Presentation on theme: "The Polish Decline. Polish Decline Seventeenth century Poland was a strong state. As a result of population reduction from wars in the early eighteenth."— Presentation transcript:
Polish Decline Seventeenth century Poland was a strong state. As a result of population reduction from wars in the early eighteenth century, Poland became more and more reliant on Russia. Poland’s demise made possible Russian gains in Ukraine.
Factors Leading to Polish Decline Nobles relegated the king to political ineffectiveness. During the era of “golden liberty”, nobles were able to dissolve the noble assembly with one vote. The Liberium Veto Deputies were forbidden to make speeches in what became known as the “Silent Sejm”.
Balance of Power Considerations in Eighteenth Century Poland The War of Polish Succession (1733-1735) France tried to impose its candidate, the father-in-law of Louis XV. This was done so Poland could be a check against Austrian domination in central Europe. A Russian army forced the election of, Augustus III, the Austro-Russian candidate. Stanislas Poniatowski was became king in 1763 as a result of Russian influence. He was a reformer who tried to implement enlightenment ideals, such as ending the liberium veto, to curtail death sentences, and establish schools. He felt that this was the only way that Poland could escape poverty and backwardness. Russia acted against Poland, because it feared a potentially strong neighbor, and among the crisis, Polish peasants rose up. Turkey entered this war against Russia, and Russia took advantage by annexing Crimea, Wallachia and other Turkish territories along the Black Sea.
Quick Write In your notes, create a space to respond to this prompt, How could the reforms of Stanislas Poniatowksi be viewed by Russia as a threat? Consider the nature of the reforms and balance of power considerations.
The Partitions of Poland Austria and Prussia were alarmed by Russian territorial expansion. Catherine the Great suggested that the great powers take their share of Poland. The First Partition of 1772 reduced Poland by a third. The Second Partition of 1793 In 1791, Stanislas proclaimed a liberal consitution which abolished the liberium veto, and where all authority stemmed from the nation. Poles rose up against Russian authority in 1792. Russian troops intervened and subsequently partitioned more of Polish territory. The Third Partition of 1795 Prussian and Russia ended Poland’s independence for more than a century. Russia, Prussia and Austria partitioned Poland for the final time in the name of a reaction to the French Revolution. This was done to “preserve the rest of Europe from Polish anarchy”.
The Big Picture The great powers contended that they were saving themselves from Polish Anarchy. The fact was that Poland’s political weakness left it vulnerable to plunderous aggression by its more powerful neighbors.
Exit Ticket Respond to the following prompt… How do the partitions of Poland in the late eighteenth century illustrate the doctrine of balance of power ?