Presentation on theme: "Social Emotional Development Erik Erikson divided life span into eight ages, each of which involves a psychosocial crisis. One’s personality is shaped."— Presentation transcript:
Social Emotional Development Erik Erikson divided life span into eight ages, each of which involves a psychosocial crisis. One’s personality is shaped by how individuals deal with these psychosocial crises.
Stage 1 = Infancy (birth to 12/18 months) Trust vs. Mistrust: the infant must form a loving relationship with caregiver – Attachment = the enduring, affectionate tie that binds one person to another Signs of Attachment – Attempts to main contact with caregiver – Separation anxiety (peaks around 14 to 18 months) – Goes to person when distressed – More easily soothed by that person – Stranger anxiety (7-12 months – schemas for familiar faces)
Stage 1 = Infancy (birth to 12/18 months) Attachment is related to responsive parenting (quality of care; provide level of stimulation appropriate to temperament of child) – Mary Ainsworth – “Strange Situation” Study (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QTsewNrHUHU) or e.aspx?From=Topics&Tab=bPage&BookID=10&TopicID=37&TopicName= The Developing Personhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QTsewNrHUHU Secure Attachment = a type of attachment characterized by positive feelings toward attachment figures and feelings of security Approach world with TRUST (Anchoring & Refueling) – Mildly protest mom’s departure, seek interaction upon reunion, readily comforted by her Insecure Attachment = a negative type of attachment in which children who show indifference or ambivalence toward attachment figures – Avoidant – least distressed by mom’s departure, play by themselves, ignore mom upon return – Ambivalent/Resistant – the most emotionally severe signs of distress when mom leaves, ambivalent reunion (pushes away and clings to), resists comfort
Stage 1 = Infancy (birth to 12/18 months) Theoretical Views of Attachment – Behavioral View: Mothers as Reinforcers Infants associate their caregivers with gratification. Mothers are associated with the powerful, reinforcing event of being fed. Biological basis for attachment – Harlow’s View : Contact Comfort Monkeys spent majority of time with comfortable cloth mother, even when cloth mother could not feed it, and went to cloth mother when scared. (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OrNBEhzjg8I&feature=related)http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OrNBEhzjg8I&feature=related – Touch and affection is basis for attachment. » Release of oxytocin, hormone associated with trust and bonding – Mom’s touch is necessary to maintain normal growth and development (Rat Study ODC) » Studies: massaging premature babies and orphanages- Unfortunately, monkeys still developed an insecure attachment since cloth mother could not be very responsive. Monkeys were terror stricken when placed in strange situations. Discredited Behaviorist view (The need for Responsive TOUCH) (Responsive Brain – touch = 3:45-12:20) In Class Video
Stage 1 = Infancy (birth to 12/18 months) Theoretical Views of Attachment – Imprinting = rigid attachment process by which certain animals form attachments during a critical period very early in life. (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2UIU 9XH-mUI&feature=related)http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2UIU 9XH-mUI&feature=related Maternal-sensitive period: a period of time during which a mother, because of hormone levels (oxytocin) in the body, is theorized to be particularly disposed toward forming mother- infant bonds of attachment. – But not critical period for becoming attached. Adoptive parents should not feel deficient.
Stage 2 = Toddler (1 to 2 / 3 years old) Autonomy vs Doubt: the child starts to take more responsibility for feeding, dressing, and bathing. – Those given the opportunity to experience independence (feeding, dressing, bathing) will gain a sense of autonomy – Children that are overly restrained or punished harshly will develop shame and doubt – Self Concept = a sense of one’s own identity and personal worth (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cTP01Wbsh0E)http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cTP01Wbsh0E Rouge Test – place rouge (blush) on nose of 9-24 months olds are place in front of mirror – Before 18 months: don’t recognize self – 18 months and older: most kids recognize themselves and were embarrassed – Dolphins can do it! elated) elated
Stage 3 = Preschool (2 / 3 to 6 years old) Initiative vs. Guilt: Children are exposed to the wider social world and given greater responsibility – Sense of accomplishment leads to initiative, whereas feelings of guilt can emerge if the child is made to feel too anxious or irresponsible (over- controlling parents)
Stage 4 = Elementary (6 years to puberty) Industry vs. Inferiority: the child moves beyond family to broader social realm of the neighborhood and school. – Stage of life surrounding mastery of knowledge and intellectual skills – Sense of competence and achievement leads to industry – Feeling incompetent and unproductive leads to inferiority
Stage 5 = Adolescence (teens into 20s) Identity vs. Role Confusion: Developing a sense of who one is and where s/he is going in life – Successful resolution leads to positive identity – Unsuccessful resolution leads to identity confusion or a negative identity
Marcia’s Identity Status Model No Crisis ExperiencedCrisis Experienced No Commit- ment Made Diffusion = the person has not yet thought about or resolved identity issues and has failed to chart directions in life. EX: “I haven’t really thought much about religions, and I guess I don’t know what I believe exactly.” Moratorium = the person is seriously contemplating the issues associated with identity formation and is trying on new roles routinely, but has putt off making a final decision. EX: “I’m in the middle of evaluating my beliefs and hope that I’ll be able to figure out what’s right for me. I like many of the answers provided by my Catholic upbringing, but I’ve also become skeptical about some teachings and have been looking into Judaism to see if it might help me answer my questions.” Commit- ment Made Foreclosure = the person seems to know who he or she is but has latched on to an identity prematurely, without much thought (e.g., by uncritically becoming what parents or other authority figures suggest they should). EX: “My parents are Baptists and I’m a Baptist; it’s just the way I grew up.” Identity Achievement = the person has developed a separate and unique identity they feel comfortable with, after some consideration of alternative possibilities. EX: “I really did some soul-searching about my religion and other religions too and finally know what I believe and what I don’t.” -Orientations that may occur at a particular time. Individual may get locked into one of these patterns or go through several at various times. -Issues associated with identity formation = political orientation, religious beliefs, desired occupation, sex/gender roles, sexual orientation, etc -Crises = Exploration
David Elkind: Adolescent Egocentrism A heightened self-consciousness of adolescents. Thinking becomes very introspective and teens often go through periods of extreme self- absorption. Can lead to cognitive limitations: – Imaginary Audience = belief that everyone is watching and the tendency to overestimate the degree to which one’s behavior will lead to social acceptance or social rejection EX: Wrapped up with appearance – everyone will notice pimple, new hair do, etc EX: Drink alcohol at party because he/she believes his/her friends will think less of him/her for not drinking – Personal Fable = perceptions of one’s own uniqueness (experiences, perspectives, feelings, values) and that one is destined for greatness EX: “No one has been in love like this before!”; “You don’t understand… you have never had this much work to accomplish in one night!” EX: Write in journals about their future as the next great novelist or rock star – Invincibility Fable = belief that one is invincible and can never be hurt. Regardless of what happens to others, believe no harm will come to them EX: drinking and driving ; won’t get pregnant, etc…
Social Development: Child-Rearing Practices Authoritarian – parents impose rules and expect obedience – “Don’t interrupt” – “Why? Because I said so.” Authoritative – parents are both demanding and responsive – set rules, but explain reasons – encourage discussion Permissive – submit to children’s desires – make few demands – use little punishment Rejecting-neglecting – disengaged – expect little – invest little
Social Development: Child-Rearing Practices Three explanations for correlation between authoritative parenting and social competence High education, ample income, harmonious marriage, common genes (3) Some third factor may be influencing both parents and child. (1) Parent’s behavior may be influencing child. Authoritative parents (2) Child’s behavior may be influencing parents. Self-reliant, Socially competent child Authoritative parents Authoritative parents Self-reliant, Socially competent child Self-reliant, Socially competent child
Are We Born Moral? n n
Moral Development Postconventional Level: Morality of abstract principles: to affirm agreed- upon rights and personal (not majority) ethical principles – Stage 5: Human Rights and Social Welfare Morality - Laws are agreed to for a reason, but there are extreme exceptions – Stage 6: People choose own ethical principles (ex. justice, respect) Conventional Level: Morality of law and social rules (family, religion, etc) : to gain approval or avoid disapproval (ages 13-16) – Stage 3: Interpersonal Accord and Conformity - Good behavior meets the needs and expectations of others – Stage 4: Law and Order Morality - Judgments based on rules that maintain social order, respecting authority, doing one's duty Preconventional Level: Morality of self-interest: to avoid punishment or gain concrete rewards (up to age 9, also many criminals) – Stage 1: Obedience and Punishment - Good behavior is that which is obedient and avoids punishment – Stage 2: Self-Interested Exchanges - Good behavior is that which allows people to satisfy their needs or the needs of others Morality = ability to discern right from wrong and behave accordingly Determine level by examining reasoning behind answer to hypothetical dilemmas – does not matter if you answer yes or no! Often use the same stage consistently, but can use different stages depending on the dilemma As moral development progresses, the focus of concern moves from the self to the wider social world.
Moral Development Kohlberg (1981, 1984) sought to describe the development of moral reasoning by posing moral dilemmas to children and adolescents, such as “Should a person steal medicine to save a loved one’s life?” – Heinz Dilemma: In Europe, a woman was near death from a special kind of cancer. There was one drug that the doctors thought might save her. It was a form of radium that a druggist in the same town had recently discovered. The drug was expensive to make, but the druggist was charging ten times what the drug cost him to make. He paid $200 for the radium and charged $2,000 for a small dose of the drug. The sick woman's husband, Heinz, went to everyone he knew to borrow the money, but he could only get together about $ 1,000 which is half of what it cost. He told the druggist that his wife was dying and asked him to sell it cheaper or let him pay later. But the druggist said: "No, I discovered the drug and I'm going to make money from it." So Heinz got desperate and broke into the man's store to steal the drug-for his wife. Should the husband have done that? (Kohlberg, 1963)."
Moral Development Criticisms: – Value assertion that the higher stages represent better, more justifiable reasons than the lower stages – Reasoning at lower stages promotes contradiction, such as stage four’s strict obedience to the law (i.e., marriage between homosexuals – illegal in one state but not another, so change reasoning if change state lines?) – Only studies males – Few people move beyond stage four or five
Adulthood Stage 6: Young adulthood – Intimacy vs. Isolation – Once you have a clear and comfortable sense of who you are, you gain the capacity to hold commitments with others, which leads to intimacy Stage 7: Middle Adulthood (40-65 years old) – Generativity vs. Stagnation – Caring for others in family, friends and work leads to sense of contribution to later generations
Stage 8: Late Adulthood (65 years to death) Integrity vs. Despair – Fully accepting oneself and achievements. Coming to terms with death – The “normal” range of reactions or grief stages after the death of a loved one varies widely. Grief is more severe if death occurs unexpectedly. People who view their lives with a sense of integrity (in Erikson’s terms) see life as meaningful and worthwhile.
Adulthood: Physical Development The peak of physical performance occurs around 20 years of age, after which it declines imperceptibly for most of us. Muscular strength, reaction time, sensory abilities and cardiac output begin to decline after the mid-twenties. Around age 50, women go through menopause, and men experience decreased levels of hormones and fertility.
Adulthood: Social Development Social Clock – the culturally preferred timing of social events, such as marriage, parenthood, and retirement Mid-life crises at 40 are less likely to occur than crises triggered by major events (divorce, new marriage).
Old Age: Sensory Abilities After age 70, hearing, distance perception, and the sense of smell diminish, as do muscle strength, reaction time, and stamina. After 80, neural processes slow down, especially for complex tasks.
Old Age: Motor Abilities At age 70, our motor abilities also decline. A 70-year-old is no match for a 20-year-old individual. Fatal accidents also increase around this age.
Old Age: Health As we get older our immune system weakens, thus we become more susceptible to life threatening ailments (cancer). However, we build up a collection of antibodies throughout the years, so we get minor colds less often as we age. Life Expectancy keeps increasing - now about 75. Women outlive men by about 4 years.
Aging and Memory Dementia – an abnormal deterioration in mental faculties seen in the elderly. Risk increases with age As we age, we remember some things well. These include recent past events and events that happened a decade or two back. However, recalling names becomes increasingly difficult. Recognition memory does not decline with age, and material that is meaningful is recalled better than meaningless material.
Alzheimer’s Disease One of the most devastating forms of memory loss is Alzheimer's disease, an irreversible and progressive brain disorder that slowly destroys memory, language, thinking skills and physical functioning.Alzheimer's disease Today, Alzheimer's is the second most-feared illness in America, following cancer, and may affect as many as five million Americans. It is the seventh-leading cause of death in the United States. Has no current cure. Quiz – 1. F; 2. F; 3. F; 4. T; 5. T; 6. T; 7. F; 8. F; 9. T; 10. F Alzheimer's destroys brain cells. Two abnormal structures called plaques and tangles are prime suspects in damaging and killing nerve cells. – Plaques build up between nerve cells. They contain deposits of a protein fragment called beta-amyloid (BAY-tuh AM-uh-loyd). – Tangles are twisted fibers of another protein called tau (rhymes with “wow”) and form inside dying cells. Most experts believe they somehow block communication among nerve cells and disrupt activities that cells need to survive. Also, linked to a deterioration of neurons that produce neurotransmitter acetylcholine Inside the Brain: Secret Life of the Brain:
Aging and Intelligence It is believed today that fluid intelligence (ability to reason speedily) declines with age, but crystalline intelligence (accumulated knowledge and skills) does not. We gain vocabulary and knowledge but lose recall memory and process more slowly. A number of cognitive abilities decline with age. However, vocabulary and general knowledge increase with age.