2Individuals & Personality Personality: Sum total of ways people react and interact with others (set of psychological traits that make each person different).Ques. 1: What are its dimensions?Ques. 2: How is it measured?Ques. 3: What is its value for managementand business applications?
3Ques. 1: What Are Its Dimensions? Answer 1: The “Big Five”Most scientifically established and empirically tested framework of personality in the worldIndividuals vary across five dimensions:Emotional stabilityExtraversionOpenness to experienceAgreeablenessConscientiousness
5Ques. 1: What Are Its Dimensions (cont.)? Answer 2: The MBTIMost popular and widely used in the worldIndividuals are classified as:Extroverted or Introverted (E or I):Outgoing, sociable, and assertive, vs. quiet, “shy,” and draw energy and strength from withinSensing or Intuitive (S or N):Practical and prefer focusing on details vs. relying on unconscious (intuitive) processes and look at the big pictureThinking or Feeling (T or F):Use reason and logic to handle problems vs. rely on their personal values and emotionsJudging or Perceiving (J or P):Like their world to be ordered, structured and controlled vs. flexible and spontaneous
6Ques. 1: What Are Its Dimensions (cont.)? Answer 3: Some additional misc. facets:Core Self Evaluation: Degree of one’s self liking or disliking.Self-Monitoring: Sensitivity to situational cues and the capacity to modify or adapt one’s behavior as appropriate.Locus of Control: Propensity to actively take initiative, and to identify and pursue (even create) new opportunities.Risk Propensity: Willingness and comfort in taking chances.Machiavellianism: Tendency to manipulate and maintain emotional distance to achieve one’s aims.Type A/B Personality: Type A is aggressive, impatient and incessantly struggling to achieve more (while B is opposite).
7Ques. 2: How Is Personality Measured? Answer: Typical methods for measuring:Self-report inventories (most common):NEO PI-RCPIMBTImany others....Clinical evaluations:MMPIProjective tests:TAT (similar to “ink blots”)
8Ques. 3: Business and Mgmt. Applications The more typical business applications:Employee development and coachingMaking hiring decisions:What personality facets should be used?What job performance criteria?Interaction with job and contextual elements?job requirementsorganization’s culturesituation cues (“strong” vs. “weak” situations)What is “predictive success” of using personality?
9Individuals and Values Values defined as:Stable, long-lasting beliefs and preferences about what is worthwhile and desirableA mode of conduct or end state that is personally or socially desirable (what is right or good).Values can be classified (e.g., Rokeach)Values vary by cohort groupsValues vary by cultural identityKnowledge about personality and values can help improve an employee’s “fit”
10Personality-Job Fit: Holland’s Hexagon Job satisfaction and turnover depend on congruency between personality and taskFields adjacent are similarField opposite are dissimilarVocational Preference Inventory Questionnaire
11Person-Organization Fit It appears more important that employees’ personalities fit with the organization’s culture than with the specific characteristics of a given job.A good fit helps predict job satisfaction, organizational commitment and turnover.
12From the Rokeach Values Survey Source: M. Rokeach, The Nature of Human Values (New York: The Free Press, 1973).
13From the Rokeach Values Survey Source: M. Rokeach, The Nature of Human Values (New York: The Free Press, 1973).
14Dominant Work Values by Cohort Groups Source: Based on W. C. Frederick and J. Weber, “The Values of Corporate Managers and Their Critics: An Empirical Description and Normative Implications,” in W. C. Frederick and L. E. Preston (eds.) Business Ethics: Research Issues and Empirical Studies (Greenwich, CT: JAI Press, 1990), pp. 123–44.
15Contemporary Work Cohorts Entered theWorkforceDominant Work ValuesVeterans1950s or early 1960sHard working, conservative, conforming; loyalty to the organizationBoomersSuccess, achievement, ambition, dislike of authority; loyalty to careerXersWork/life balance, team-oriented, dislike of rules; loyalty to relationshipsNexterspresentConfident, financial success, self-reliant but team-oriented; loyalty to both self and relationships
16National Culture and Values Rules, LawsStories of HeroesLanguage, FoodPhysical StructuresRituals/CeremoniesNormsBeliefsValuesAssumptionsArtifacts ofCultureCore ofCulture
17Hofstede’s Framework for Assessing Cultures Power distanceIndividualism vs. collectivismAchievement vs. nurturingUncertainty avoidanceLong-term vs. short-term orientation
20Importance of ValuesHelp us make sense of attitudes, motivation, and behaviors.Influence our perceptions of the world.Give us answers about right and wrong (and thus have implications for business ethics)Values, by definition, mean some behaviors or outcomes are more preferred than others.