Presentation on theme: "Tutor: Monica Gracia. Understanding Attachment and Bonding Welcome and introductions Recap last session Outcomes of the session Body of the Session Session."— Presentation transcript:
Understanding Attachment and Bonding Welcome and introductions Recap last session Outcomes of the session Body of the Session Session 17
Ground Rules Health & Safety Mobile phones Attendance Ethical issues Respect Openness Relationships Work, assignments Communication Confidentiality Concerns
Aims Be aware of the importance of Attachment and Bonding for a child’s development Understand the importance of trusting relationships between a child and their parents and carers
Outcomes Have an awareness of the importance of attachment and bonding to a child’s overall development including emotional wellbeing Explore the importance of trusting relationships in early years and throughout life
True or false? Write on a piece of paper THREE things about the last session. (DEVELOPING SELF-ESTEEM) Two are true and one is not Taking turns they read out the three ‘facts’ about the last session and the rest of the group votes which are true and false.
Key Messages from Brain Research The key finding from brain research is that the brain is uniquely constructed to benefit from experiences and from positive care giving during the first years of life. (Once in a Lifetime: French and Murphy, 2005) By the age three the brain has formed 1,000 trillion connections: about twice as many as adults have
Brain Research continued The brain develops earlier than the rest of the body - 50% of its’ adults weight in the first six months - 75% of its’ adult weight by the age of two and half years - 90% of its’ adult weight by age five years
Attachment and Bonding John Bowlby, considered the father of attachment theory, defined attachment as the reciprocal process between two individuals who form an enduring affectual bond. Attachment process is important for a healthy brain development. Bonding relationship that usually begins at the time of birth between a parent and offspring and that establishe s the basis for an on going mutual attachment.
Attachment John Bowlby (His theory) Children show a marked preference for closeness to a small number of adults and these attachments are a normal and universal part of human development Babies are born adapted to seek out such attachments not primarily with the aim of being fed and protected but for the feelings of safety and security the attachment brings
The particular attachment between infant and adult is formed as an interaction in which both play a part Attachment behaviour, that is the actions of the infant to bring about physical closeness with an attachment figure, increases when the infant feels frightened or anxious and decreases when the infant feels safe and secure As infants mature into adulthood, the need for attachment figures lessens; however attachment behaviour continues across the life cycle and we find ourselves returning to seek comfort from loved ones in time of stress or anxiety
Arousal – relaxation cycle - the parent responds – Fahlberg, 1991 Need Quiescence Displeasure Need Trust Security attachment
Attachment System – The HOW Positive interaction cycle – how the parent initiates interaction (sensitive and appropriate to child)
The Positive Interaction Cycle - the parent initiates Self-Worth Self-Esteem Parent Initiates Positive Interactions with the Child
Attachment – why is it important? Attachment helps a child… Attain full intellectual potential Sort out what he/she perceives Think logically Develop a conscience Become self reliant Cope with stress and frustration Handle fear and worry Develop future relationships Feel less jealousy
Lack of attachment hinders a child in … Conscience development Impulse control Self esteem Interpersonal interactions Emotions Understanding cause and effect General behaviour Gross and fine motor control Personal and social development Consistent development of different skills
Attachment develops in three distinct phases 0 – 2 months: The pre-attachment stage occurs. Attention seeking behaviour is indiscriminate 3 – 6 months: Attachments begin to form; the child is able to show preference for particular adults 7months – 3 years: A child will actively seek the proximity of one attachment figure. By this time they will already have formed an opinion of the reliability and availability of this person
Secure Child uses his caregiver as a secure base from which he can explore his world. Misses him/her but is easily soothed on reunion
Attachment Ambivalent or Resistant – Child is either excessively fretful or passive or fails to explore surroundings Child is distressed at separation and on reunion is not comforted, alternating between angry rejection and passivity Caregiver : Inconsistent responses, sometimes needs are met, sometimes not.
Attachment Avoidant – Child explores readily Child is minimally responsive to separation, - ‘no trouble’ – actively avoiding the caregiver on reunion, sometimes arching away and seeking comfort in toys. May have difficulties forming relationships, can be aggressive. Caregiver: rejecting, aggressive, ignoring, overly intrusive
Attachement Disorganised Child lacks any coherent style of response to separation or reunion Child shows contradictory behaviours including fear, depression, confusion ‘No adult attachment figure has ever been trustworthy’ – often abusive – child needs to rely on self.