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Copyright ©2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 2-1 Essentials of Organizational Behavior, 10/e Stephen P. Robbins & Timothy A. Judge.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright ©2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 2-1 Essentials of Organizational Behavior, 10/e Stephen P. Robbins & Timothy A. Judge."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright ©2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 2-1 Essentials of Organizational Behavior, 10/e Stephen P. Robbins & Timothy A. Judge Chapter 2 Personality and Values

2 Copyright ©2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 2-2 After studying this chapter you should be able to: 1.Define personality, describe how it is measured, and explain the factors that determine an individual’s personality. 2.Describe the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator personality framework and assess its strengths and weaknesses. 3.Identify the key traits in the Big Five personality model and demonstrate how the traits are relevant to OB. 4.Define values, demonstrate the importance of values, and contrast terminal and instrumental values. 5.Compare the generational differences in values and identify the dominant values in today’s workforce. 6.Identify Hofstede’s five value dimensions of national culture.

3 Copyright ©2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 2-3 Personality The sum total of ways in which an individual reacts to and interacts with others Most often described in terms of measurable traits that a person exhibits, such as shy, aggressive, submissive, lazy, ambitious, loyal and timid

4 Copyright ©2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 2-4 Measuring Personality Self-reports Surveys  Most common  Prone to error Observer-ratings Surveys  Independent assessment  May be more accurate

5 Copyright ©2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 2-5 Personality Determinants Heredity is the most dominant factor  Twin studies: genetics more influential than parents Environmental factors do have some influence Aging influences levels of ability  Basic personality is constant

6 Copyright ©2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 2-6 Measuring Personality Traits: Myers-Briggs Type Indicator Most widely used personality-assessment instrument in the world Individuals are classified as:  Extroverted or Introverted (E/I)  Sensing or Intuitive (S/N)  Thinking or Feeling (T/F)  Judging or Perceiving (J/P) Classifications combined into 16 personality types (i.e. INTJ or ESTJ) Unrelated to job performance

7 Copyright ©2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 2-7 Measuring Personality Traits: The Big-Five Model Five Traits:  Extraversion  Agreeableness  Conscientiousness  Emotional Stability  Openness to Experience Strongly supported relationship to job performance (especially Conscientiousness)

8 Copyright ©2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 2-8 Major Personality Attributes Influencing OB Core self-evaluation Self like/dislike Type A personality Competitive, urgent, and driven Self-monitoring Adjusts behavior to meet external, situational factors Proactive personality Identifies opportunities, shows initiative, takes action and perseveres

9 Copyright ©2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 2-9 Values Represent basic, enduring convictions that "a specific mode of conduct or end-state of existence is personally or socially preferable to an opposite or converse mode of conduct or end-state of existence."

10 Copyright ©2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 2-10 Value Systems Represent a prioritizing of individual values by:  Content – importance to the individual  Intensity – relative importance with other values The hierarchy tends to be relatively stable Values are the foundation for attitudes, motivation, and behavior Influence perception and cloud objectivity

11 Copyright ©2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 2-11 Rokeach Value Survey Terminal values refers to desirable end-states of existence Goals that a person would like to achieve during his or her lifetime Instrumental values refers to preferable modes of behavior, or means of achieving the terminal values

12 Copyright ©2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 2-12 Examples of Terminal Values A comfortable life (a prosperous life) An exciting life (stimulating, active life) A sense of accomplishment (lasting contribution) A world of peace (free of war and conflict) A world of beauty (beauty of nature and the arts) Equality (brotherhood, equal opportunity for all) Family security (taking care of loved ones) Freedom (independence, free choice) Happiness (contentedness)

13 Copyright ©2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 2-13 Examples of Instrumental Values Ambitious (hard working, aspiring) Broad-minded (open-minded) Capable (competent, efficient) Cheerful (lighthearted, joyful) Clean (neat, tidy) Courageous (standing up for your beliefs) Forgiving (willing to pardon others) Helpful (working for the welfare of others) Honest (sincere, truthful)

14 2-14 Contemporary Work Cohorts Cohort Entered the Workforce Dominant Work Values Veterans1950s or early 1960s Hard working, conservative, conforming; loyalty to the organization Boomers Success, achievement, ambition, dislike of authority; loyalty to career Xers Work/life balance, team-oriented, dislike of rules; loyalty to relationships Nexters2000 to presentConfident, financial success, self-reliant but team-oriented; loyalty to both self and relationships

15 Copyright ©2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 2-15 Personality-Job Fit: Holland’s Hexagon Job satisfaction and turnover depend on congruency between personality and task  Fields adjacent are similar  Field opposite are dissimilar Vocational Preference Inventory Questionnaire

16 Copyright ©2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 2-16 Person-Organization Fit It is more important that employees’ personalities fit with the organizational culture than with the characteristics of any specific job. The fit predicts job satisfaction, organizational commitment and turnover.

17 Copyright ©2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 2-17 Global Implications The Big Five Model appears across a wide variety of cultures  Primary differences based on factor emphasis and type of country Values differ across cultures  Two frameworks for assessing culture: Hofstede GLOBE

18 Copyright ©2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 2-18 Hofstede’s Framework for Assessing Cultures Five factors: Power Distance Individualism vs. Collectivism Masculinity vs. Femininity Uncertainty Avoidance Long-term vs. Short-term Orientation

19 Copyright ©2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 2-19 GLOBE* Framework for Assessing Cultures Assertiveness Future orientation Gender differentiation Uncertainty avoidance Power distance Individualism/ collectivism In-group collectivism Performance orientation Humane orientation *Global Leadership and Organizational Behavior Effectiveness Ongoing study with nine factors:

20 Copyright ©2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 2-20 Implications for Managers Personality:  Evaluate the job, group, and organization to determine the best fit  Big Five is best to use for selection  MBTI for development and training Values:  Strongly influence attitudes, behaviors, and perceptions  Match the individual values to organizational culture

21 Copyright ©2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 2-21 Keep in Mind… Personality  The sum total of ways in which individual reacts to, and interacts with, others  Easily measured Big Five Personality Traits  Related to many OB criteria  May be very useful in predicting behavior Values  Vary between and within cultures

22 Copyright ©2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 2-22 Summary 1.Defined personality, described how it is measured, and explained the factors that determine an individual’s personality. 2.Described the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator personality framework and assessed its strengths and weaknesses. 3.Identified the key traits in the Big Five personality model and demonstrated how the traits are relevant to OB. 4.Defined values, demonstrated the importance of values, and contrasted terminal and instrumental values. 5.Compared the generational differences in values and identified the dominant values in today’s workforce. 6.Identified Hofstede’s five value dimensions of national culture.

23 Copyright ©2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 2-23 All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publisher. Printed in the United States of America.


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