Presentation on theme: "Bell Ringer What do you know about Latin America?"— Presentation transcript:
1Bell Ringer What do you know about Latin America? What is an oligarchy?Name a country that is in Latin America.
2Bell Ringer What can cause instability in the government? What European Powers had Latin American largely won their independence from?What type of governments did the New Latin American countries want to set up?
3Bell RingerWhy were elite vs masses struggles common in Latin America?What things were exported from Latin America?Name an individual associated with the Mexican Civil war or Revolution of 1910
4Bell RingerName one person who was a President of Mexico between 1910 and 1914.Name a US President who supported a Mexican Leader. Why?What affect do you think the Great Depression would have on the instability of Mexico?
5CH 21: Influences & Political Revolutions in the Americas
6Changes to Latin America The 1800s saw a number of revolutions that brought South and Latin American independence from European powers, specifically Spain & PortugalThese new nations modeled their new constitutions and governments on the USA and other European countries (France)Traditionally, Latin America had been ruled by oligarchies, or small groups of upper class citizens
7Though many of these nations received independence from Europe, their countries were plagued by instability.Caudillos, army generals or powerful civilian leaders backed by armed groups, attempted to seize power of these countriesCaudillos were often from the upper class, so when they assumed control of the government they did so with the support of the upper class.
8Argentina One exception to the chaos was Argentina. Juan Manuel was able to rule Argentina fromHe successfully defeated multiple overthrow attempts by caudillosMost countries were not so luckyMexico had 48 governments betweenChile had 30 governments between
9Elite v MassesLatin America was denoted by a struggle between the Elite and the MassesThe Elite attempted to preserve the old colonial ways, where much of their power base was foundThe Elite was composed of wealthy merchants and professionals
10Though the Elites often claimed they would rule in Enlightened ways to best benefit all people: they often only had their own well being in mind, and believed most commoners were not ready for more rightsThe result were strong governments, and civil unrestMost Latin & South American nations (Argentina, Colombia, Uruguay, and Venezuela) experienced long periods of unrestVenezuela continued until 1908 when a military dictator took over (an is currently rebelling)
12Economic & Social Trends of Latin America Latin America was largely based on exportsAmericans and Europeans bought coffee and sugarGreat Britain bought cattle and sheepRubber, wool, copper, and nitrates were brought across EuropeThese Latin American countries started to develop their roads, harbors, railroads, and invested in steam power. Foreign investors were often involved in these upgrades
13US investments brought about rapid industrialization By the early 1900s the US replaced Britain as the biggest investor in Latin AmericaWhat have we learned that helps to explain this (Doctrine & Corollary)?US investments brought about rapid industrializationBy World War I Latin American produced18% of the world’s grain38% of the world’s sugar62% of the world’s coffee, cocoa, & teaThis made Latin America rich, but the masses did not benefit as much as most
14As ranches and plantations grew many peasants and native Indians were forced off their land. Many of these people moved to the cities in search of factory jobs, and the population of cities boomedSan Paulo, Brazil: : 35,000 -> 350,000Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: : 500,000 -> 1,000,000The populations of Bolivia, Ecuador, Paraguay, and Peru remained largely rural
15Mexican Revolution In 1910 Mexico had 30 years of stable government The President, General Porfirio Diaz, had repeatedly won re-election in rigged electionsHe also kept control of the country by suppressing the newspapers, and killing those who opposed them
16Most of the wealth accumulated from stayed in the upper class. Diaz kept control by claiming that he was modernizing the country and preparing it for democracyForeign investors built railroads, factories, mines, irrigation, agricultural communities, and the oil industryMost of the wealth accumulated from stayed in the upper class.This upset the middle class, the poor stayed poor, and the criticism of Diaz continued to grow
17Revolution of 1910The discontent with Diaz grew, and in 1910 a wealthy land owner, Francisco Madero, ran for PresidentDiaz was not overly concerned about Madero, and believed that he would be able to control this election like the previous 30 yearsThe problem for Diaz, however, was that the popular support for Madero continued to grow
19Madero used his wealth to start a rebellion Faced with the fact that he might not win the election Diaz took reasonable stepsDiaz had Madero arrestedMadero escaped from prison and called on the people of Mexico to revoltMadero was shocked when no uprising happenedMadero used his wealth to start a rebellionHe hired bandits in the North, the most famous being Pancho VillaIn the south an Indian leader Emiliano Zapata raised an army of 5,000 men
20Madero was president, but only briefly The rebels faced the Mexican Army and won, Diaz fled to Europe & Madero became PresidentMadero was president, but only brieflyZapata stopped supporting Madero when the President refused to return lands taken from IndiansUnhappy workers took advantage of the situation, joined unions, and started going on strikes for better labor conditionsDiaz’s former supporters launched their own revolts, which were put down by Army General Victoriano Huerta
21Huerta forced Madero’s resignation in 1913, and became President Madero placed taxes on Mexico’s oil production, which annoyed the US and British investors who controlled the fieldsUS President Taft took measures to protect US investments and supported General HuertaThe US mobilized troops to back a revolution, but they never got involvedHuerta forced Madero’s resignation in 1913, and became PresidentHuerta had Madero executed shortly after
22Huerta was soon overthrown by Madero’s ally Venustiano Carranza Villa, Zapata, and a rancher named Alvaro Obregon led the armyUS President Wilson, when he became President in 1913, supported pro-Carranza rebelThis was contradictory to the fact that the last US President had supported Huerta
23Huerta fled Mexico under increased US pressure In August of 1914 Carranza declared himself PresidentVilla and Zapata turned against Carranza, but the Mexican army had defeated both by 1915Periodic fighting took place until 1934
24Constitution of 1917In 1917, under President Carranza, created a new constitutionIt turned revolutionary ideas into lawThe government could seize and redistribute landCreated minimum wageLimited working hoursCreated government sponsored retirement, life, health, and unemployment insuranceWorkers could create unions and strikeAll Mexicans could have free public educationCreated Freedom of Religion
25The last stipulation of the new constitution nationalized Mexico’s mineral and oil resources Though Carranza helped to form the constitution he didn’t carry it outThe people lost faith in Carranza, and backed the Revolutionary hero Alvaro Obregon.When Carranza tried to arrest Obregon fighting broke out, and Carranza fled the countryObregon would become the 1st Mexican President elected in a free and fair election
26Post-RevolutionMany historians called Obregon’s election the end of the Mexican RevolutionObregon took significant steps to institute social reform throughout MexicoHe moved slowly to avoid angeringThe Catholic ChurchForeign InvestorsElites of MexicoThere were still period rebellions & assassination attempts
27He created the National Revolutionary Party In 1928 Obregon was re-elected as President, but was assassinated before he could take officeHis replacement, Plutarcho Calles, developed a plan on how to make Mexico Politically stableHe created the National Revolutionary PartyIt invited leaders from the military, peasants, labor, regional, and religious groups to help select a new presidentNRP is now called the PRI
28He carried out the reforms of the Constitution In 1934 a radical reformer was named President of Mexico, Lazaro CardenasHe carried out the reforms of the ConstitutionHe distributed land to landless farmersHe strengthened labor unionsHe seized the railroads and oil industry from foreign countries.He strengthened the peasants influence in the PRIThe PRI would help to control Mexico for the rest of the 20th centuryThe implementation of these reforms makes some historians say the Mexican Revolution in 1940
29Mexican Revolution’s Impact Most of Latin America admired the Mexican RevolutionThe Mexican Revolution weakened traditional power structures across Latin AmericaArgentina gave all males the right to vote in 1912Argentina would elect it’s first President and not an oligarchyPeru would give native Indian political rights
30Chile benefitted urban workers 1929 Ecuador gave women the right to vote (Brazil, Cuba, Uruguay all did by 1934)In 1925 Ecuador overthrew their governmentBolivia waged war with ParaguayBrazil’s wealthy landowners controlled the government, and became known as the “coffee elite”Venezuela was the world’s largest exporter of oil (Still high in that list)
31Great DepressionThe Great Depression destroyed the economy of Latin AmericaThe price of sugar, bananas, copper, and oil all fell dramaticallyThe Elites still had power, but they weren’t as powerful as beforeReform minded governments cracked down on labor and peasant groups
32Across Latin America life manifested in many different ways The Depression cut down on exports, and Latin American nations became more self reliantAcross Latin America life manifested in many different waysColumbia and Brazil became more self reliantMexico and Bolivia struck against their foreign investorsParaguay remained largely rural and isolated