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CULTURALLY APPROPRIATE ONLINE LEARNING: A MULTIFACETED CHALLENGE BY DR. ANDREA EDMUNDSON, CPLP PRESIDENT, THE GLOBAL ELEARNING COMMUNITY WWW.THE-GEC.ORG.

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Presentation on theme: "CULTURALLY APPROPRIATE ONLINE LEARNING: A MULTIFACETED CHALLENGE BY DR. ANDREA EDMUNDSON, CPLP PRESIDENT, THE GLOBAL ELEARNING COMMUNITY WWW.THE-GEC.ORG."— Presentation transcript:

1 CULTURALLY APPROPRIATE ONLINE LEARNING: A MULTIFACETED CHALLENGE BY DR. ANDREA EDMUNDSON, CPLP PRESIDENT, THE GLOBAL ELEARNING COMMUNITY WWW.THE-GEC.ORG COPYRIGHT 2011 EWORLD LEARNING, INC. 1

2 SETTING THE STAGE  Online asynchronous  Disability Awareness course  American instructor  Includes non-US learners, English proficient 2

3 MULTIFACETED CHALLENGES COPYRIGHT 2011 EWORLD LEARNING, INC. 3 SymptomPossible ReasonsResearch ToolsPossible Solutions Reluctance to participate Lack of problem- solving skills High dependence on you, structure Concerns about assessment

4 RELUCTANCE TO PARTICIPATE COPYRIGHT 2011 EWORLD LEARNING, INC. 4 SymptomPossible ReasonsResearch ToolsPossible Solutions Reluctance to participate

5 RELUCTANCE TO PARTICIPATE COPYRIGHT 2011 EWORLD LEARNING, INC. 5 SymptomPossible ReasonsResearch ToolsPossible Solutions Reluctance to participate Power distance, hierarchy Foundational research on cultural dimensions Country Navigator™ Country-specific research on learning, educ. system Face saving Language skills Instructional technique Explain extensively Create a safe zone Allow anonymity Use techniques less reliant on language Use Global English Include practice

6 FOUNDATIONAL RESEARCH COPYRIGHT 2011 EWORLD LEARNING, INC. 6 Hofstede’s National Cultural Dimensions http://geert-hofstede.com/united- states.html

7 CULTURE TOOLS COPYRIGHT 2011 EWORLD LEARNING, INC. 7 Country Navigator™ The Essentials www.CountryNavigator.com

8 RELATED TOPICS COPYRIGHT 2011 EWORLD LEARNING, INC. 8 Global English for Global Business http://writing.co.nz/global- english/index.htm

9 EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH COPYRIGHT 2011 EWORLD LEARNING, INC. 9 KEY WORDS Education eLearning Multicultural Intercultural

10 LACK OF PROBLEM-SOLVING SKILLS COPYRIGHT 2011 EWORLD LEARNING, INC. 10 SymptomPossible ReasonsResearch ToolsPossible Solutions Lack of problem- solving skills

11 LACK OF PROBLEM-SOLVING SKILLS COPYRIGHT 2011 EWORLD LEARNING, INC. 11 SymptomPossible ReasonsResearch ToolsPossible Solutions Lack of problem- solving skills Education system: roles, methods Country Navigator™ Culture Wizard™ Directed research on content itself in country context Learner analysis Content relevance Exposure to U.S. How they think! Use previous recommendations, especially practice Explain facilitated learning Scaffold content to contextualize Offer multiple ways to access content, to participate

12 CULTURAL TOOLS COPYRIGHT 2011 EWORLD LEARNING, INC. 12

13 CONTENT RESEARCH COPYRIGHT 2011 EWORLD LEARNING, INC. 13 “People with disabilities in China, prior to the year 1980, were referred to with discriminatory terms such as, "can fei," which means, "the handicapped and useless." There is still a great deal to be accomplished in order to realize the full equality, participation, and sharing of people with disabilities in China. Within the Chinese community disability may be considered a stigma. Oriental metaphysical concepts consider each individual's life span as a link on a chain, where each individual is seen as the 'product of all the generations of his or her family from the beginning of time'. Due to this link with ancestors, the existence of disability is sometimes explained as coming from ancestral spirits, trying.. Generally when a child with disability was born the child would often be regarded as a burden and as bringing shame on the family. The parents would…

14 HIGH DEPENDENCE ON STRUCTURE COPYRIGHT 2011 EWORLD LEARNING, INC. 14 SymptomPossible ReasonsResearch ToolsPossible Solutions High dependence on you, structure

15 HIGH DEPENDENCE ON STRUCTURE COPYRIGHT 2011 EWORLD LEARNING, INC. 15 SymptomPossible ReasonsResearch ToolsPossible Solutions High dependence on you, structure High level of uncertainty avoidance Foundational research, online cultural tools Learner analysis Localization resources Learner input! Teachers’ roles versus students’ Language skills Extensive explanations, including detailed syllabi, expectations, schedules Alternate methods (video) Early access to course materials

16 LOCALIZATION RESOURCES COPYRIGHT 2011 EWORLD LEARNING, INC. 16

17 CONCERNS ABOUT ASSESSMENT COPYRIGHT 2011 EWORLD LEARNING, INC. 17 SymptomPossible ReasonsResearch ToolsPossible Solutions Concerns about assessment

18 CONCERNS ABOUT ASSESSMENT COPYRIGHT 2011 EWORLD LEARNING, INC. 18 SymptomPossible ReasonsResearch ToolsPossible Solutions Concerns about assessment Social expectations for education, passing All those discussed previously Current research Learner analysis Learner input! Uncertainty avoidance Unfamiliar with techniques (PBL) Explain ‘success’ Describe assessment and testing, “error” techniques Connect to motivation Expect ‘cheating’

19 LEARNER INPUT COPYRIGHT 2011 EWORLD LEARNING, INC. 19 Speaking for the 'Communist' generation, I remember how back in primary school, we were constantly encouraged to keep quiet (even in the canteen!) and literally to sit with our hands behind our backs. Small wonder then that to this day, most of us are uncomfortable with receiving praise, giving instructions to others, being presented with choice etc. --Martin Kralik, LinkedIn posting about Russian culture

20 LEARNER RESEARCH COPYRIGHT 2011 EWORLD LEARNING, INC. 20 Solutions offered by the learners themselves: Providing a well-defined and predictable course assessment schedule for preplanning Awareness of cultural contexts in plagiarism practices Multiple assessment methods and process-oriented assessment adaptive to different cultural styles Providing more information on the cultural contexts or explanations of the culturally specific terms of the case study

21 CULTURAL ANALYSIS/AUDIT COPYRIGHT 2011 EWORLD LEARNING, INC. 21

22 CULTURAL DISCONTINUITY Cultural discontinuity is defined as “a lack of contextual match between the conditions of learning and a learner’s socio-cultural experiences.” (Wilson, 2001, p. 52) 22

23 OUR ULTIMATE GOAL  Equitable learning outcomes  Time  Effort  Results! COPYRIGHT 2011 EWORLD LEARNING, INC. 23

24 The CAP* Model The Course Level 1Level 2Level 3Level 4 1: Content Computer skills, math Company policy Super- vision Leadership, ethics 2: Approach 3: Media 4: Other The LearnersExamples 1: Environmental Time, distance, resources, technology, geopolitical 2: Socio-Economic Values, religion, gender differences, social status 3: Communications Language, symbolism, gestures, body language 4: Cultural Dimensions, esp. in education Individualism, power distance, low vs. high context, uncertainty avoidance, time orientation 5: Other Learning styles Progressively more complex… Adaptations TranslateLocalizeReusable Learning Objects OriginateOther *Cultural Adaptation Process – an iterative, research-based process that allows educators, trainers, and instructional designers to accommodate the learning styles, preferences, and characteristics of learners in other cultures/countries. 24

25 THE MULTIFACETED CHALLENGE COPYRIGHT 2011 EWORLD LEARNING, INC. 25

26 CONCLUSION  Research differences  Prioritize needs  Recommend changes  Test recommendations  Implement COPYRIGHT 2011 EWORLD LEARNING, INC. 26

27 RESOURCES  Seminal cross-cultural research  Hall, E. T. (1981). Beyond culture: Into the cultural unconscious. Garden City, NY, Anchor Press.  Hofstede, G. H. (1997). Cultures and organizations: Software of the mind. London; New York, McGraw-Hill.  Trompenaars, A. and C. Hampden-Turner (1998). Riding the waves of culture: Understanding cultural diversity in global business. New York, London, McGraw Hill.  Websites  http://geert-hofstede.com/national-culture.html http://geert-hofstede.com/national-culture.html  Country Navigator: www.CountryNavigator.comwww.CountryNavigator.com  Multilingual Magazine: http://www.multilingual.com/issueDetail.phphttp://www.multilingual.com/issueDetail.php  Learning Times Podcast “Culturally Appropriate Instructional Design”: http://www.ltgreenroom.org/episodes/213 http://www.ltgreenroom.org/episodes/213 COPYRIGHT 2011 EWORLD LEARNING, INC. 27

28 RESOURCES  My Publications  Edmundson, A.L. (In press). Cultural implications in online learning. Hershey, PA, IGI Global.  Edmundson, A. L. (2011). Cases on globalized and culturally appropriate e- learning: Challenges and solutions. Hershey, PA, IGI Global.  Edmundson, A. L. (2010). Training for multicultural audiences. Washington, D.C., ASTD Press.  Edmundson, A. L., Ed. (2007). Globalized e-learning cultural challenges. Hershey, PA, Idea Group, Inc. COPYRIGHT 2011 EWORLD LEARNING, INC. 28


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