The universe has no beginning and no end—it was believed at this time that the universe was eternal. Many famous scientists of that day held strongly to this theory: Albert Einstein and Sir Fred Hoyle (who revised the theory in 1948).
In 1916 Einstein’s theory of relativity indicated that the universe had a beginning!
Pantheism is the belief that the universe (or nature as the totality of everything) is identical with divinity, or that everything composes an all-encompassing, immanent god. Pantheists thus do not believe in a distinct personal or anthropomorphic god. In other words the universe is god. This explains why he was uncomfortable with his own theory being true.
Revealed that matter, time, and energy had a beginning. Einstein called his discovery “irritating.” He wanted the universe to be self- existent—not reliant on an outside cause. Einstein introduced a “fudge factor” into his own equation!
“Philosophically, the notion of a beginning of the present order of nature is repugnant to me…I should like to find a genuine loophole.”
1922: Russian mathematician Alexander Friedmann exposed Einstein’s fudge factor as an algebraic error—Einstein in order to avoid a beginning divided by zero! Einstein later described this error as “the greatest blunder of my life.”
Dutch astronomer Willem de Sitter found that Einstein’s general relativity required an expanding universe. This expanding universe was verified in 1927 by Edwin Hubble (namesake of space telescope).
The red shift in the light from every observable galaxy means those galaxies are moving away from us. The universe appears to be expanding from a single point in the past. Einstein’s theory of relativity is strong evidence that the universe had a beginning and is NOT eternal.
Over time things tend toward entropy or randomness. Over time the universe will run out of useful energy. This is called the heat death of the universe. So, if the universe is winding down, there must have been a time when it was wound up.
It is predicted that if there was a beginning to the universe, there should be “background radiation” left over from the initial event.
Sir Fred Hoyle in disgust coins the term “Big Bang.” Hoyle found the idea of a universe with a beginning unacceptable. Hoyle went to his death refusing to accept it despite the overwhelming evidence for it.