Presentation on theme: "Stephen P. Robbins & Timothy A. Judge"— Presentation transcript:
1 Stephen P. Robbins & Timothy A. Judge Essentials ofOrganizational Behavior, 10/eStephen P. Robbins & Timothy A. JudgeChapter 2Personality and Values
2 After studying this chapter you should be able to: Define personality, describe how it is measured, and explain the factors that determine an individual’s personality.Describe the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator personality framework and assess its strengths and weaknesses.Identify the key traits in the Big Five personality model and demonstrate how the traits are relevant to OB.Define values, demonstrate the importance of values, and contrast terminal and instrumental values.Compare the generational differences in values and identify the dominant values in today’s workforce.Identify Hofstede’s five value dimensions of national culture.
3 PersonalityThe sum total of ways in which an individual reacts to and interacts with othersMost often described in terms of measurable traits that a person exhibits, such as shy, aggressive, submissive, lazy, ambitious, loyal and timid
4 Measuring Personality Self-reports SurveysMost commonProne to errorObserver-ratings SurveysIndependent assessmentMay be more accurate
5 Personality Determinants Heredity is the most dominant factorTwin studies: genetics more influential than parentsEnvironmental factors do have some influenceAging influences levels of abilityBasic personality is constant
6 Measuring Personality Traits: Myers-Briggs Type Indicator Most widely used personality-assessment instrument in the worldIndividuals are classified as:Extroverted or Introverted (E/I)Sensing or Intuitive (S/N)Thinking or Feeling (T/F)Judging or Perceiving (J/P)Classifications combined into 16 personality types (i.e. INTJ or ESTJ)Unrelated to job performance
7 Measuring Personality Traits: The Big-Five Model Five Traits:ExtraversionAgreeablenessConscientiousnessEmotional StabilityOpenness to ExperienceStrongly supported relationship to job performance (especially Conscientiousness)
8 Major Personality Attributes Influencing OB Core self-evaluationSelf like/dislikeType A personalityCompetitive, urgent, and drivenSelf-monitoringAdjusts behavior to meet external, situational factorsProactive personalityIdentifies opportunities, shows initiative, takes action and perseveres
9 ValuesRepresent basic, enduring convictions that "a specific mode of conduct or end-state of existence is personally or socially preferable to an opposite or converse mode of conduct or end-state of existence."
10 Value Systems Represent a prioritizing of individual values by: Content – importance to the individualIntensity – relative importance with other valuesThe hierarchy tends to be relatively stableValues are the foundation for attitudes, motivation, and behaviorInfluence perception and cloud objectivity
11 Rokeach Value SurveyTerminal values refers to desirable end-states of existenceGoals that a person would like to achieve during his or her lifetimeInstrumental valuesrefers to preferable modes of behavior, or means of achieving the terminal values
12 Examples of Terminal Values A comfortable life (a prosperous life)An exciting life (stimulating, active life)A sense of accomplishment (lasting contribution)A world of peace (free of war and conflict)A world of beauty (beauty of nature and the arts)Equality (brotherhood, equal opportunity for all)Family security (taking care of loved ones)Freedom (independence, free choice)Happiness (contentedness)
13 Examples of Instrumental Values Ambitious (hard working, aspiring)Broad-minded (open-minded)Capable (competent, efficient)Cheerful (lighthearted, joyful)Clean (neat, tidy)Courageous (standing up for your beliefs)Forgiving (willing to pardon others)Helpful (working for the welfare of others)Honest (sincere, truthful)
14 Contemporary Work Cohorts Entered the WorkforceDominant Work ValuesVeterans1950s or early 1960sHard working, conservative, conforming; loyalty to the organizationBoomersSuccess, achievement, ambition, dislike of authority; loyalty to careerXersWork/life balance, team-oriented, dislike of rules; loyalty to relationshipsNexters2000 to presentConfident, financial success, self-reliant but team-oriented; loyalty to both self and relationships
15 Personality-Job Fit: Holland’s Hexagon Job satisfaction and turnover depend on congruency between personality and taskFields adjacent are similarField opposite are dissimilarVocational Preference Inventory Questionnaire
16 Person-Organization Fit It is more important that employees’ personalities fit with the organizational culture than with the characteristics of any specific job.The fit predicts job satisfaction, organizational commitment and turnover.
17 Global ImplicationsThe Big Five Model appears across a wide variety of culturesPrimary differences based on factor emphasis and type of countryValues differ across culturesTwo frameworks for assessing culture:HofstedeGLOBE
18 Hofstede’s Framework for Assessing Cultures Five factors: Power Distance Individualism vs. Collectivism Masculinity vs. Femininity Uncertainty Avoidance Long-term vs. Short-term Orientation
19 GLOBE* Framework for Assessing Cultures Ongoing study with nine factors:AssertivenessFuture orientationGender differentiationUncertainty avoidancePower distanceIndividualism/ collectivismIn-group collectivismPerformance orientationHumane orientation*Global Leadership and Organizational Behavior Effectiveness
20 Implications for Managers Personality:Evaluate the job, group, and organization to determine the best fitBig Five is best to use for selectionMBTI for development and trainingValues:Strongly influence attitudes, behaviors, and perceptionsMatch the individual values to organizational culture
21 Keep in Mind… Personality Big Five Personality Traits Values The sum total of ways in which individual reacts to, and interacts with, othersEasily measuredBig Five Personality TraitsRelated to many OB criteriaMay be very useful in predicting behaviorValuesVary between and within cultures
22 SummaryDefined personality, described how it is measured, and explained the factors that determine an individual’s personality.Described the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator personality framework and assessed its strengths and weaknesses.Identified the key traits in the Big Five personality model and demonstrated how the traits are relevant to OB.Defined values, demonstrated the importance of values, and contrasted terminal and instrumental values.Compared the generational differences in values and identified the dominant values in today’s workforce.Identified Hofstede’s five value dimensions of national culture.
23 All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publisher. Printed in the United States of America.