Presentation on theme: "Chapter 14 Tourism Along the Silk Road Global Issue 3."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 14 Tourism Along the Silk Road Global Issue 3
How Important is Tourism? According to the UN World Tourism Organization, in 2010 international tourism arrivals numbered 940 million – 5% of worldwide GDP – Generated 6% to 7% of the jobs worldwide This represents a good recovery after the global economic crisis in 2008/2009
Tourism System Tourism can be thought of like any industry – Raw materials: destinations Exoticism - people’s search for what they cannot find in the places they live – Markets: tourists – Infrastructure: everything that brings raw materials and markets together Motivation for tourists to escape the usual and seek the unusual stimulate the tourism system The Silk Road illustrates an important emerging tourism system
Tourism Approaches The international studies perspective of tourism employs the use of various disciplines: – Anthropology – Political science – Economics – Geography – History – Sociology
Anthropological Analysis of Tourism Examines the role of culture in the tourism system Focuses on two key questions: – What is the nature of the tourist experience? Tourism is a ritual that helps define who we are – What is the impact of tourism on local communities? Tourism is a type of imperialism in which the toured serve the tourists
Political Science Analysis of Tourism Examines the aspects of power and privilege in the tourism system Questions derived from the political science perspective: – Who has the power in the tourism transaction? – Who benefits from the tourism? – How do countries in a developing world respond to tourism?
Economic Analysis of Tourism The supply and demand of tourism Economists consider the exchange, expenditures, costs, and benefits of tourism Benefits and consequences of tourism development: – Increase in revenue – Added costs of increased tourism Transportation, hotels, guides, etc.
Geographical Analysis of Tourism Examines the spatial relations and human environmental relations that go along with tourism Also takes into account the impact that tourism has on the environment – Ecotourism and sustainable tourism are new approaches to tourism that are on the rise
Historical Analysis of Tourism Examines the development of tourism over time Before the 1800’s tourism was practiced mostly by the elite members of the community By the 1900’s more people had the time and money to travel for leisure Not until after World War II that mass tourism really began to develop
Sociological Analysis of Tourism Examines the development of the leisure class Tourism and travel are considered modern activities – Developed along with technology that allows more time and money for leisure activities How social classes interact during the course of tourism is being studied extensively
The Silk Road Tourism system that emerged on a historic trade artery A few major events allowed for the reopening to tourism: – Fall of communism in the Soviet Union in 1991 – China’s opening to the West in the 1980’s Rich mix of cultural tradition with several groups of people living on the Silk Road – Turks – Uyghurs – Chinese – Kyrgyz – Uzbeks – Russians
The Silk Road This newly found interest in the Silk Road is being encouraged by the larger countries in the region by allowing easier access to historic sites The World Tourism Organization has started a Silk Road Programme to encourage travel and tourism along the Silk Road using social media like Linked In, Twitter, and Trip Advisor
The Silk Road The Silk Road was a crossroads nexus of religious, cultural, and economic communication between the East and West In many different ways this was an important route of cultural transmission – Japan and China: Buddhism – Russia and Britain: The Great Game
[Figure 1. Samarkand. The Registan complex of Samarkand, Uzbekistan, was the center of the Timurid Empire. Photo S. Toops]
Tourism in China The tourism industry has become big business in China Tourists are interested in the cultural and historic landscapes of China 2008 Beijing Olympics 2010 World’s Fair in Shanghai
Other Countries on the Silk Road Uzbekistan – Known for agriculturists and traders along the Amu Darya and Syr Darya rivers Kyrgyzstan – Known for their nomadic lifestyle in the mountains surrounding the Tian Shan range Kazakhstan – Less reliant on tourism due to abundance of oil in the region Iran – Has rich cultural heritage as well as natural landscapes that lend themselves to tourism Turkey – Has cultural and natural landscapes that lend themselves to tourism
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