Presentation on theme: "1. 2 The First Humans in North America? Came here how? And When? 10,000 B.C.E. Who was the first white man to set foot on this soil? LAND BRIDGE BETWEEN."— Presentation transcript:
2 The First Humans in North America? Came here how? And When? 10,000 B.C.E. Who was the first white man to set foot on this soil? LAND BRIDGE BETWEEN NORTH AMERICA AND ASIA NORTH AMERICA ASIA LAND BRIDGE
3 AFTER THE CRUSADES INTRODUCED EUROPE TO THE SPICES AND RICHES OF AFRICA AND ASIA SEVERAL COUNTRIES DESIRED A MORE DIRECT ROUTE SINCE THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE CONTROLLED THE TRADE ROUTES AND PRICES. SPAIN, PORTUGAL, ENGLAND, FRANCE, AND THE NETHERLANDS BEGAN SEARCHING FOR NEW ROUTES VIA THE OCEAN. SEARCHING FOR A SHORTCUT How to get from Europe to Asia quickly?
4 REASONS FOR EUROPEAN EXPANSION MORE WEALTH SPREAD CHRISTIANITY MORE TERRITORY EXPAND TRADE EXPLORE THE WORLD
5 NEW TECHNOLOGY: COMPASS GLOBE RUDDER IMPROVED SHIP BUILDING TECHNIQUES AND DESIGN QUADRANT (IMPROVED ABILITY TO DETERMINE LATITUDE BASED ON ALTITUDE OF STARS) MAPS FROM FOREIGN COUNTRIES MANY OF THOSE DESIRES FOR EXPLORATION HAD ALREADY EXISTED FOR CENTURIES, SO WHAT CHANGED? 1543 GLOBE
6 SPANISH EXPLORATION CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS, AN ITALIAN NAVIGATOR, CONVINCED THE KING AND QUEEN OF SPAIN TO FUND AN EXPEDITION TO FIND A WESTERN ROUTE TO THE RICHES OF ASIA. THE PORTUGUESE HAD SAILED THE ROUTE AROUND AFRICA AND THEREFORE DOMINATED THE EASTERN ROUTE. AT THE TIME MAPS OF THE WORLD DID NOT INCLUDE THE AMERICAS.
Columbus’s Arrival 1492 Landed on an island in the Carribean. Thought he was in India Called the people Indios Claimed the island he Landed on and named it San Salvador -Died thinking he had found India 7
His impact on natives: Enslaved them Disease (mumps, measles, chicken pox, small pox, typhus) His presence led to the downfall of many tribes 8
Columbus’s Impact on Africans? Loss of native work force led to settlers bringing in Africans to help Led to slavery and 10 millions slaves being brought over. Civil War 9
His Impact on Europeans? Started mass migrations Started Columbian Exchange –Transfer of goods between Europe and the Americas 10
11 EUROPE RECEIVED COLUMBIAN EXCHANGE AMERICAS RECEIVED FOOD CORN, WHITE POTATOES, PUMPKINS, TOMATOES, CACAO, STRAWBERRIES, QUININE, TOBACCO FOOD SUGAR, WHEAT, RICE, CITRUS FRUITS, TEA, COFFEE, BANANAS, OKRA, BARLEY, OATS, WINE GRAPES ANIMALS TURKEYS, GUINEA PIGS, RATTLESNAKES, BUFFALO, RACCOONS ANIMALS HORSES, CHICKENS, PIGS, COWS, GOATS, SHEEP, RATS, OXEN DISEASES SYPHILIS DISEASES SMALLPOX, MEASLES, INFLUENZA RELIGION CHRISTIANITY WEAPONS AND TOOLS GUNS AND IRON TOOLS
12 SPAIN LED THE EXPLORATION AND COLONIZATION OF THE AMERICAS HERNAN CORTES CONQUERED THE AZTECS OF MEXICO FRANCISCO PIZARRO CONQUERED THE INCAS OF PERU THE QUEST FOR RICHES DROVE THE SPANISH TO ENSLAVE THE NATIVE POPULATION TO MINE FOR GOLD AND SILVER, WHILE A DESIRE TO CONVERT NATIVES TO CATHOLICISM LED TO THE BUILDING OF MISSIONS
Why were Spanish unstoppable? Guns Germs (killed as many as 90% of people) Steel Horses Had only 508 men, 16 horses, and 10 cannons How then were they able to take Mexico? 13
Why do some cultures think they have the right to take another’s land and goods? Give examples in last 100 years Will it ever stop? 14
15 SPAIN CONTROLLED MOST OF SOUTH AND CENTRAL AMERICA, MUCH OF THE CARIBBEAN, AND PARTS OF NORTH AMERICA. HOWEVER TERRITORY THAT LARGE WAS DIFFICULT TO CONTROL AND THEREFORE WAS OPEN TO ATTACK. OTHER EUROPEAN COUNTRIES HAD SEEN THE RICHES BROUGHT BACK BY SPAIN AND WERE EAGER TO STAKE A CLAIM.
Spain in the SW Move into NM and claim it (not for gold but for Christianity) Open Missions all over Goal was to convert natives to Christianity 16
17 THE FIRST ENGLISH ARRIVED IN THE “NEW WORLD” AND ESTABLISHED A COLONY Jamestown 1607 1 st permanent settlement in U.S. Captain John Smith and Pocohontas
John Smith’s Mistakes Built town on a swamp No women No food Bad water Unlike Spanish there policy was total defeat of natives How was it saved? 18
19 ECONOMIC, RELIGIOUS, SOCIAL AND POLITICAL FACTORS TOBACCO PLAYED A TREMENDOUS ROLE IN THE SUCCESS OF THE COLONY AS IT YIELDED HUGE PROFITS WHEN SOLD IN EUROPE LAND WAS USED AS AN INCENTIVE TO ATTRACT SETTLERS RELIGIOUS STRIFE BETWEEN CATHOLICS AND PROTESTANTS LED TO MASS MIGRATIONS OF BOTH GROUPS TO DIFFERENT COLONIES ECONOMIC CONDITIONS FOR THE AVERAGE ENGLISHMAN BECAME EVEN TOUGHER WITH THE INFUSION OF NEW RICHES INTO THE EUROPEAN ECONOMY BY THE SPANISH HOW DID THE ENGLISH COLONIES BECOME SO successful?
20 The First!!!!!!!!!! THE PILGRIMS, RELIGIOUS SEPARATISTS FROM THE CHURCH OF ENGLAND, SAILED ON THE MAYFLOWER AND LANDED AT PLYMOUTH ROCK IN MASSACHUSETTS IN 1620 Thanksgiving Understand why they left Europe?
21 THE PURITANS ARRIVED SHORTLY AFTER THE MORE RADICAL PILGRIMS. THEY WANTED TO “PURIFY” THE CHURCH OF ENGLAND (RATHER THAN SEPARATE LIKE THE PILGRIMS) TO REMOVE ALL TRACES OF CATHOLICISM. THEY PLANNED TO ESTABLISH CHURCHES IN THE “NEW WORLD” *knew they could be punished severely for this With the help of Puritans the New England Colonies were formed: Mass, New Hampshire, Conn, Rhode Island
22 RELIGION WAS THE DRIVING FORCE BEHIND THE CREATION OF THE NEW ENGLAND COLONIES
23 RELIGIOUS LEADERS WERE THE MOST POWERFUL COMMUNITY FIGURES AND THEY WORKED CLOSELY WITH COMMUNITY ELECTED MEMBERS TO REGULATE ALL ASPECTS OF LIFE IN NEW ENGLAND INTOLERANT OF DIFFERING RELIGIOUS VIEWS STRESSED EDUCATION AND LITERACY AS EVERYONE NEEDED TO BE ABLE TO READ THE BIBLE RELIGIOUS INFLUENCE IN NEW ENGLAND
24 NEW HAMPSHIRE, MASSACHUSETTS, RHODE ISLAND, CONNECTICUT LONG, COLD WINTERS AS WELL AS MOUNTAINS DID NOT ALLOW FOR LARGE-SCALE FARMING MOST SETTLERS CAME FROM ENGLAND MAIN INDUSTRIES WERE LUMBERING, SHIPBUILDING, FISHING, IRON WORKS, AND WOOL PRODUCTION MOST VILLAGES AND TOWNS WERE NEAR HARBORS OVERVIEW OF THE NORTHERN COLONIES
25 KING CHARLES II GAVE AWAY THE MIDDLE COLONIES AS GIFTS TO FAMILY AND FRIENDS
26 KING CHARLES II GRANTED NEW YORK TO HIS BROTHER JAMES AND NEW JERSEY TO 2 NOBLEMEN WHO NAMED IT AFTER THE ISLE OF JERSEY IN THE ENGLISH CHANNEL.
27 PENNSYLVANIA (PART OF WHICH LATER BECAME DELAWARE) WAS GRANTED TO WILLIAM PENN TO PAY A DEBT TO HIS FATHER
28 NEW YORK, NEW JERSEY, PENNSYLVANIA, DELAWARE ETHNICALLY DIVERSE, ESPECIALLY ALONG THE HUDSON RIVER BUSY SHIPPING PORTS LUSH FARMLAND LED TO GRAIN AND LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION LIKE WHEAT AND RYE, BEEF AND PORK COTTAGE INDUSTRIES WERE WEAVING, SHOEMAKING, CABINET MAKING, AND OTHER ARTISAN CRAFTS OVERVIEW OF THE MIDDLE COLONIES
29 LARGE SCALE FARMING DOMINATED THE SOUTHERN COLONIES
31 EUROPEANS, IN THEIR PUSH FOR WEALTH, FORCED NATIVE AMERICANS TO WORK AS SLAVES IN MINES AND IN SUGAR CANE FIELDS AS THE NATIVE POPULATION FLED AND DIED FROM DISEASES THE SPANIARDS LOOKED TO AFRICA AS A LABOR SOURCE SLAVES WERE TAKEN FIRST TO THE CARIBBEAN AND SOUTH AMERICA EVENTUALLY SLAVERY WAS BROUGHT TO NORTH AMERICA AFRICANS WERE BROUGHT TO THE AMERICAS TALLY SHEET FROM AN ACTUAL CARGO OF SLAVES MAP OF THE REGION IN AFRICA WHERE MOST PEOPLE WERE TAKEN FROM
32 AFRICANS CRAMMED ONTO A SHIP FOR TRANSPORT TO BECOME SLAVES The Middle Passage
33 MARYLAND, VIRGINIA, NORTH CAROLINA, SOUTH CAROLINA, GEORGIA THE ECONOMY WAS BASED ON THE LARGE SCALE CASH CROPS OF TOBACCO, RICE, AND INDIGO CLASS DIVISION BETWEEN VERY WEALTHY AND POOR RELIANT ON SLAVE LABOR OVERVIEW OF THE SOUTHERN COLONIES
Took 125 years to found 13 colonies They existed primarily to benefit England A lot of materials were exported to Europe from the Colonies. 34