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Chapter 2 Personality & Values

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1 Chapter 2 Personality & Values

2 Individuals & Personality
Personality: Sum total of ways people react and interact with others (set of psychological traits that make each person different). Ques. 1: What are its dimensions? Ques. 2: How is it measured? Ques. 3: What is its value for management and business applications?

3 Ques. 1: What Are Its Dimensions?
Answer 1: The “Big Five” Most scientifically established and empirically tested framework of personality in the world Individuals vary across five dimensions: Emotional stability Extraversion Openness to experience Agreeableness Conscientiousness


5 Ques. 1: What Are Its Dimensions (cont.)?
Answer 2: The MBTI Most popular and widely used in the world Individuals are classified as: Extroverted or Introverted (E or I): Outgoing, sociable, and assertive, vs. quiet, “shy,” and draw energy and strength from within Sensing or Intuitive (S or N): Practical and prefer focusing on details vs. relying on unconscious (intuitive) processes and look at the big picture Thinking or Feeling (T or F): Use reason and logic to handle problems vs. rely on their personal values and emotions Judging or Perceiving (J or P): Like their world to be ordered, structured and controlled vs. flexible and spontaneous

6 Ques. 1: What Are Its Dimensions (cont.)?
Answer 3: Some additional misc. facets: Core Self Evaluation: Degree of one’s self liking or disliking. Self-Monitoring: Sensitivity to situational cues and the capacity to modify or adapt one’s behavior as appropriate. Locus of Control: Propensity to actively take initiative, and to identify and pursue (even create) new opportunities. Risk Propensity: Willingness and comfort in taking chances. Machiavellianism: Tendency to manipulate and maintain emotional distance to achieve one’s aims. Type A/B Personality: Type A is aggressive, impatient and incessantly struggling to achieve more (while B is opposite).

7 Ques. 2: How Is Personality Measured?
Answer: Typical methods for measuring: Self-report inventories (most common): NEO PI-R CPI MBTI many others.... Clinical evaluations: MMPI Projective tests: TAT (similar to “ink blots”)

8 Ques. 3: Business and Mgmt. Applications
The more typical business applications: Employee development and coaching Making hiring decisions: What personality facets should be used? What job performance criteria? Interaction with job and contextual elements? job requirements organization’s culture situation cues (“strong” vs. “weak” situations) What is “predictive success” of using personality?

9 Individuals and Values
Values defined as: Stable, long-lasting beliefs and preferences about what is worthwhile and desirable A mode of conduct or end state that is personally or socially desirable (what is right or good). Values can be classified (e.g., Rokeach) Values vary by cohort groups Values vary by cultural identity Knowledge about personality and values can help improve an employee’s “fit”

10 Personality-Job Fit: Holland’s Hexagon
Job satisfaction and turnover depend on congruency between personality and task Fields adjacent are similar Field opposite are dissimilar Vocational Preference Inventory Questionnaire

11 Person-Organization Fit
It appears more important that employees’ personalities fit with the organization’s culture than with the specific characteristics of a given job. A good fit helps predict job satisfaction, organizational commitment and turnover.

12 From the Rokeach Values Survey
Source: M. Rokeach, The Nature of Human Values (New York: The Free Press, 1973).

13 From the Rokeach Values Survey
Source: M. Rokeach, The Nature of Human Values (New York: The Free Press, 1973).

14 Dominant Work Values by Cohort Groups
Source: Based on W. C. Frederick and J. Weber, “The Values of Corporate Managers and Their Critics: An Empirical Description and Normative Implications,” in W. C. Frederick and L. E. Preston (eds.) Business Ethics: Research Issues and Empirical Studies (Greenwich, CT: JAI Press, 1990), pp. 123–44.

15 Contemporary Work Cohorts
Entered the Workforce Dominant Work Values Veterans 1950s or early 1960s Hard working, conservative, conforming; loyalty to the organization Boomers Success, achievement, ambition, dislike of authority; loyalty to career Xers Work/life balance, team-oriented, dislike of rules; loyalty to relationships Nexters present Confident, financial success, self-reliant but team-oriented; loyalty to both self and relationships

16 National Culture and Values
Rules, Laws Stories of Heroes Language, Food Physical Structures Rituals/Ceremonies Norms Beliefs Values Assumptions Artifacts of Culture Core of Culture

17 Hofstede’s Framework for Assessing Cultures
Power distance Individualism vs. collectivism Achievement vs. nurturing Uncertainty avoidance Long-term vs. short-term orientation

18 Exh. 2-6

19 “GLOBE” Studies Framework for Assessing Cultures
Assertiveness Future Orientation Gender Differentiation Uncertainty Avoidance Power Distance Individualism/Collectivism In-Group Collectivism Performance Orientation Humane Orientation

20 Importance of Values Help us make sense of attitudes, motivation, and behaviors. Influence our perceptions of the world. Give us answers about right and wrong (and thus have implications for business ethics) Values, by definition, mean some behaviors or outcomes are more preferred than others.

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