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Just the Facts Data on Teen Pregnancy, Childbearing, Sexual Activity, and Contraceptive Use A Report from the National Campaign to Prevent Teen Pregnancy.

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Presentation on theme: "Just the Facts Data on Teen Pregnancy, Childbearing, Sexual Activity, and Contraceptive Use A Report from the National Campaign to Prevent Teen Pregnancy."— Presentation transcript:

1 Just the Facts Data on Teen Pregnancy, Childbearing, Sexual Activity, and Contraceptive Use A Report from the National Campaign to Prevent Teen Pregnancy

2 Campaign Director Sarah Brown Alexine Clement Jackson National President, YMCA of the USA Judith E. Jones Clinical Professor, Columbia University School of Public Health Leslie Kantor Vice President of Education, Planned Parenthood of New York City, Inc. Nancy Kassebaum Baker Former U.S. Senator Douglas Kirby Senior Research Scientist, ETR Associates John D. Macomber Principal, JDM Investment Group Sister Mary Rose McGeady President and Chief Executive Officer, Covenant House Jody Greenstone Miller Venture Partner, MAVERON, LLC Chairman Thomas H. Kean Former Governor of New Jersey and President, Drew University Carol Mendez Cassell Director, Community Coalition Partnership Program for the Prevention of Teen Pregnancy, CDC Linda Chavez President, Center for Equal Opportunity Annette Cumming Executive Director and Vice President, The Cumming Foundation William Galston Professor School of Public Affairs, University of Maryland David Gergen Editor-at-Large, U.S. News & World Report Whoopi Goldberg Actress Katharine Graham Chairman of the Executive Committee, The Washington Post Company David A. Hamburg, M.D. President Emeritus, Carnegie Corporation of New York President Isabel V. Sawhill Senior Fellow, The Brookings Institution John E. Pepper Chairman, Board of Directors, Procter & Gamble Company Bruce Rosenblum Executive Vice President, Television, Warner Brothers Stephen W. Sanger Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, General Mills, Inc. Victoria P. Sant President, The Summit Foundation Kurt L. Schmoke Former Mayor of Baltimore and Partner, Wilmer, Cutler and Pickering Judy Woodruff Prime Anchor and Senior Correspondent, CNN Andrew Young Former Ambassador to the U.N. and Co-Chairman, GoodWorks International Trustees Emeriti Charlotte Beers Chairman, J. Walter Thompson Irving B. Harris Chairman, The Harris Foundation Barbara Huberman Director of Training, Advocates for Youth Sheila Johnson Executive Vice President of Corporate Affairs, BET, Inc. C. Everett Koop, M.D. Former U.S. Surgeon General Judy McGrath President, MTV Kristin Moore President, Child Trends, Inc. Hugh Price President, National Urban League, Inc. Warren B. Rudman Former U.S. Senator and Partner, Paul, Weiss, Rifkind, Wharton & Garrison Isabel Stewart National Executive Director, Girls Inc. National Campaign Board of Directors

3 The National Campaign gratefully acknowledges its many funders, particularly the Charles Stewart Mott Foundation for its support of the Campaign’s research program. Special thanks also go to the David and Lucile Packard Foundation, the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, the Summit Foundation, and the William and Flora Hewlett Foundation for generously supporting all of the Campaign’s activities, and to the Turner Foundation for its support of National Campaign publications. © 2000 by the National Campaign to Prevent Teen Pregnancy. All rights reserved. ISBN Acknowledgments

4 Part I: Teen Pregnancy Statistics

5 Definition of Terms Pregnancy Rate – number of pregnancies ÷ population, usually multiplied by 1,000. Example – pregnancy rate for teens 15-19, 1996 (from the Alan Guttmacher Institute): Proportion of Pregnancies Ending in Birth, Abortion, or Miscarriage – number of births, abortions, or miscarriages ÷ number of pregnancies, multiplied by 100. Example – proportion of pregnancies to teens 15-19, 1996 (from the Alan Guttmacher Institute), that ended in birth: 880,170 pregnancies 9,043,000 girls aged = × 1,000 = 97.3 per 1, ,577 births 880,170 pregnancies = 0.56 × 100 = 56 percent (This statistic can also be calculated using rates instead of numbers.) Just the Facts (October 2000) – Page 5

6 Data Sources The Alan Guttmacher Institute (AGI), usually through special reports or its journal Family Planning Perspectives; The National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS), usually through its periodical Vital and Health Statistics; and The National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), CDC, DHHS, usually through CDC’s periodical Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Reports. Teen pregnancy data are released by three national groups: Just the Facts (October 2000) – Page 6

7 The Alan Guttmacher Institute. (1999). Special report: U.S. teenage pregnancy statistics with comparative statistics for women aged New York: Author. Ventura, S.J., Mosher, W.D., Curtin, S.C., Abma, J.C., & Henshaw, S. (2000). Trends in pregnancies and pregnancy rates by outcome: Estimates for the Untied States, Vital and Health Statistics 21(56). Kaufmann, R.B., Spitz, A.M., Strauss, L.T., Morris, L., Santelli, J.S., Koonin, L.M., & Marks, J.S. (1998). The decline in US teen pregnancy rates, Pediatrics, 102(5), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2000). Pregnancy rates among adolescents – United States, MMWR, 49(27), Each of the available sets of recent teen pregnancy rates was calculated using different methods, so data from one report should not be compared with data from another. Just the Facts (October 2000) – Page 7 Comparison of Four National Teen Pregnancy Rate Sets (pregnancies per 1,000 girls aged 15-19)

8 Calculation Methods for Four Pregnancy Rate Sets Estimated based on the NSFG* Reported by states to CDC, national rates include estimate for states that don’t report, state rates are by occurrence NCHS birth data NCCDPHP, 2000 Not includedReported by states to CDC, national rates include estimate for states that don’t report, report does not provide state rates NCHS birth data NCCDPHP, 1998 Estimated based on the NSFG* AGI abortion provider surveys, report does not provide state rates NCHS birth data NCHS, % of births + 10% of abortions AGI abortion provider surveys, state rates are by residence NCHS birth data AGI, 1999 MiscarriageAbortionBirth * - not the same method. The Alan Guttmacher Institute. (1999). Teenage pregnancy: Overall trends and state-by-state information. New York: Author. The Alan Guttmacher Institute. (1999). Special report: U.S. teenage pregnancy statistics with comparative statistics for women aged New York: Author. Ventura, S.J., Mosher, W.D., Curtin, S.C., Abma, J.C., & Henshaw, S. (2000). Trends in pregnancies and pregnancy rates by outcome: Estimates for the Untied States, Vital and Health Statistics 21(56). Kaufmann, R.B., Spitz, A.M., Strauss, L.T., Morris, L., Santelli, J.S., Koonin, L.M., & Marks, J.S. (1998). The decline in US teen pregnancy rates, Pediatrics, 102(5), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2000). Pregnancy rates among adolescents – United States, MMWR, 49(27), Just the Facts (October 2000) – Page 8

9 Data Availability Asian- and Native American girls aged married and unmarried teens aged sexually experienced teens aged and sexually experienced teens aged White, Black, and Hispanic girls aged 10-14, 15-17, and White, Black, and Hispanic girls aged girls aged 14 and younger girls aged 15-19, 15-17, and National pregnancy rates: CDC, 2000 CDC, 1998 NCHS, 2000 AGI, 1999 The following table summarizes which data are available from each data set. Just the Facts (October 2000) – Page 9

10 Data Availability, Continued Asian- and Native American girls aged married and unmarried teens aged sexually experienced teens aged and sexually experienced teens aged White, Black, and Hispanic girls aged 10-14, 15-17, and White, Black, and Hispanic girls aged girls aged 14 and younger girls aged 15-19, 15-17, and National counts of pregnancies: CDC, 2000 CDC, 1998 NCHS, 2000 AGI, 1999 Just the Facts (October 2000) – Page 10

11 Data Availability, Continued * girls aged and State counts of pregnancies: girls aged 15-19, 15-17, and * White and Black girls aged * girls aged 14 and younger * , 88, 92, 96 - girls aged State pregnancy rates: CDC, 2000 CDC, 1998 NCHS, 2000 AGI, 1999 * - data are not available for every state. Just the Facts (October 2000) – Page 11

12 Data from State Health Departments Birth data collected by the state health department, which can be slightly different than state birth data reported by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; Abortion data collected by the state health department, usually for residents only; and “Fetal loss” data – late-term miscarriages. Approximately one-half of state health departments also release pregnancy rates. Generally, these rates are not comparable to any of the available national rates, nor are they comparable to each other since each state uses its own calculation method. These state-level teen pregnancy rates typically include: Also, many states use age brackets not available in any national pregnancy rate set, such as girls aged or Just the Facts (October 2000) – Page 12

13 When are teen pregnancy data released? Unlike birth rates, pregnancy rates are not released on any set schedule. Rates often lag several years behind: for example, AGI released 1992 rates in 1997, and NCHS released 1996 rates in All rates are dependent on CDC abortion data (AGI uses the age distribution of abortions reported to CDC in its calculations). For the past few years, preliminary data on abortions for a given year have been released by CDC two full years after – i.e., preliminary abortion data for 1996 were released in December 1998, and preliminary data for 1997 were released in January For the previous three years, final data were released in July or August of the following year (i.e., final 1996 data were released in July 1999), but this was not the case in 2000 – as of October 2000, final 1997 abortion data have not yet been released. In addition, rate sets that use the National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG) to estimate miscarriages are presumably reliant on current NSFG data. The next NSFG is scheduled to take place in Just the Facts (October 2000) – Page 13

14 Teen Pregnancy Statistics from The Alan Guttmacher Institute

15 Number of Teen Pregnancies, 1996 (AGI) Nearly 1 million teen pregnancies occurred in To put it another way, more than 100 U.S. teens become pregnant each hour. Forty percent of these pregnancies were to girls under age 18, and 60 percent were to girls aged The Alan Guttmacher Institute. (1999). Special report: U.S. teenage pregnancy statistics with comparative statistics for women aged New York: Author. 542, ,530 24,830 Total: 905,000 Just the Facts (October 2000) – Page 15

16 Teen Pregnancy Rates, Girls Aged (AGI) (number of pregnancies per 1,000 girls) After increasing 23 percent between 1972 and 1990 (including 10 percent between 1987 and 1990), the teen pregnancy rate for girls aged decreased 17 percent between 1990 and The Alan Guttmacher Institute. (1999). Special report: U.S. teenage pregnancy statistics with comparative statistics for women aged New York: Author. Just the Facts (October 2000) – Page 16

17 Older teens (aged 18-19) have a teen pregnancy rate that is more than twice as high as the rate for younger teens (aged 15-17). While the teen pregnancy rate for girls aged decreased 17 percent between 1990 and 1996, the rate for older teens declined 12 percent and the rate for younger teens declined 17 percent. The Alan Guttmacher Institute. (1999). Special report: U.S. teenage pregnancy statistics with comparative statistics for women aged New York: Author. Girls Aged Girls Aged Girls Aged Just the Facts (October 2000) – Page 17 Teen Pregnancy Rates, Age Subgroups (AGI) (number of pregnancies per 1,000 girls)

18 Teen Pregnancy Rates, Girls Aged (AGI) (number of pregnancies per 1,000 girls) After increasing 19 percent between 1972 and 1989 (including 7 percent between 1986 and 1989), the teen pregnancy rate for girls aged decreased 17 percent between 1989 and 1996 to its lowest rate ever recorded. The Alan Guttmacher Institute. (1999). Special report: U.S. teenage pregnancy statistics with comparative statistics for women aged New York: Author. Just the Facts (October 2000) – Page 18

19 Teen Pregnancy Rates, Girls Aged (AGI) (number of pregnancies per 1,000 girls) After increasing 20 percent between 1972 and 1991 (including 9 percent between 1987 and 1991), the teen pregnancy rate for girls aged decreased 13 percent between 1991 and The Alan Guttmacher Institute. (1999). Special report: U.S. teenage pregnancy statistics with comparative statistics for women aged New York: Author. Just the Facts (October 2000) – Page 19

20 Teen Pregnancy Rates, Girls Under 15 (AGI) (number of pregnancies per 1,000 girls) After increasing 30 percent between 1973 and 1988, the teen pregnancy rate for girls aged 14 or younger decreased 24 percent between 1988 and 1996 to the lowest rate ever recorded. Note: denominator used is the population of girls aged 14. The Alan Guttmacher Institute. (1999). Special report: U.S. teenage pregnancy statistics with comparative statistics for women aged New York: Author. Just the Facts (October 2000) – Page 20

21 Teen pregnancy rates vary substantially among the three largest racial/ethnic subgroups. Between 1990 and 1996, the rate for African-American teens declined 20 percent and the rate for non-Hispanic White teens declined 24 percent. The teen pregnancy rate for Hispanics increased between 1990 and 1994, but then declined 6 percent between 1994 and Darroch, J.E., & Singh, S. (1999). Why is teenage pregnancy declining? The roles of abstinence, sexual activity and contraceptive use. Occasional Report 1. New York: The Alan Guttmacher Institute. Non-Hispanic Black Hispanic (any race) Non-Hispanic White Just the Facts (October 2000) – Page 21 Teen Pregnancy Rates, Racial/Ethnic Subgroups (AGI) (number of pregnancies per 1,000 girls aged 15-19)

22 Teen Pregnancy Rates, Sexually Experienced Teens (AGI) (number of pregnancies per 1,000 sexually experienced girls aged 15-19) Sexually Experienced Teens All Teens The pregnancy rate for sexually experienced teens is higher than the overall teen pregnancy rate because it is calculated by dividing the same number of pregnancies by the number of teens who are sexually experienced (about one-half of all teen girls). While the teen pregnancy rate for all girls aged decreased 17 percent between 1990 and 1996, the rate for sexually experienced teens declined 16 percent. Just the Facts (December 2000) – Page 22 The Alan Guttmacher Institute. (1999). Teenage pregnancy: Overall trends and state-by-state information. New York: Author.

23 Teen Pregnancy Rates, Married Teens (AGI) (number of pregnancies per 1,000 married girls aged 15-19) Note: Marital status used is status at outcome, not status at conception. Darroch, J.E., & Singh, S. (1999). Why is teenage pregnancy declining? The roles of abstinence, sexual activity and contraceptive use. Occasional Report 1. New York: The Alan Guttmacher Institute. After increasing 18 percent between 1986 and 1990, the teen pregnancy rate for married girls aged (as measured at pregnancy outcome) decreased 19 percent between 1990 and Just the Facts (October 2000) – Page 23

24 Note: Marital status used is status at outcome, not status at conception. Darroch, J.E., & Singh, S. (1999). Why is teenage pregnancy declining? The roles of abstinence, sexual activity and contraceptive use. Occasional Report 1. New York: The Alan Guttmacher Institute. After increasing 12 percent between 1986 and 1990, the teen pregnancy rate for unmarried girls aged (as measured at pregnancy outcome) decreased 12 percent between 1990 and Just the Facts (October 2000) – Page 24 Teen Pregnancy Rates, Unmarried Teens (AGI) (number of pregnancies per 1,000 unmarried girls aged 15-19)

25 In 1996, just over one-half of teen pregnancies ended in birth, about one-third ended in abortion, and 14 percent ended in miscarriage. The Alan Guttmacher Institute. (1999). Special report: U.S. teenage pregnancy statistics with comparative statistics for women aged New York: Author. 491, , ,890 Just the Facts (December 2000) – Page 25 Pregnancy Outcomes, Teens 15-19, 1996 (AGI)

26 The proportion of pregnancies ending in birth decreased in the 1970s, remained at just below 50 percent through the early- to mid-1980s, then began increasing in the late 1980s so that throughout the 1990s the majority of teen pregnancies ended in birth. The Alan Guttmacher Institute. (1999). Special report: U.S. teenage pregnancy statistics with comparative statistics for women aged New York: Author. Just the Facts (October 2000) – Page 26 Pregnancy Outcomes, Teens (AGI)

27 Pregnancies to girls aged 14 or younger are less likely to end in birth than pregnancies to other age groups. The Alan Guttmacher Institute. (1999). Special report: U.S. teenage pregnancy statistics with comparative statistics for women aged New York: Author. Just the Facts (October 2000) – Page 27 Pregnancy Outcomes, 1996 (AGI)

28 The proportion of pregnancies (to girls under age 15) ending in birth decreased in the 1970s, remained at about one-third through the early 1980s, then began increasing in the mid-1980s so that throughout the 1990s over 40 percent of pregnancies to girls under 15 ended in birth. The Alan Guttmacher Institute. (1999). Special report: U.S. teenage pregnancy statistics with comparative statistics for women aged New York: Author. Just the Facts (October 2000) – Page 28 Pregnancy Outcomes, Girls under Age 15 (AGI)

29 The proportion of pregnancies (to teens aged 15-17) ending in birth decreased in the 1970s, remained at just below 50 percent through the early- to mid-1980s, then began increasing in the late 1980s so that throughout the 1990s the majority of pregnancies to teens ended in birth. The Alan Guttmacher Institute. (1999). Special report: U.S. teenage pregnancy statistics with comparative statistics for women aged New York: Author. Just the Facts (October 2000) – Page 29 Pregnancy Outcomes, Teens Aged (AGI)

30 The proportion of pregnancies (to teens 18-19) ending in birth decreased in the 1970s, remained at about 50 percent through early- to mid-1980s, then began increasing in the late 1980s so that throughout the 1990s the majority of pregnancies to teens ended in birth. The Alan Guttmacher Institute. (1999). Special report: U.S. teenage pregnancy statistics with comparative statistics for women aged New York: Author. Just the Facts (October 2000) – Page 30 Pregnancy Outcomes, Teens Aged (AGI)

31 Hispanic teens are most likely, and non-Hispanic Black teens least likely, to have a pregnancy that ends in a birth. Darroch, J.E., & Singh, S. (1999). Why is teenage pregnancy declining? The roles of abstinence, sexual activity and contraceptive use. Occasional Report 1. New York: The Alan Guttmacher Institute. Just the Facts (October 2000) – Page 31 Pregnancy Outcomes, Teens Aged 15-19, 1996 (AGI) (number of pregnancies per 1,000 girls aged 15-19)

32 per 1, per 1, per 1, per 1, per 1,000 The Alan Guttmacher Institute. (1999). Teenage pregnancy: Overall trends and state-by-state information. New York: Author. Teen pregnancy rates vary widely by state, ranging from 50 per 1,000 in North Dakota to 140 per 1,000 in Nevada. Just the Facts (October 2000) – Page 32 State Teen Pregnancy Rates, 1996 (AGI) (pregnancies per 1,000 girls aged 15-19)

33 Teen pregnancy rates declined in every state but New Jersey between 1992 and 1996; declines ranged from 3.4 percent in Nevada to 31.2 percent in Alaska. The Alan Guttmacher Institute. (1999). Teenage pregnancy: Overall trends and state-by-state information. New York: Author % decline % decline % decline No change % decline Just the Facts (October 2000) – Page 33 Changes in Teen Pregnancy Rates, (AGI) (pregnancies per 1,000 girls aged 15-19)

34 International Pregnancy Rates, Teens (AGI) Singh, S., & Darroch, J.E. (2000). Adolescent pregnancy and childbearing: Levels and trends in developed countries. Family Planning Perspectives 32(1), Pregnancy rates calculated as the sum of births, abortions, and estimated miscarriages (20 percent of births plus 10 percent of miscarriages). The United States has much higher pregnancy and birth rates than other fully industrialized countries. U.S. pregnancy rates are nearly twice as high as rates in Canada and England and seven to eight times as high as rates in Japan and the Netherlands. Just the Facts (October 2000) – Page 34

35 Alternate Teen Pregnancy Statistics from the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services

36 Nearly 1 million teen pregnancies occurred in To put it another way, more than 100 U.S. teens become pregnant each hour. Forty-three percent of these pregnancies were to girls under age 18, and 57 percent were to girls aged Ventura, S.J., Mosher, W.D., Curtin, S.C., Abma, J.C., & Henshaw, S. (2000). Trends in pregnancies and pregnancy rates by outcome: Estimates for the United States, Vital and Health Statistics 21(56). 521, ,000 26,000 Total: 919,000 Just the Facts (October 2000) – Page 36 Number of Teen Pregnancies, 1996 (NCHS)

37 Among teens aged 15-19, more pregnancies occur to non-Hispanic White teens than to any other racial/ethnic group. Non-Hispanic White teens account for almost one-half of all teen pregnancies, non-Hispanic Black teens for just over one-quarter, Hispanic teens for 20 percent, and teens of other origins account for the final six percent of all teen pregnancies. 416, ,000 52,000 Total: 919, ,000 Ventura, S.J., Mosher, W.D., Curtin, S.C., Abma, J.C., & Henshaw, S. (2000). Trends in pregnancies and pregnancy rates by outcome: Estimates for the United States, Vital and Health Statistics 21(56). Just the Facts (October 2000) – Page 37 Number of Teen Pregnancies, 1996 (NCHS) (Girls Aged 15-19)

38 Among girls under 15, non-Hispanic Black teens account for 46 percent, non-Hispanic White teens for 27 percent, Hispanic teens for 19 percent, and teens of other backgrounds 8 percent of all pregnancies. Among teens aged and 18-19, non-Hispanic White teens account for about one-half of all pregnancies, non- Hispanic Black teens for just over one-quarter, Hispanic teens for approximately 20 percent, and teens of other backgrounds 4 to 8 percent of all teen pregnancies. Ventura, S.J., Mosher, W.D., Curtin, S.C., Abma, J.C., & Henshaw, S. (2000). Trends in pregnancies and pregnancy rates by outcome: Estimates for the United States, Vital and Health Statistics 21(56). Just the Facts (October 2000) – Page 38 Number of Teen Pregnancies, 1996 (NCHS)

39 After increasing 15 percent between 1976 and 1991 (including 11 percent between 1986 and 1991), the teen pregnancy rate for girls aged decreased 15 percent between 1991 and Ventura, S.J., Mosher, W.D., Curtin, S.C., Abma, J.C., & Henshaw, S. (2000). Trends in pregnancies and pregnancy rates by outcome: Estimates for the United States, Vital and Health Statistics 21(56). Just the Facts (October 2000) – Page 39 Teen Pregnancy Rates, Girls Aged (NCHS) (number of pregnancies per 1,000 girls)

40 Older teens (aged 18-19) have a teen pregnancy rate that is more than twice as high as the rate for younger teens (aged 15-17). While the teen pregnancy rate for girls aged decreased 15 percent between 1991 and 1996, the rate for older teens declined 12 percent and the rate for younger teens declined 15 percent. Girls Aged Girls Aged Girls Aged Ventura, S.J., Mosher, W.D., Curtin, S.C., Abma, J.C., & Henshaw, S. (2000). Trends in pregnancies and pregnancy rates by outcome: Estimates for the United States, Vital and Health Statistics 21(56). Just the Facts (December 2000) – Page 40 Teen Pregnancy Rates, Age Subgroups (NCHS) (number of pregnancies per 1,000 girls)

41 After increasing 16 percent between 1976 and 1990 (including 15 percent between 1986 and 1990), the teen pregnancy rate for girls aged decreased 16 percent between 1990 and 1996 to its lowest rate ever recorded. Ventura, S.J., Mosher, W.D., Curtin, S.C., Abma, J.C., & Henshaw, S. (2000). Trends in pregnancies and pregnancy rates by outcome: Estimates for the United States, Vital and Health Statistics 21(56). Just the Facts (October 2000) – Page 41 Teen Pregnancy Rates, Girls Aged (NCHS) (number of pregnancies per 1,000 girls)

42 After increasing 13 percent between 1976 and 1991 (including 8 percent between 1987 and 1991), the teen pregnancy rate for girls aged decreased 10 percent between 1991 and Ventura, S.J., Mosher, W.D., Curtin, S.C., Abma, J.C., & Henshaw, S. (2000). Trends in pregnancies and pregnancy rates by outcome: Estimates for the United States, Vital and Health Statistics 21(56). Just the Facts (October 2000) – Page 42 Teen Pregnancy Rates, Girls Aged (NCHS) (number of pregnancies per 1,000 girls)

43 After increasing 16 percent between 1982 and 1985 and remaining constant between 1985 and 1986, the teen pregnancy rate for girls aged 14 or younger decreased 22 percent between 1986 and 1996 to the lowest rate ever recorded. Note: denominator used is the population of girls aged Ventura, S.J., Mosher, W.D., Curtin, S.C., Abma, J.C., & Henshaw, S. (2000). Trends in pregnancies and pregnancy rates by outcome: Estimates for the United States, Vital and Health Statistics 21(56). Just the Facts (October 2000) – Page 43 Teen Pregnancy Rates, Girls Under 15 (NCHS) (number of pregnancies per 1,000 girls)

44 Teen pregnancy rates vary substantially among the three largest racial/ethnic subgroups. Between 1990 and 1996, the rate for African-American teens declined 20 percent and the rate for non-Hispanic White teens declined 22 percent. The teen pregnancy rate for Hispanics increased between 1990 and 1992, but then declined 6 percent between 1992 and Non-Hispanic Black Hispanic (any race) Non-Hispanic White Ventura, S.J., Mosher, W.D., Curtin, S.C., Abma, J.C., & Henshaw, S. (2000). Trends in pregnancies and pregnancy rates by outcome: Estimates for the United States, Vital and Health Statistics 21(56). Just the Facts (October 2000) – Page 44 Teen Pregnancy Rates, Racial/Ethnic Subgroups (NCHS) (number of pregnancies per 1,000 girls aged 15-19)

45 Teen pregnancy rates vary substantially among the three largest racial/ethnic subgroups. Between 1990 and 1996, the rate for African-American and non-Hispanic White teens both declined 22 percent. The teen pregnancy rate for Hispanics was 4 percent higher in 1996 than it was in 1990 because it increased between 1990 and 1994 and only then began to decrease (8 percent between 1994 and 1996). Non-Hispanic Black Hispanic (any race) Non-Hispanic White Ventura, S.J., Mosher, W.D., Curtin, S.C., Abma, J.C., & Henshaw, S. (2000). Trends in pregnancies and pregnancy rates by outcome: Estimates for the United States, Vital and Health Statistics 21(56). Just the Facts (October 2000) – Page 45 Teen Pregnancy Rates, Girls Aged 15-17, Racial/Ethnic Subgroups (NCHS) (number of pregnancies per 1,000 girls)

46 Teen pregnancy rates vary substantially among the three largest racial/ethnic subgroups. Between 1990 and 1996, the rate for African-American teens declined 14 percent and the rate for non-Hispanic White teens declined 16 percent. The teen pregnancy rate for Hispanics increased between 1990 and 1992, but then declined 6 percent between 1992 and Non-Hispanic Black Hispanic (any race) Non-Hispanic White Ventura, S.J., Mosher, W.D., Curtin, S.C., Abma, J.C., & Henshaw, S. (2000). Trends in pregnancies and pregnancy rates by outcome: Estimates for the United States, Vital and Health Statistics 21(56). Just the Facts (October 2000) – Page 46 Teen Pregnancy Rates, Girls Aged 18-19, Racial/Ethnic Subgroups (NCHS) (number of pregnancies per 1,000 girls)

47 Teen pregnancy rates vary substantially among the three largest racial/ethnic subgroups. Between 1990 and 1996, the rate for African-American teens declined 20 percent and the rate for non-Hispanic White teens declined 22 percent. The teen pregnancy rate for Hispanics increased between 1990 and 1992, but then declined 6 percent between 1993 and Non-Hispanic Black Hispanic (any race) Non-Hispanic White Note: denominator used is the population of girls aged Ventura, S.J., Mosher, W.D., Curtin, S.C., Abma, J.C., & Henshaw, S. (2000). Trends in pregnancies and pregnancy rates by outcome: Estimates for the United States, Vital and Health Statistics 21(56). Just the Facts (October 2000) – Page 47 Teen Pregnancy Rates, Girls Aged 10-14, Racial/Ethnic Subgroups (NCHS) (number of pregnancies per 1,000 girls)

48 The pregnancy rates for sexually experienced and sexually active teens are higher than the overall teen pregnancy rate because they are calculated by dividing the same number of pregnancies by the number of teens who are sexually experienced (or sexually active in the past year) instead of all teen girls. Ventura, S.J., Mosher, W.D., Curtin, S.C., Abma, J.C., & Henshaw, S. (2000). Trends in pregnancies and pregnancy rates by outcome: Estimates for the United States, Vital and Health Statistics 21(56). Just the Facts (October 2000) – Page 48 Teen Pregnancy Rates, Sexually Experienced and Sexually Active Teens, 1995 (NCHS) (number of pregnancies per 1,000 girls aged 15-19)

49 In 1996, just over one-half of teen pregnancies ended in birth, about one-third ended in abortion, and 15 percent ended in miscarriage. Ventura, S.J., Mosher, W.D., Curtin, S.C., Abma, J.C., & Henshaw, S. (2000). Trends in pregnancies and pregnancy rates by outcome: Estimates for the United States, Vital and Health Statistics 21(56). 137, , ,000 Just the Facts (October 2000) – Page 49 Pregnancy Outcomes, Teens 15-19, 1996 (NCHS)

50 The proportion of teen pregnancies ending in birth was just under one-half for most of the 1980s, but increased slightly in the late 80s and early 90s so that the majority of pregnancies ended in birth. Ventura, S.J., Mosher, W.D., Curtin, S.C., Abma, J.C., & Henshaw, S. (2000). Trends in pregnancies and pregnancy rates by outcome: Estimates for the United States, Vital and Health Statistics 21(56). Just the Facts (October 2000) – Page 50 Pregnancy Outcomes, Teens (NCHS)

51 Pregnancies to girls aged 14 or younger are less likely to end in birth than pregnancies to other age groups. Ventura, S.J., Mosher, W.D., Curtin, S.C., Abma, J.C., & Henshaw, S. (2000). Trends in pregnancies and pregnancy rates by outcome: Estimates for the United States, Vital and Health Statistics 21(56). Just the Facts (October 2000) – Page 51 Pregnancy Outcomes, 1996 (NCHS)

52 Hispanic teens are most likely, and non-Hispanic Black teens least likely, to have a pregnancy that ends in a birth. Ventura, S.J., Mosher, W.D., Curtin, S.C., Abma, J.C., & Henshaw, S. (2000). Trends in pregnancies and pregnancy rates by outcome: Estimates for the United States, Vital and Health Statistics 21(56). Just the Facts (October 2000) – Page 52 Pregnancy Outcomes, Teens 15-19, 1996 (NCHS)

53 Alternate Teen Pregnancy Statistics from the National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services

54 Number of Teen Pregnancies, 1997 (NCCDPHP) Over eight-hundred-thousand teen pregnancies occurred in To put it another way, more than 95 U.S. teens become pregnant each hour. Forty percent of these pregnancies were to girls under age 18, and 60 percent were to girls aged Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2000). National and state-specific pregnancy rates among adolescents – United States, MMWR, 49(27), , ,300 23,700 Total: 840,000 Just the Facts (October 2000) – Page 54

55 Older teens (aged 18-19) have a teen pregnancy rate that is more than twice as high as the rate for younger teens (aged 15-17). While the teen pregnancy rate for girls aged decreased 8 percent between 1995 and 1997, the rate for older teens declined 6 percent and the rate for younger teens declined 11 percent. Girls Aged Girls Aged Girls Aged Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2000). National and state-specific pregnancy rates among adolescents – United States, MMWR, 49(27), Just the Facts (October 2000) – Page 55 Teen Pregnancy Rates, Age Subgroups (NCCDPHP) (number of pregnancies per 1,000 girls)

56 Teen Pregnancy Rates, Girls Under 15 (NCCDPHP) (number of pregnancies per 1,000 girls) The teen pregnancy rate for girls aged 14 or younger decreased 11 percent between 1995 and Note: denominator used is the population of girls aged Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2000). National and state- specific pregnancy rates among adolescents – United States, MMWR, 49(27), Just the Facts (October 2000) – Page 56

57 State Teen Pregnancy Rates, 1997 (NCCDPHP) (pregnancies per 1,000 girls aged 15-19) Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2000). National and state-specific pregnancy rates among adolescents – United States, MMWR, 49(27), Teen pregnancy rates vary widely by state, ranging from 48 per 1,000 in North Dakota to 128 per 1,000 in Delaware per 1, per 1, per 1,000 data not reported per 1,000 Just the Facts (October 2000) – Page 57

58 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2000). National and state-specific pregnancy rates among adolescents – United States, MMWR, 49(27), % increase % decrease % decrease data not available % decrease Changes in Teen Pregnancy Rates, (NCCDPHP) (pregnancies per 1,000 girls aged 15-19) Teen pregnancy rates declined in every state but Connecticut and Utah between 1995 and 1997; declines ranged from 0.8 percent in Minnesota to 19.8 percent in Maryland. Just the Facts (October 2000) – Page 58

59 Number of Teen Pregnancies, 1995 (NCCDPHP) Kaufmann, R.B., Spitz, A.M., Strauss, L.T., Morris, L., Santelli, J.S., Koonin, L.M., & Marks, J.S. (1998). The decline in US teen pregnancy rates, Pediatrics, 102(5), , ,530 Total:735,751 Over seven hundred thousand teen pregnancies occurred in Thirty-nine percent of these pregnancies were to girls aged and 60 percent were to girls aged Just the Facts (October 2000) – Page 59

60 Older teens (aged 18-19) have a teen pregnancy rate that is more than twice as high as the rate for younger teens (aged 15-17). While the teen pregnancy rate for girls aged decreased 13 percent between 1990 and 1995, the rate for older teens declined 7 percent and the rate for younger teens declined 14 percent. Girls Aged Girls Aged Girls Aged Kaufmann, R.B., Spitz, A.M., Strauss, L.T., Morris, L., Santelli, J.S., Koonin, L.M., & Marks, J.S. (1998). The decline in US teen pregnancy rates, Pediatrics, 102(5), Just the Facts (October 2000) – Page 60 Teen Pregnancy Rates, Age Subgroups (NCCDPHP) (number of pregnancies per 1,000 girls)

61 Sexually Experienced Teens All Teens The pregnancy rate for sexually experienced teens is higher than the overall teen pregnancy rate because it is calculated by dividing the same number of pregnancies by the number of teens who are sexually experienced (about one-half of all teen girls). While the teen pregnancy rate for all girls aged decreased 13 percent between 1990 and 1995, the rate for sexually experienced teens declined 6 percent. Kaufmann, R.B., Spitz, A.M., Strauss, L.T., Morris, L., Santelli, J.S., Koonin, L.M., & Marks, J.S. (1998). The decline in US teen pregnancy rates, Pediatrics, 102(5), Just the Facts (October 2000) – Page 61 Teen Pregnancy Rates, Sexually Experienced Teens (NCCDPHP) (number of pregnancies per 1,000 sexually experienced girls aged 15-19)

62 The pregnancy rates for sexually experienced and sexually active teens are higher than the overall teen pregnancy rate because they are calculated by dividing the same number of pregnancies by the number of teens who are sexually experienced (or sexually active in the past three months) instead of all teen girls. Kaufmann, R.B., Spitz, A.M., Strauss, L.T., Morris, L., Santelli, J.S., Koonin, L.M., & Marks, J.S. (1998). The decline in US teen pregnancy rates, Pediatrics, 102(5), Just the Facts (October 2000) – Page 62 Teen Pregnancy Rates, Sexually Experienced and Sexually Active Teens, 1995 (NCCDPHP) (number of pregnancies per 1,000 girls)

63 Nearly 70 percent of teen pregnancies end in a birth. Note: these pregnancy rates do not include estimates of miscarriage. Kaufmann, R.B., Spitz, A.M., Strauss, L.T., Morris, L., Santelli, J.S., Koonin, L.M., & Marks, J.S. (1998). The decline in US teen pregnancy rates, Pediatrics, 102(5), Just the Facts (October 2000) – Page 63 Pregnancy Outcomes, 1995 (NCCDPHP)

64 The proportion of teen pregnancies ending in birth increased slightly in the 1990s, from 62 percent in 1990 to 68 percent in Note: these pregnancy rates do not include estimates of miscarriage. Kaufmann, R.B., Spitz, A.M., Strauss, L.T., Morris, L., Santelli, J.S., Koonin, L.M., & Marks, J.S. (1998). The decline in US teen pregnancy rates, Pediatrics, 102(5), Just the Facts (October 2000) – Page 64 Pregnancy Outcomes, Teens (NCCDPHP)

65 Part II: Teen Birth Statistics

66 Definition of Terms Birth Rate – number of births ÷ population, usually multiplied by 1,000. Example – birth rate for teens 15-19, 1998: Proportion of Teen Births to Unmarried Teens – number of births to unmarried teens ÷ total number of births in the same age group, multiplied by 100. Example – proportion of births to teens 15-19, 1998, that were to unmarried teens: Proportion of All Births that are to Teens – number of teen births ÷ total number of births to women of all ages. Example – proportion of all births in 1998 that were to girls under 20: 484,895 births 9,493,761 girls aged = × 1,000 = 51.1 per 1, ,868 births to unmarried teens 484,895 births to teens = × 100 = 78.5 percent Just the Facts (October 2000) – Page ,357 births to girls under 20 3,941,553 total births = × 100 = 12.5 percent

67 Data Sources Teen birth data are usually released by the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS). For the past few years, birth data have been released in two waves. Preliminary data for the previous year are released in the Fall (so preliminary data for 1998 were released in October 1999, for example). Final data are released the next Spring (final 1998 birth data were released in March 2000). The preliminary report is based on a subset of birth records (97.6 percent in 1999) and contains less detail than the final report. Both preliminary and final reports have typically been released through NCHS’s monthly periodical, National Vital Statistics Reports. Just the Facts (October 2000) – Page 67

68 Data Sources, Continued Some data, such as state-level rates for racial/ethnic subgroups, are not included in the standard final report. These data are published through special reports, released sporadically through NCHS’s National Vital Statistics Reports. Recent titles of interest include “Nonmarital Childbearing in the United States, ” and “Variations in Teenage Birth Rates, : National and State Trends.” Another source of data from NCHS is its report, Vital Statistics of the United States. Finally, depending on what data has been released by NCHS in special reports, Child Trends’ “Facts at a Glance” may be the best source for certain information, such as the proportion of teen births that are out-of-wedlock, by race and state. Just the Facts (October 2000) – Page 68

69 Data Sources, Continued Many states also release birth data. Some states use age groups that aren’t used by the federal government, such as ages or For these states, rates from the state should not be compared with federal rates. Even among states that use the same age ranges as the federal government, slight variations may exist. For example, the California Department of Health Services published a 1997 birth rate for California teens aged of 56.7 per 1,000, while NCHS published a rate of It is unclear whether such differences are due to different population estimates or different counts of births (either due to different treatment of birth certificates with missing data or different policies on births to out-of-state residents). Just the Facts (October 2000) – Page 69

70 Number of Teen Births, 1999* Nearly one-half million teen births occurred in To put it another way, more than 55 U.S. teens give birth each hour. Thirty-six percent of these births were to girls under age 18, and 64 percent were to girls aged * Data for 1999 are preliminary. Curtin, S.C., & Martin, J.A. (2000). Births: Preliminary data for National Vital Statistics Reports 48(14). 312, ,559 9,049 Total: 484,794 Just the Facts (October 2000) – Page 70

71 Number of Teen Births, 1999* Among teens aged 15-19, more births occur to non-Hispanic White teens than to any other racial/ethnic group. Just the Facts (October 2000) – Page 71 * Data for 1999 are preliminary. Curtin, S.C., & Martin, J.A. (2000). Births: Preliminary data for National Vital Statistics Reports 48(14).

72 Number of Teen Births, 1999* The proportion of all teen births that are to girls under 18 ranges from 31 percent for non- Hispanic White teens to 40 percent for Hispanic and African-American teens. Just the Facts (October 2000) – Page 72 * Data for 1999 are preliminary. Curtin, S.C., & Martin, J.A. (2000). Births: Preliminary data for National Vital Statistics Reports 48(14).

73 Teen Birth Rates, Girls Aged (number of births per 1,000 girls) The teen birth rate declined steadily from 1960 through the mid-1970s, stayed fairly constant for the next decade, then increased 24 percent between 1986 and Between 1991 and 1999, the teen birth rate decreased 20 percent to a record low. Note: data for 1999 are preliminary. Curtin, S.C., & Martin, J.A. (2000). Births: Preliminary data for National Vital Statistics Reports 48(14). Ventura, S.J., Mathews, T.J., & Curtin, S.C. (1998). Declines in teenage birth rates, : National and state patterns. National Vital Statistics Reports 47(12). Just the Facts (October 2000) – Page 73

74 Teen Birth Rates (number of births per 1,000 girls) Just the Facts (October 2000) – Page 74 Older teens (aged 18-19) have a teen birth rate that is more than twice as high as the rate for younger teens (aged 15-17). While the teen birth rate for girls aged decreased 20 percent between 1991 and 1999, the rate for older teens declined 15 percent and the rate for younger teens declined 26 percent. Girls Aged Girls Aged Girls Aged Note: data for 1999 are preliminary. Curtin, S.C., & Martin, J.A. (2000). Births: Preliminary data for National Vital Statistics Reports 48(14). Ventura, S.J., Mathews, T.J., & Curtin, S.C. (1998). Declines in teenage birth rates, : National and state patterns. National Vital Statistics Reports 47(12).

75 Teen Birth Rates, Girls Aged (number of births per 1,000 girls) Just the Facts (October 2000) – Page 75 After decreasing 31 percent between 1960 and 1986, the teen birth rate for girls aged increased 27 percent between 1986 and 1991, and then decreased 26 percent between 1991 and 1999 to its lowest rate ever recorded. * Data for 1999 are preliminary. Curtin, S.C., & Martin, J.A. (2000). Births: Preliminary data for National Vital Statistics Reports 48(14). Ventura, S.J., Mathews, T.J., & Curtin, S.C. (1998). Declines in teenage birth rates, : National and state patterns. National Vital Statistics Reports 47(12).

76 Teen Birth Rates, Girls Aged (number of births per 1,000 girls) Just the Facts (October 2000) – Page 76 After decreasing 53 percent between 1960 and 1987, the teen birth rate for girls aged increased 20 percent between 1987 and 1992, and then decreased 15 percent between 1992 and 1999 to a near-record low. * Data for 1999 are preliminary. Curtin, S.C., & Martin, J.A. (2000). Births: Preliminary data for National Vital Statistics Reports 48(14). Ventura, S.J., Mathews, T.J., & Curtin, S.C. (1998). Declines in teenage birth rates, : National and state patterns. National Vital Statistics Reports 47(12).

77 Teen Birth Rates, Girls Aged (number of births per 1,000 girls) Just the Facts (October 2000) – Page 77 After increasing 27 percent between 1983 and 1989, the teen birth rate for girls aged remained constant between 1989 and 1994 and then decreased 36 percent between 1994 and 1999 to its lowest rate ever recorded. Note: data for 1999 are preliminary. Curtin, S.C., & Martin, J.A. (2000). Births: Preliminary data for National Vital Statistics Reports 48(14). Ventura, S.J., Martin, J.A., Curtin, S.C., Mathews, T.J., & Park, M.M. (2000). Birth: Final data for National Vital Statistics Reports 48(3).

78 Teen Birth Rates by Race/Ethnicity, Girls Aged (number of births per 1,000 girls) Just the Facts (October 2000) – Page 78 Teen birth rates vary substantially among the largest racial/ethnic subgroups. Between 1991 and 1999, the rate for African-American teens declined 30 percent, the rate for all White teens declined 16 percent and the rate for non-Hispanic White teens declined 21 percent, the rate for Hispanics decreased 13 percent, the rate for Native Americans declined 20 percent, and the rate for Asian/Pacific Islanders declined 17 percent. Hispanic (any race) African American White (total) Non-Hispanic White Asian/Pacific Islander Native American TOTAL Note: data for 1999 are preliminary. Curtin, S.C., & Martin, J.A. (2000). Births: Preliminary data for National Vital Statistics Reports 48(14). Ventura, S.J., Martin, J.A., Curtin, S.C., Mathews, T.J., & Park, M.M. (2000). Birth: Final data for National Vital Statistics Reports 48(3).

79 African-American Teen Birth Rates (number of births per 1,000 girls) Just the Facts (October 2000) – Page 79 While the teen birth rate for African-American girls aged decreased 30 percent between 1991 and 1999, the rate for older teens (aged 18-19) declined 23 percent and the rate for younger teens (aged 15-17) declined 38 percent. Girls Aged Girls Aged Girls Aged Note: data for 1999 are preliminary. Curtin, S.C., & Martin, J.A. (2000). Births: Preliminary data for National Vital Statistics Reports 48(14). Ventura, S.J., Martin, J.A., Curtin, S.C., Mathews, T.J., & Park, M.M. (2000). Birth: Final data for National Vital Statistics Reports 48(3).

80 Native American Teen Birth Rates (number of births per 1,000 girls) Just the Facts (October 2000) – Page 80 While the teen birth rate for Native American girls aged decreased 20 percent between 1991 and 1999, the rate for older teens (aged 18-19) declined 18 percent and the rate for younger teens (aged 15-17) declined 27 percent. Girls Aged Girls Aged Girls Aged Note: data for 1999 are preliminary. Curtin, S.C., & Martin, J.A. (2000). Births: Preliminary data for National Vital Statistics Reports 48(14). Ventura, S.J., Martin, J.A., Curtin, S.C., Mathews, T.J., & Park, M.M. (2000). Birth: Final data for National Vital Statistics Reports 48(3).

81 Asian/Pacific Islander Teen Birth Rates (number of births per 1,000 girls) Just the Facts (October 2000) – Page 81 While the teen birth rate for Asian/Pacific Islander girls aged decreased 17 percent between 1991 and 1999, the rate for older teens (aged 18-19) declined 10 percent and the rate for younger teens (aged 15-17) declined 22 percent. Girls Aged Girls Aged Girls Aged Note: data for 1999 are preliminary. Curtin, S.C., & Martin, J.A. (2000). Births: Preliminary data for National Vital Statistics Reports 48(14). Ventura, S.J., Martin, J.A., Curtin, S.C., Mathews, T.J., & Park, M.M. (2000). Birth: Final data for National Vital Statistics Reports 48(3).

82 Non-Hispanic White Teen Birth Rates (number of births per 1,000 girls) Just the Facts (October 2000) – Page 82 While the teen birth rate for non-Hispanic White girls aged decreased 21 percent between 1991 and 1999, the rate for older teens (aged 18-19) declined 16 percent and the rate for younger teens (aged 15-17) declined 28 percent. Girls Aged Girls Aged Girls Aged * Data for 1999 are preliminary. Curtin, S.C., & Martin, J.A. (2000). Births: Preliminary data for National Vital Statistics Reports 48(14).

83 Hispanic Teen Birth Rates (number of births per 1,000 girls) Just the Facts (October 2000) – Page 83 While the teen birth rate for Hispanic girls aged decreased 14 percent between 1991 and 1999, the rate for older teens (aged 18-19) declined 12 percent and the rate for younger teens (aged 15-17) declined 13 percent. Girls Aged Girls Aged Girls Aged * Data for 1999 are preliminary. Curtin, S.C., & Martin, J.A. (2000). Births: Preliminary data for National Vital Statistics Reports 48(14).

84 Teen Birth Rates by Race/Ethnicity, Girls Aged (number of births per 1,000 girls) Just the Facts (October 2000) – Page 84 Teen birth rates vary substantially among the largest racial/ethnic subgroups. Between 1991 and 1999, the teen birth rate for all girls aged declined 36 percent, the rate for African-American teens declined 46 percent, the rate for all White teens declined 25 percent and the rate for non-Hispanic White teens declined 40 percent, the rate for Hispanics decreased 17 percent, and the rate for Asian/Pacific Islanders declined 50 percent. Birth rates for Native Americans aged increased 6 percent between 1991 and Note: data for 1999 are preliminary. Curtin, S.C., & Martin, J.A. (2000). Births: Preliminary data for National Vital Statistics Reports 48(14). Ventura, S.J., Martin, J.A., Curtin, S.C., Mathews, T.J., & Park, M.M. (2000). Birth: Final data for National Vital Statistics Reports 48(3).

85 Number of Hispanic Teen Births, 1998 (births to girls aged 15-19) Nearly three-quarters of all births to Hispanic teens (ages 15-19) were to Mexican-American girls. Teens of Puerto Rican descent accounted for 10 percent, Cuban-Americans for one percent, and teens of Central/South American and other Hispanic descent each accounted for 8 percent of teen births. Ventura, S.J., Martin, J.A., Curtin, S.C., Mathews, T.J., & Park, M.M. (2000). Birth: Final data for National Vital Statistics Reports 48(3). (88,484) (9,911) Total: 121,388 Just the Facts (October 2000) – Page 85 (12,286) (9,821) (886)

86 Hispanic Teen Birth Rates, 1998 (births per 1,000 girls aged 15-19) Among Hispanic teens (ages 15-19), Mexican-American girls have the highest teen birth rate. Just the Facts (October 2000) – Page 86 Ventura, S.J., Martin, J.A., Curtin, S.C., Mathews, T.J., & Park, M.M. (2000). Birth: Final data for National Vital Statistics Reports 48(3).

87 Hispanic Teen Birth Rates, Girls Aged (number of births per 1,000 girls) Just the Facts (October 2000) – Page 87 Trends in teen birth rates for Hispanic subgroups differ from each other. Between 1994, when the Hispanic teen birth rate peaked, and 1998, the overall Hispanic teen birth rate declined 13 percent. Declines for Hispanic teens of Mexican, Puerto Rican, and Cuban descent were 12, 23, and 40 percent, respectively. Teen birth rates for other Hispanic teens decreased 9 percent. * Data for 1999 are preliminary. Curtin, S.C., & Martin, J.A. (2000). Births: Preliminary data for National Vital Statistics Reports 48(14). Ventura, S.J., Martin, J.A., Curtin, S.C., Mathews, T.J., & Park, M.M. (2000). Birth: Final data for National Vital Statistics Reports 48(3).

88 Mexican-American Teen Birth Rates (number of births per 1,000 girls) Just the Facts (October 2000) – Page 88 Trends in teen birth rates for Hispanic teens of Mexican descent decreased between 1991 and 1993, but then increased between 1993 and From this 1995 peak, rates for 15- to 19-year-olds have decreased 18 percent, rates for girls aged have decreased 21 percent, and rates for girls aged have decreased 14 percent. Girls aged Girls aged Girls aged Ventura, S.J., Martin, J.A., Curtin, S.C., Mathews, T.J., & Park, M.M. (2000). Birth: Final data for National Vital Statistics Reports 48(3).

89 Cuban-American Teen Birth Rates (number of births per 1,000 girls) Just the Facts (October 2000) – Page 89 Generally speaking, Cuban-American teen birth rates were increasing between 1991 and Between 1997 and 1998, rates for 15- to 19-year-olds decreased 37 percent, rates for girls aged decreased 38 percent, and rates for girls aged decreased 27 percent. Girls aged Girls aged Girls aged Ventura, S.J., Martin, J.A., Curtin, S.C., Mathews, T.J., & Park, M.M. (2000). Birth: Final data for National Vital Statistics Reports 48(3).

90 Birth Rates for Hispanics of Puerto Rican Descent (number of births per 1,000 girls) Just the Facts (October 2000) – Page 90 Between 1993 and 1998, rates for 15- to 19-year-olds have decreased 26 percent, rates for girls aged have decreased 25 percent, and rates for girls aged have decreased 33 percent. Girls aged Girls aged Girls aged Ventura, S.J., Martin, J.A., Curtin, S.C., Mathews, T.J., & Park, M.M. (2000). Birth: Final data for National Vital Statistics Reports 48(3).

91 Just the Facts (October 2000) – Page 91 Between 1993 and 1996, rates for “other” Hispanic teens aged 15-19, 15-17, and decreased 35, 40, and 39 percent, respectively. However, between 1996 and 1998 rates for all three age groups increased: 15 percent for girls aged 15-19, 23 percent for girls aged 15-17, and 4 percent for girls aged Possible changes in the composition of this “other” Hispanic group make interpreting rate changes difficult, however. Girls aged Girls aged Girls aged Birth Rates for Hispanics of “Other” Descent (not Mexican, Puerto Rican, or Cuban) (number of births per 1,000 girls) Ventura, S.J., Martin, J.A., Curtin, S.C., Mathews, T.J., & Park, M.M. (2000). Birth: Final data for National Vital Statistics Reports 48(3).

92 Teen Birth Rates, Hispanic Girls Aged (number of births per 1,000 girls) Just the Facts (October 2000) – Page 92 Between 1994, when the Hispanic teen birth rate peaked, and 1998, the overall Hispanic teen birth rate for girls aged declined 22 percent. Declines for Hispanic teens of Mexican and Puerto Rican descent were 21 and 41 percent, respectively. Birth rates for Cuban-American teens aged increased 33 percent in the same time period, while teen birth rates for other Hispanic teens decreased 27 percent. * Data for 1999 are preliminary. Curtin, S.C., & Martin, J.A. (2000). Births: Preliminary data for National Vital Statistics Reports 48(14). Ventura, S.J., Martin, J.A., Curtin, S.C., Mathews, T.J., & Park, M.M. (2000). Birth: Final data for National Vital Statistics Reports 48(3).

93 Ventura, S.J., Curtin, S.C., & Mathews, T.J. (2000). Variations in teenage birth rates, : National and state trends. National Vital Statistics Reports 48(6). Teen birth rates vary widely by state, ranging from 24.4 per 1,000 in Vermont to 73.0 per 1,000 in Mississippi. Just the Facts (October 2000) – Page per 1, per 1, per 1, per 1, per 1,000 State Teen Birth Rates, 1998 (births per 1,000 girls aged 15-19)

94 Changes in Teen Birth Rates, (births per 1,000 girls aged 15-19) Teen birth rates declined in all 50 state between 1991 and 1998; declines ranged from 9.7 percent in Rhode Island to 37.8 percent in Vermont. Just the Facts (October 2000) – Page % decline % decline % decline % decline % decline Ventura, S.J., Curtin, S.C., & Mathews, T.J. (2000). Variations in teenage birth rates, : National and state trends. National Vital Statistics Reports 48(6).

95 Teen Birth Rates, Fathers Aged (number of births per 1,000 boys) Just the Facts (October 2000) – Page 95 After increasing 40 percent between 1986 and 1994, the teen birth rate for fathers aged remained constant between 1989 and 1994 and then decreased 14 percent between 1994 and Note: age of father is often missing for teen births (approximately 40 percent of teen births in 1997, for example). Cases with missing data are distributed according the proportions of births by age of father where this information is known. Ventura, S.J., Martin, J.A., Curtin, S.C., Mathews, T.J., & Park, M.M. (2000). Birth: Final data for National Vital Statistics Reports 48(3).

96 Number of Teen Births by Birth Order, 1999* (births to girls aged 15-19) Nearly four-fifths of all teen births are first births. Of the other 22 percent, 18 percent are births to teens who already have one child, 3 percent are births to teens who already have two children, less than one percent are fourth or higher-order births, and the final 1 percent of births do not have a birth order stated on the birth certificate. (370,749) (2,148) Total: 475,745 Just the Facts (October 2000) – Page 96 (85,455) (14,643) (2,750) * Data for 1999 are preliminary. Curtin, S.C., & Martin, J.A. (2000). Births: Preliminary data for National Vital Statistics Reports 48(14).

97 Older teens are more likely to have repeat births: only 72 percent of births to teens aged are first births, vs. 88 percent of births to teens aged and 97 percent of births to teens 14 or younger. Just the Facts (October 2000) – Page 97 Ventura, S.J., Martin, J.A., Curtin, S.C., Mathews, T.J., & Park, M.M. (2000). Birth: Final data for National Vital Statistics Reports 48(3). Number of Teen Births by Birth Order, 1998

98 Number of Teen Births by Birth Order, 1998 (births to girls aged 15-19) The proportion of all teen births that are first births ranges from 72 percent for African-American teens to 82 percent for non-Hispanic White teens. Just the Facts (October 2000) – Page 98 Ventura, S.J., Martin, J.A., Curtin, S.C., Mathews, T.J., & Park, M.M. (2000). Birth: Final data for National Vital Statistics Reports 48(3).

99 Number of Teen Births by Birth Order, Hispanic Teens, 1998 (births to girls aged 15-19) The proportion of all teen births that are first births ranges from 74 percent for teens of Puerto Rican descent to 82 percent for teens of Cuban descent. Just the Facts (October 2000) – Page 99 Ventura, S.J., Martin, J.A., Curtin, S.C., Mathews, T.J., & Park, M.M. (2000). Birth: Final data for National Vital Statistics Reports 48(3).

100 Ventura, S.J., Mathews, T.J., & Curtin, S.C. (1998). Declines in teenage birth rates, : National and state patterns. National Vital Statistics Reports 47(12). Just the Facts (October 2000) – Page 100 First birth rates for childless teens aged decreased 7 percent between 1994 and 1996, after increasing 20 percent between 1987 and First Birth Rates for Childless Teens (number of births per 1,000 childless girls aged 15-19)

101 Just the Facts (October 2000) – Page 101 After increasing 15 percent between 1985 and 1991, the second birth rate for teens aged who have had one child decreased 21 percent between 1991 and 1996, but then increased 0.6 percent between 1996 and Second Birth Rates for Teens With One Child (number of births per 1,000 girls aged 15-19) Ventura, S.J., & Bachrach, C.A. (2000). Nonmarital childbearing in the United States, National Vital Statistics Reports 48(16).

102 Just the Facts (October 2000) – Page 102 During the late 1980s, the overall teen birth rate and rates of first and second births all increased. In the early 1990s, the overall teen birth rate and the rate of second births decreased while the rate of first teen births remained roughly constant. In the mid- to late-1990s, the rate of second teen births remained roughly constant, while the overall teen birth rate and the rate of first births decreased. Teen Birth Rates by Birth Order (number of births per 1,000 girls aged 15-19) Ventura, S.J., Mathews, T.J., & Curtin, S.C. (1998). Declines in teenage birth rates, : National and state patterns. National Vital Statistics Reports 47(12). Ventura, S.J., & Bachrach, C.A. (2000). Nonmarital childbearing in the United States, National Vital Statistics Reports 48(16). Ventura, S.J., Martin, J.A., Curtin, S.C., Mathews, T.J., & Park, M.M. (2000). Birth: Final data for National Vital Statistics Reports 48(3).

103 Proportion of Teen Births to Unmarried Teens, 1999* (births to teens aged 15-19) Of the one-half million births to teens aged in 1999, 78.6 percent were to unmarried teens. Just the Facts (October 2000) – Page 103 * Data for 1999 are preliminary. Ventura, S.J., & Bachrach, C.A. (2000). Nonmarital childbearing in the United States, National Vital Statistics Reports 48(16). Curtin, S.C., & Martin, J.A. (2000). Births: Preliminary data for National Vital Statistics Reports 48(14). 101, ,931

104 Younger teens are more likely to have an out-of-wedlock birth: 96 percent of girls under 15 giving birth are unmarried, vs. 88 percent of girls aged and 74 percent of girls aged Just the Facts (October 2000) – Page 104 * Data for 1999 are preliminary. Ventura, S.J., & Bachrach, C.A. (2000). Nonmarital childbearing in the United States, National Vital Statistics Reports 48(16). Curtin, S.C., & Martin, J.A. (2000). Births: Preliminary data for National Vital Statistics Reports 48(14). Proportion of Teen Births to Unmarried Teens, 1999*

105 The proportion of all teen births that are out-of-wedlock ranges from 70.9 percent for Hispanic teens to 95.7 percent for African-American teens. Just the Facts (October 2000) – Page 105 National Center for Health Statistics. (2000). Vital statistics of the United States, 1997, Volume I, Natality. [Online]. Available: Proportion of Teen Births to Unmarried Teens, 1997 (births to teens aged 15-19)

106 Proportion of Teen Births to Unmarried Teens Note: before 1980, marital status is estimated based on data from areas in which marital status of mother was reported. Also, data for 1999 are preliminary. Ventura, S.J., & Bachrach, C.A. (2000). Nonmarital childbearing in the United States, National Vital Statistics Reports 48(16). Ventura, S.J., Martin, J.A., Curtin, S.C., Mathews, T.J., & Park, M.M. (2000). Birth: Final data for National Vital Statistics Reports 48(3). Ventura, S.J., Martin, J.A., Curtin, S.C., & Mathews, T.J. (1999). Births: Final data for National Vital Statistics Reports 47(18). Ventura, S.J., Mathews, T.J., & Curtin, S.C. (1998). Declines in teenage birth rates, : National and state patterns. National Vital Statistics Reports 47(12). Just the Facts (October 2000) – Page 106 The proportion of teen births that occur to unmarried teens increased steadily between 1950 and 1999 for all age groups. Girls Aged Girls Aged Girls Aged Girls Under 15

107 Proportion of Teen Births to Unmarried Teens, White Teens Just the Facts (October 2000) – Page 107 The proportion of White teen births that occur to unmarried teens increased steadily between 1950 and 1999 for all age groups. Girls Aged Girls Aged Girls Aged Girls Under 15 Note: before 1980, marital status is estimated based on data from areas in which marital status of mother was reported. Also, data for 1999 are preliminary. Ventura, S.J., & Bachrach, C.A. (2000). Nonmarital childbearing in the United States, National Vital Statistics Reports 48(16). Ventura, S.J., Martin, J.A., Curtin, S.C., Mathews, T.J., & Park, M.M. (2000). Birth: Final data for National Vital Statistics Reports 48(3). Ventura, S.J., Martin, J.A., Curtin, S.C., & Mathews, T.J. (1999). Births: Final data for National Vital Statistics Reports 47(18). Ventura, S.J., Mathews, T.J., & Curtin, S.C. (1998). Declines in teenage birth rates, : National and state patterns. National Vital Statistics Reports 47(12).

108 Proportion of Teen Births to Unmarried Teens, African-American Teens Just the Facts (October 2000) – Page 108 The proportion of African-American teen births that occur to unmarried teens increased steadily between 1970 and 1999 for all age groups. Girls Aged Girls Aged Girls Aged Girls Under 15 Note: before 1980, marital status is estimated based on data from areas in which marital status of mother was reported. Also, data for 1999 are preliminary. Ventura, S.J., & Bachrach, C.A. (2000). Nonmarital childbearing in the United States, National Vital Statistics Reports 48(16). Ventura, S.J., Martin, J.A., Curtin, S.C., Mathews, T.J., & Park, M.M. (2000). Birth: Final data for National Vital Statistics Reports 48(3). Ventura, S.J., Martin, J.A., Curtin, S.C., & Mathews, T.J. (1999). Births: Final data for National Vital Statistics Reports 47(18). Ventura, S.J., Mathews, T.J., & Curtin, S.C. (1998). Declines in teenage birth rates, : National and state patterns. National Vital Statistics Reports 47(12).

109 Proportion of Teen Births to Unmarried Teens, Hispanic Teens * Data for 1999 are preliminary. Ventura, S.J., & Bachrach, C.A. (2000). Nonmarital childbearing in the United States, National Vital Statistics Reports 48(16). Birth: Final data for National Vital Statistics Reports 48(3). Ventura, S.J., Martin, J.A., Curtin, S.C., & Mathews, T.J. (1999). Births: Final data for National Vital Statistics Reports 47(18). Ventura, S.J., Martin, J.A., Curtin, S.C., & Mathews, T.J. (1998). Report of final natality statistics, Monthly Vital Statistics Report 46(11s). Ventura, S.J., Martin, J.A., Curtin, S.C., & Mathews, T.J. (1997). Report of final natality statistics, Monthly Vital Statistics Report 45(11s). Ventura, S.J., Martin, J.A., Mathews, T.J., & Clark, S.C. (1996). Advance report of final natality statistics, Monthly Vital Statistics Report 44(11s). Ventura, S.J., Martin, J.A., Taffel, S.M., Mathews, T.J., & Clarke, S.C. (1995). Advance report of final natality statistics, Monthly Vital Statistics Report 44(3s). Ventura, S.J., Martin, J.A., Taffel, S.M., Mathews, T.J., & Clarke, S.C. (1994). Advance report of final natality statistics, Monthly Vital Statistics Report 43(5s). Just the Facts (October 2000) – Page 109 The proportion of Hispanic teen births that occur to unmarried teens increased between 1992 and 1999 for all age groups. Girls Aged Girls Aged Girls Aged Girls Under 15

110 Proportion of Teen Births to Unmarried Teens, Non-Hispanic White Teens Just the Facts (October 2000) – Page 110 The proportion of teen births that occur to unmarried teens increased steadily between 1992 and 1999 for all age groups. Girls Aged Girls Aged Girls Aged Girls Under 15 * Data for 1999 are preliminary. Ventura, S.J., & Bachrach, C.A. (2000). Nonmarital childbearing in the United States, National Vital Statistics Reports 48(16). Birth: Final data for National Vital Statistics Reports 48(3). Ventura, S.J., Martin, J.A., Curtin, S.C., & Mathews, T.J. (1999). Births: Final data for National Vital Statistics Reports 47(18). Ventura, S.J., Martin, J.A., Curtin, S.C., & Mathews, T.J. (1998). Report of final natality statistics, Monthly Vital Statistics Report 46(11s). Ventura, S.J., Martin, J.A., Curtin, S.C., & Mathews, T.J. (1997). Report of final natality statistics, Monthly Vital Statistics Report 45(11s). Ventura, S.J., Martin, J.A., Mathews, T.J., & Clark, S.C. (1996). Advance report of final natality statistics, Monthly Vital Statistics Report 44(11s). Ventura, S.J., Martin, J.A., Taffel, S.M., Mathews, T.J., & Clarke, S.C. (1995). Advance report of final natality statistics, Monthly Vital Statistics Report 44(3s). Ventura, S.J., Martin, J.A., Taffel, S.M., Mathews, T.J., & Clarke, S.C. (1994). Advance report of final natality statistics, Monthly Vital Statistics Report 43(5s).

111 Unmarried Teen Birth Rates (number of births per 1,000 unmarried girls) Note: before 1980, marital status is estimated based on data from areas in which marital status of mother was reported. Ventura, S.J., & Bachrach, C.A. (2000). Nonmarital childbearing in the United States, National Vital Statistics Reports 48(16). Just the Facts (October 2000) – Page 111 The unmarried teen birth rate for girls aged increased 527 percent between 1940 and Between 1966 and 1994, rates for older teens (aged 18-19) increased 174 percent, rates for younger teens (aged 15-17) increased 144 percent, and the overall rate increased 165 percent. Between 1994 and 1998, the overall unmarried teen birth rate decreased 11 percent, while rates for older and younger teens declined 8 and 16 percent, respectively. Girls Aged Girls Aged Girls Aged 18-19

112 Unmarried Teen Birth Rates, White Teens (number of births per 1,000 unmarried girls) Just the Facts (October 2000) – Page 112 The unmarried teen birth rate for White girls aged increased 997 percent between 1940 and Between 1966 and 1994, rates for older teens (aged 18-19) increased 300 percent, rates for younger teens (aged 15-17) increased 346 percent, and the overall rate increased 326 percent. Between 1994 and 1998, the overall unmarried teen birth rate decreased 6 percent, while rates for older and younger teens declined 5 and 10 percent, respectively. Girls Aged Girls Aged Girls Aged Note: before 1980, marital status is estimated based on data from areas in which marital status of mother was reported, and race is measured as race of child. Ventura, S.J., & Bachrach, C.A. (2000). Nonmarital childbearing in the United States, National Vital Statistics Reports 48(16).

113 Unmarried Teen Birth Rates, African-American Teens (number of births per 1,000 unmarried girls) Just the Facts (October 2000) – Page 113 Between 1981 and 1991, the unmarried teen birth rates for older African-American teens (aged 18-19) increased 30 percent, rates for younger teens (aged 15-17) increased 22 percent, and the overall rate increased 28 percent. Between 1991 and 1998, the overall unmarried teen birth rate for African Americans decreased 23 percent, while rates for older and younger teens declined 17 and 30 percent, respectively. Girls Aged Girls Aged Girls Aged Note: before 1980, marital status is estimated based on data from areas in which marital status of mother was reported, and race is measured as race of child. Ventura, S.J., & Bachrach, C.A. (2000). Nonmarital childbearing in the United States, National Vital Statistics Reports 48(16).

114 Unmarried Teen Birth Rates, Hispanic Teens (number of births per 1,000 unmarried girls) Just the Facts (October 2000) – Page 114 Between 1990 and 1994, the unmarried teen birth rate for Hispanic teens aged and both increased 25 percent, while rates for teens aged increased 29 percent. Between 1994 and 1998, the unmarried teen birth rates for Hispanic teens aged 15-19, 15-17, and decreased 11, 11, and 13 percent, respectively. Girls Aged Girls Aged Girls Aged Ventura, S.J., & Bachrach, C.A. (2000). Nonmarital childbearing in the United States, National Vital Statistics Reports 48(16).

115 Unmarried Teen Birth Rates, Non-Hispanic White Teens (number of births per 1,000 unmarried girls) Just the Facts (October 2000) – Page 115 Between 1990 and 1994, rates for older teens (aged 18-19) increased 22 percent, rates for younger teens (aged 15-17) increased 11 percent, and the overall rate increased 12 percent. Between 1994 and 1998, the overall unmarried teen birth rate decreased 9 percent, while rates for older and younger teens declined 7 and 15 percent, respectively. Girls Aged Girls Aged Girls Aged Ventura, S.J., & Bachrach, C.A. (2000). Nonmarital childbearing in the United States, National Vital Statistics Reports 48(16).

116 Married Teen Birth Rates (number of births per 1,000 married girls) Note: before 1980, marital status is estimated based on data from areas in which marital status of mother was reported. Ventura, S.J., & Bachrach, C.A. (2000). Nonmarital childbearing in the United States, National Vital Statistics Reports 48(16). Just the Facts (October 2000) – Page 116 The married teen birth rate for girls aged increased 37 percent between 1976 and 1990, while the rate for older teens (aged 18-19) increased 45 percent and the rate for younger teens (aged 15-17) increased 25 percent. Between 1990 and 1998, the overall married teen birth rate decreased 23 percent, while rates for older and younger teens declined 13 and 55 percent, respectively. Girls Aged Girls Aged Girls Aged 18-19

117 Married Teen Birth Rates, White Teens (number of births per 1,000 married girls aged 15-19) Note: before 1980, marital status is estimated based on data from areas in which marital status of mother was reported, and race is measured by race of child. Ventura, S.J., & Bachrach, C.A. (2000). Nonmarital childbearing in the United States, National Vital Statistics Reports 48(16). Just the Facts (October 2000) – Page 117 The married teen birth rate for White girls aged increased 36 percent between 1976 and 1990, and then decreased 16 percent between 1990 and 1998.

118 Married Teen Birth Rates, African-American Teens (number of births per 1,000 married girls aged 15-19) Just the Facts (October 2000) – Page 118 Note: before 1980, marital status is estimated based on data from areas in which marital status of mother was reported, and race is measured by race of child. Ventura, S.J., & Bachrach, C.A. (2000). Nonmarital childbearing in the United States, National Vital Statistics Reports 48(16). The married teen birth rate for African-American girls aged increased 74 percent between 1979 and 1993, decreased 71 percent between 1993 and 1997, but then increased 13 percent between 1997 and 1998.

119 Married Teen Birth Rates, Hispanic Teens (number of births per 1,000 married girls aged 15-19) Just the Facts (October 2000) – Page 119 The married teen birth rate for Hispanic girls aged decreased 19 percent between 1990 and Ventura, S.J., & Bachrach, C.A. (2000). Nonmarital childbearing in the United States, National Vital Statistics Reports 48(16).

120 Married Teen Birth Rates, Non-Hispanic White Teens (number of births per 1,000 married girls aged 15-19) Just the Facts (October 2000) – Page 120 The married teen birth rate for non-Hispanic White girls aged decreased 5 percent between 1995 and 1996, then increased 2 percent between 1996 and Ventura, S.J., & Bachrach, C.A. (2000). Nonmarital childbearing in the United States, National Vital Statistics Reports 48(16).

121 Teen Birth Rates (number of births per 1,000 girls aged 15-19) Just the Facts (October 2000) – Page 121 This graph shows birth rates for married, unmarried, and all teens aged 15-19, as well as the percent of births to girls aged that were out-of-wedlock. Generally, the married and overall teen birth rate seem to correspond to each other, although by the mid-1980s the unmarried teen birth rate also seems to have followed the same pattern. Percent of Teen Births to Unmarried Teens Unmarried Teens All Teens Married Teens Note: before 1980, marital status is estimated based on data from areas in which marital status of mother was reported. Ventura, S.J., & Bachrach, C.A. (2000). Nonmarital childbearing in the United States, National Vital Statistics Reports 48(16). Ventura, S.J., Mathews, T.J., & Curtin, S.C. (1998). Declines in teenage birth rates, : National and state patterns. National Vital Statistics Reports 47(12) Ventura, S.J., Martin, J.A., Curtin, S.C., Mathews, T.J., & Park, M.M. (2000). Birth: Final data for National Vital Statistics Reports 48(3).

122 Teen Birth Rates (number of births per 1,000 girls aged 15-19) Note: before 1980, marital status is estimated based on data from areas in which marital status of mother was reported. Ventura, S.J., & Bachrach, C.A. (2000). Nonmarital childbearing in the United States, National Vital Statistics Reports 48(16). Ventura, S.J., Mathews, T.J., & Curtin, S.C. (1998). Declines in teenage birth rates, : National and state patterns. National Vital Statistics Reports 47(12) Ventura, S.J., Martin, J.A., Curtin, S.C., Mathews, T.J., & Park, M.M. (2000). Birth: Final data for National Vital Statistics Reports 48(3). Just the Facts (October 2000) – Page 122 Between 1991 (when the overall teen birth rate peaked) and 1998, the rate for married and unmarried teens decreased 22 and 7 percent, respectively, the percent of teen births that were out-of-wedlock increased 14 percent, and the overall teen birth rate decreased 18 percent. Between 1994 (when the unmarried teen birth rate peaked) and 1998, rates for married, unmarried, and all teens decreased 8, 11, and 13 percent, respectively, while the percent of teens births that were out-of-wedlock increased 4 percent. Percent of Teen Births to Unmarried Teens Unmarried Teens All Teens Married Teens

123 Marital Status at First Birth, Teens Aged Bachu, A. (1999). Trends in premarital childbearing: Current Population Reports P Just the Facts (October 2000) – Page 123 Between the time periods of and , first births to teens aged becane much more likely to occur to an unmarried teen. The proportion of all premaritally conceived births that were “legitimated” (born to a married teen) decreased from 49 percent in to 16 percent in Or, to put it another way, 16 percent of first births to married teens in were conceived premaritally, compared to 56 percent in

124 Marital Status at First Birth, White Teens Aged Bachu, A. (1999). Trends in premarital childbearing: Current Population Reports P Just the Facts (October 2000) – Page 124 Between the time periods of and , first births to White teens aged became much more likely to occur to an unmarried teen. The proportion of all premaritally conceived births that were legitimated decreased from 60 percent in to 19 percent in Or, to put it another way, 16 percent of first births to married teens in were conceived premaritally, compared to 53 percent in

125 Marital Status at First Birth, African American Teens Aged Bachu, A. (1999). Trends in premarital childbearing: Current Population Reports P Just the Facts (October 2000) – Page 125 Between the time periods of and , first births to African American teens aged became much more likely to occur to an unmarried teen. The proportion of all premaritally conceived births that were legitimated decreased from 22 percent in to 7 percent in Or, to put it another way, 16 percent of first births to married teens in were conceived premaritally, compared to 80 percent in

126 Marital Status at First Birth, Hispanic Teens Aged Bachu, A. (1999). Trends in premarital childbearing: Current Population Reports P Just the Facts (October 2000) – Page 126 Between the time periods of and , first births to Hispanic teens aged became much more likely to occur to an unmarried teen. The proportion of all premaritally conceived births that were legitimated decreased from 24 percent in to 15 percent in Or, to put it another way, 11 percent of first births to married teens in were conceived premaritally, compared to 43 percent in

127 The Proportion of All Out-of-Wedlock Births That Are to Teens, Women in Their 20s, and Women Aged 30 Or Older, 1970 and 1999* In 1970, teens accounted for one-half of all births to unmarried women. By 1999, this proportion decreased to 29 percent, with the majority of out-of-wedlock births now occurring among women aged Just the Facts (October 2000) – Page 127 * Data for 1999 are preliminary. Curtin, S.C., & Martin, J.A. (2000). Births: Preliminary data for National Vital Statistics Reports 48(14) *

128 Teen Births as a Proportion of All Births, 1999* Of the 4 million births occurring in the U.S. in 1999, 12.2 percent were to girls under age 20. Just the Facts (October 2000) – Page 128 * Data for 1999 are preliminary. Curtin, S.C., & Martin, J.A. (2000). Births: Preliminary data for National Vital Statistics Reports 48(14).

129 Teen Births as a Proportion of All Births, by Race/Ethnicity, 1998 The proportion of all births that are to teens ranges from 5.4 percent for Asian/Pacific Islanders to 21.5 percent for African Americans. Just the Facts (October 2000) – Page 129 Ventura, S.J., Martin, J.A., Curtin, S.C., Mathews, T.J., & Park, M.M. (2000). Birth: Final data for National Vital Statistics Reports 48(3).

130 Teen Births as a Proportion of All Births, Hispanics, 1998 The proportion of all Hispanic births that are to teens ranges from 6.9 percent for Hispanics of Cuban descent to 21.9 percent for Hispanics of Puerto Rican descent. Just the Facts (October 2000) – Page 130 Ventura, S.J., Martin, J.A., Curtin, S.C., Mathews, T.J., & Park, M.M. (2000). Birth: Final data for National Vital Statistics Reports 48(3).

131 Teen Births as a Proportion of All Births, Asian/Pacific Islanders, 1998 Just the Facts (October 2000) – Page 131 The proportion of all Asian/Pacific Islander births that are to teens ranges from 0.9 percent for Asian/Pacific Islanders of Chinese descent to 18.8 percent for Asian/Pacific Islanders of Hawaiian descent. Ventura, S.J., Martin, J.A., Curtin, S.C., Mathews, T.J., & Park, M.M. (2000). Birth: Final data for National Vital Statistics Reports 48(3).

132 Number of Teen Births by Race/Ethnicity, 1998 (births to teen girls aged 15-19) Looking at teen births by race, 70 percent occurred to White teens. Looking at teen births by Hispanic ethnicity, one-quarter occurred to Hispanic teens. Combining race and ethnicity, non- Hispanic White teens account for the most births. Just the Facts (December 2000) – Page 132 By RaceBy EthnicityBy Race/Ethnicity Ventura, S.J., Martin, J.A., Curtin, S.C., Mathews, T.J., & Park, M.M. (2000). Birth: Final data for National Vital Statistics Reports 48(3). 121, , , ,076 (15,783) 219, , ,694 (8,201) (9,063) (4,479)

133 Just the Facts is a work in progress! Sexual activity, Contraceptive use, The teen population, and Consequences of teen childbearing. Sections to be added will include data on:

134 The mission of the National Campaign to Prevent Teen Pregnancy is to improve the life prospects of this generation and the next – and, in particular, to reduce child poverty – by influencing cultural values and building a more effective grassroots movement. The Campaign’s goal is to reduce the teen pregnancy rate by one-third between 1996 and The National Campaign to Prevent Teen Pregnancy 1776 Massachusetts Avenue, NW, Suite 200 Washington, DC (202) (202) fax


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