Presentation on theme: "OPSM 301 Operations Management Class 13: Service Design Waiting-Line Models Koç University Zeynep Aksin"— Presentation transcript:
OPSM 301 Operations Management Class 13: Service Design Waiting-Line Models Koç University Zeynep Aksin firstname.lastname@example.org
Announcements Lab activity will count as Quiz 2 Exam on 15/11 @ 14:00 in SOS Z27 –Study hands-on by solving problems –Study class notes –Read from book to strengthen your background On 17/11 exam solutions in class I won’t have office hours on Monday, Canan Uckun will hold additional office hours Monday 13:00-15:00 Today –Service Design (Ch 7 p. 265-270) –Waiting-Line Models (Quantitative Module D) –Quiz 3
Services.. .. lead to some desired transformation or improvement in the condition of the consuming unit …are provided to customers and cannot be produced independently of them …are produced, distributed and consumed simultaneously
Service Product – Service Process In most cases the product is your process (eg. concert, amusement park) Product design involves process design like we have seen before However customer contact and participation is distinguishing feature –Customer controlled arrivals –Service unique to customer: different service times –Customer experiences process flows
Where is the customer? Service Design Production Quality Assurance Marketing Co-production Measurement
Customer Interaction and Process Strategy Mass ServiceProfessional Service Service FactoryService Shop Commercial Banking General purpose law firms Fine dining restaurants Hospitals Airlines Full-service stockbroker Retailing Personal banking Boutiques Law clinics Fast food restaurants Warehouse and catalog stores No frills airlines Limited service stockbroker For-profit hospitals Degree of Interaction and Customization Degree of Labor Intensity Low High High Low
Service Design Tools: Service Blueprinting A blueprint is a flowchart of the service process. Answers questions: ‘who does what, to whom?’, ‘how often?’, ‘under what conditions?’ Shows actions of employee and customer, front office and back office tasks, line of visibility and line of interaction Instrumental in understanding the process and to improve the design. Are there redundancies, or unnecesssarily long paths? Fail points? Possible poka-yokes that might prevent failures?
Service Blueprint for Service at Ten Minute Lube, Inc.
Techniques for Improving Service Productivity Separation Self-service Postponement Focus Structure service so customers must go where service is offered Self-service so customers examine, compare and evaluate at their own pace Customizing at delivery Restricting the offerings Strategy Technique
Techniques for Improving Service Productivity - Continued Modules Automation Scheduling Training Modular selection of service. Modular production Separating services that lend themselves to automation Precise personnel scheduling Clarifying the service options Explaining problems Improving employee flexibility
If you can’t reduce it, fix it: Contact enhancement consistent work hours well trained service personnel good queue discipline reduce waiting This motivates our analysis of queueing systems
A Basic Queue Server Queue (waiting line) Customer Arrivals Customer Departures
A Basic Queue Server Queue (waiting line) Customer Arrivals Customer Departures Line too long? Customer balks (never enters queue) Line too long? Customer reneges (abandons queue)
Three Parts of a Queuing System at Dave’s Car-Wash
A common assumption: Poisson distribution The probability that a customer arrives at any time does not depend on when other customers arrived The probability that a customer arrives at any time does not depend on the time Customers arrive one at a time Interarrival times distributed as a negative exponential distribution
Picture of negative exponential distribution: interarrival times at an outpatient clinic
Independence from other customer’s arrival: interarrival times at an ATM
Time independent arrivals: cumulative arrivals at an ATM
Arrivals Served units Service facility Queue Service system Dock Waiting ship line Ships at sea Ship unloading system Empty ships Single-Channel, Single-Phase System
Cars & food Single-Channel, Multi-Phase System Arrivals Served units Service facility Queue Service system Pick-up Waiting cars Cars in area McDonald’s drive-through Pay Service facility
Arrivals Served units Service facility Queue Service system Service facility Example: Bank customers wait in single line for one of several tellers. Multi-Channel, Single Phase System
Service facility Arrivals Served units Service facility Queue Service system Service facility Example: At a laundromat, customers use one of several washers, then one of several dryers. Service facility Multi-Channel, Multi-Phase System
Queueing Analysis-Performance measures Arrival Rate ( Avg Number in Queue ( L q ) Service Rate ( Avg Wait in Queue ( W q )
Queueing Analysis Arrival Rate ( Service Rate ( Avg Time in System ( W s ) Avg Number in System ( L s ) Elements of Queuing System ArrivalsServiceWaiting line Exit Processing order System
Waiting Line Models ModelLayout Source PopulationService Pattern ASingle channelInfiniteExponential BMultichannelInfiniteExponential Single channelInfiniteConstant These three models share the following characteristics: Single phase, Poisson Arrivals, FCFS, and Unlimited Queue Length C
Operating Characteristics –Model A Utilization (fraction of time server is busy) Average waiting times Average numbers L= W Little’s Law
Example: Model A Drive-up window at a fast food restaurant: Customers arrive at the rate of 25 per hour. The employee can serve one customer every two minutes. Assume Poisson arrival and exponential service rates. A) What is the average utilization of the employee? B) What is the average number of customers in line? C) What is the average number of customers in the system? D) What is the average waiting time in line? E) What is the average waiting time in the system? F)What is the probability that exactly two cars will be in the system?
Example: Model A A) What is the average utilization of the employee?
Example: Model A B) What is the average number of customers in line? C) What is the average number of customers in the system?
Example: Model A D) What is the average waiting time in line? E) What is the average waiting time in the system?
Example: Model A F) What is the probability that exactly two cars will be in the system?
Example: Model B Recall Model A: If an identical window (and an identically trained server) were added, what would the effects be on the average number of cars in the system and the total time customers wait before being served?
Example: Model B Average number of cars in the system (by interpolation)
Example: Model B Total time customers wait before being served
Example: Model C An automated pizza vending machine heats and dispenses a slice of pizza in 4 minutes. Customers arrive at a rate of one every 6 minutes with the arrival rate exhibiting a Poisson distribution. Determine: A) The average number of customers in line. B) The average total waiting time in the system.
Example: Model C A) The average number of customers in line. B) The average total waiting time in the system.
Example: Secretarial Pool 4 Departments and 4 Departmental secretaries Request rate for Operations, Accounting, and Finance is 2 requests/hour Request rate for Marketing is 3 requests/hour Secretaries can handle 4 requests per hour Marketing department is complaining about the response time of the secretaries. They demand 30 min. response time College is considering two options: –Hire a new secretary –Reorganize the secretarial support
Proposal: Secretarial Pool Wq = 0.0411 hrs. W= 0.0411 hrs. + 0.25 hrs.= 17 minutes In the proposed system, faculty members in all departments get their requests back in 17 minutes on the average. (Around 50% improvement for Acc, Fin, and Ops and 75% improvement for Marketing)
Deciding on the Optimum Level of Service Total expected cost Cost of waiting time Cost Low level of service Optimal service level High level of service Minimum total cost Cost of providing service