2006 Oblique translation covers: 4. Transposition (change of one part of speech for another/ no change in meaning; it can be obligatory or optional) 5. Modulation (according to Vinay and Darbelnet the touchstone of a good translator) 6. Equivalence (used to translate idioms and proverbs) 7. Adaptation (used for cultural aspects; e.g. game of cricket – Tour de France)

6 Elena Zagar Galvão - ITS - FLUP 2006 Peter Newmark A Textbook of Translation, 1988 TRANSFERENCE (emprunt, loan word, transcription) TRANSFERENCE (emprunt, loan word, transcription) SL word is transferred to TL text e.g., in English: coup d'etát, ambiance; NATURALISATION NATURALISATION A transferred word is adapted to the TL (pronunciation and morphology), e.g., in French: thatchérisme; in Port: Nova Iorque, etc.

7 Elena Zagar Galvão - ITS - FLUP 2006 CULTURAL EQUIVALENT CULTURAL EQUIVALENT Approximate translation, where a SL cultural word/expression is translated by a TL cultural word considered equivalent to it. e.g., baccalauréat = '(the French) A level', etc. [often used in translation couplets]

8 Elena Zagar Galvão - ITS - FLUP 2006 FUNCTIONAL EQUIVALENT FUNCTIONAL EQUIVALENT Applied to cultural words, it requires the use of a culture-free word thus generalising or neutralising the SL word/expression. e.g., baccalauréat = French secondary school leaving exam; Sejm = Polish parliament, etc. [often used in translation couplets] e.g., baccalauréat = French secondary school leaving exam; Sejm = Polish parliament, etc. [often used in translation couplets]

9 Elena Zagar Galvão - ITS - FLUP 2006 MODULATION (Vinay and Darbelnet) MODULATION (Vinay and Darbelnet) A variation through a change of viewpoint, of perspective and very often of category of thought. e.g., Não hesitou. - He acted at once (positive for negative) This intensifies the lack of flexibility of the labour market... Destes factores resulta uma acrescida rigidez do mercado de trabalho... (shift and modulation) It's not totally worthless - Vale alguma coisa (positive for double negative)

10 Elena Zagar Galvão - ITS - FLUP 2006 SHIFT OR TRANSPOSITION SHIFT OR TRANSPOSITION Shift (Catford) or transposition (Vinay and Darbelnet) involves a change in the grammar/part of speech from SL to TL. e.g., it nevertheless has a perverse effect in that it devaluates the vocational channels.. este fenómeno tem efeitos perversos: desvalorização das vias profissionalizantes, Although it does not call into question... Sem pretender de novo pôr em causa... The fact is that this is not possible at present unless the two establishments.. Acontece que esta situação só é possivel se os dois establecimentos..

11 Elena Zagar Galvão - ITS - FLUP 2006 RECOGNISED TRANSLATION RECOGNISED TRANSLATION You should use the official or the generally accepted translation of any institutional terms (or other). COUPLETS COUPLETS Or triplets, etc, combine two or more translation procedures for dealing with a single problem. They are particularly common for cultural words, where transference may be combined with a functional or cultural equivalent, for example. e.g., ele não tinha shou nenhum, respeito nenhum pelos antepassados ou pela família

12 Elena Zagar Galvão - ITS - FLUP 2006 THROUGH-TRANSLATION (Calque, loan translation) THROUGH-TRANSLATION (Calque, loan translation) Literal translation of common collocations, names of organisations, the components of compounds (e.g. superman/Übermensch). Normally, through-t. should be used only when they are already recognized terms. (e.g., international organisations like UNO/ONU, etc.)


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