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Achieving a Cost Effective Live, Virtual and Constructive Training Mix “Helping MOD to make better decisions in an age of uncertainty” Simon Foale Group Leader (Analysis, Experimentation and Simulation) © Crown copyright 2011. Published with the permission of the Defence Science and Technology Laboratory on behalf of the Controller of HMSO.
© Dstl 2011 Dstl is part of the Ministry of Defence Over a Decade of Synthetic Environment Research
© Dstl 2011 Dstl is part of the Ministry of Defence Outline Experimentation –Definitions –Defence Operational Training Capability Vision –Key Training Tenets –LiveWIRE High Level Operational Analysis Scope Study Stages Summary Questions
© Dstl 2011 Dstl is part of the Ministry of Defence Definitions Live – Real people in real world platforms Virtual – Real people in simulated platforms Constructive – Computer generated forces
© Dstl 2011 Dstl is part of the Ministry of Defence Definitions Embedded –Live platform onboard capability generating simulated threats – does not require a link to the virtual-world Live vs Synthetic –Training takes place using either live platforms or simulators LVC –Real-world and virtual/constructive-world blended –May be Lvc (virtual participants and/or constructive entities solely there to stimulate Live players –May be LVc (two-way training for real-world and virtual participants)
© Dstl 2011 Dstl is part of the Ministry of Defence Joint Synthetic Training Vision 2020+ DOTC(A) DOTC(M) DOTC(L) Joint Operations Air Forces Land forces Maritime forces Joint Training DOTC - Defence Operational Training Capability
© Dstl 2011 Dstl is part of the Ministry of Defence Defence Operational Training Capability (Air) “To provide the Air element of a Defence LVC Training Capability by exploiting simulation and synthetically enhancing live training, to satisfy the Team and Collective training requirements at the Component, Joint and Combined levels.”
© Dstl 2011 Dstl is part of the Ministry of Defence Live/Synthetic Trends Future Simulator Based Training Live Training Simulated Effects Live Training Past Now
© Dstl 2011 Dstl is part of the Ministry of Defence Concept of Training – 5 Key Tenets (1) Adopt a user-centric approach Training not the technology important Unsure if an application/solution works until you fully stress the system Must involve end-users every step of the way © Dstl 2001 05 September 2007 Dstl is part of the Ministry of Defence
© Dstl 2011 Dstl is part of the Ministry of Defence Concept of Training – 5 Key Tenets (2) Create a total training environment All phases important; planning, brief, execute, debrief Technology must support all activities; e.g. synchronised debrief
© Dstl 2011 Dstl is part of the Ministry of Defence Concept of Training – 5 Key Tenets (3) Maintain the benefits of collocation Trust – confidence and understandingTrust – confidence and understanding ‘The secret of a successful air campaign is interoperability and the most important component of interoperability is trust’ Air Marshall Stu Peach © Dstl 2001 05 September 2007 Dstl is part of the Ministry of Defence
© Dstl 2011 Dstl is part of the Ministry of Defence Concept of Training – 5 Key Tenets (3) Do not lose sight of the benefits of collocation Trust – confidence & understandingTrust – confidence & understanding ‘The secret of a successful air campaign is interoperability and the most important component of interoperability is trust’ Air Marshall Stu Peach Key component of MTDS research strategy –Need to devise synthetic training solutions & strategies to support development of inter-role trust, confidence, improved communication etc. UK keen to go for blend of both collocated and distributed –Centre of excellence (ABTC) with smaller Mission Training Centres at distributed sites © Dstl 2001 05 September 2007 Dstl is part of the Ministry of Defence
© Dstl 2011 Dstl is part of the Ministry of Defence Concept of Training – 5 Key Tenets (4) Flexibility is critical for an evolving capability Contractual and technical flexibility are essential: –Cost effective solutions –Greater interoperability –More market choice
© Dstl 2011 Dstl is part of the Ministry of Defence Concept of Training – 5 Key Tenets (4) Flexibility is critical for an evolving capability Contractual and technical flexibility are essential: Cost effective solutions, greater interoperability, more market choice UK adopting a targeted fidelity approach for MTDS CCD programme helping to determine levels of fidelity
© Dstl 2011 Dstl is part of the Ministry of Defence Concept of Training – 5 Key Tenets (5) Use an expert White Force –Experience –Credibility and leadership –Control and trigger events –Effective debriefs –Emotional commitment
© Dstl 2011 Dstl is part of the Ministry of Defence Trial - LiveWIRE Live Warfighter Integrated Research Environment “Investigate the training potential and current limitations of a true LVC environment as part of a future DOTC(A) construct” First UK trial of its kind (February 2011) –Blend of all three elements of LVC –In a training context –Involving front-line air assets
© Dstl 2011 Dstl is part of the Ministry of Defence BLUE RED OPERATING AREA SA-11 CGF LIVE VIRTUAL
© Dstl 2011 Dstl is part of the Ministry of Defence LiveWIRE Exercise Control The expert “White Force” team, led by the Exercise Director, indigenous to ABTC
© Dstl 2011 Dstl is part of the Ministry of Defence Air Battlespace Training Centre, RAF Waddington LiveWIRE Link Van Provided UHF Voice and “Link 16” air picture data link between the ABTC and the live Typhoons RAF Coningsby
© Dstl 2011 Dstl is part of the Ministry of Defence LiveWIRE Virtual AWACS Simulated E3D aircraft provided airborne surveillance and control to live and virtual assets
© Dstl 2011 Dstl is part of the Ministry of Defence LiveWIRE Virtual Typhoon Pair of virtual Typhoons provided by “type representative” simulators in large domes
© Dstl 2011 Dstl is part of the Ministry of Defence LiveWIRE Virtual Red Air Pair of virtual Mig 29 provided by “desktop roleplayer” simulators
© Dstl 2011 Dstl is part of the Ministry of Defence Air Battlespace Training Centre, RAF Waddington LiveWIRE Live Typhoons Pair of Typhoons from 29(R) Sqn flown from RAF Coningsby RAF Coningsby
© Dstl 2011 Dstl is part of the Ministry of Defence Air Battlespace Training Centre, RAF Waddington LiveWIRE Planning Briefing & Debriefing Audio teleconferencing and “After Action Review” replay facilities between the ABTC and RAF Coningsby were used for Planning, Briefing and Debriefing RAF Coningsby
© Dstl 2011 Dstl is part of the Ministry of Defence LiveWIRE - FIRST IMPRESSIONS Successfully proved concept Positive feedback from participants More mature LVC solution required for live players Real time kill removal is not available Safety implications Communications Weather becomes a factor
© Dstl 2011 Dstl is part of the Ministry of Defence Training High Level Operational Analysis Aim to: –Understand the training system and –Assess most cost effective LVC mix for training activities –Across the services. Two phases
© Dstl 2011 Dstl is part of the Ministry of Defence Phase 1 Literature Review Summary of Live/Synthetic Analysis approaches: FAPV (Familiarization Acquisition Practice and Validation) ADVISOR STRIVE (Specifying Training Requirements in Virtual Environments )
© Dstl 2011 Dstl is part of the Ministry of Defence Assessment Methods Cost Effective LVC Mix FAPV –Favoured US methodology –Uses a task based approach ADVISOR –Canadian commercial model used by the UK MOD –Similar task based approach STRIVE, a procurement model, used to: –Support the development of Operational Requirements Documents –Ensure that the tasks assigned to virtual environment training are realistic given the current technological capabilities. All methodologies have at their heart the use of judgement by SMEs.
© Dstl 2011 Dstl is part of the Ministry of Defence Issues for LVC Assessments All of existing Live or Synthetic Analysis approaches have issues: –Heavily reliant on military judgement –Lack of Verification and Validation for methodologies –Point estimates –Difficult establishing areas of lowest risk –Cost –Benefits of live training difficult to quantify so how do we establish if VC training is more/less/equally effective? –More complicated in true LVC
© Dstl 2011 Dstl is part of the Ministry of Defence Training High Level Operational Analysis Phase 2: –Building a ‘better’ analytical capability… What does this look like? What questions are asked / answers needed? Proposed Way Forward… –Risks / Direction / Timescales / Coherency
© Dstl 2011 Dstl is part of the Ministry of Defence Phase 2 Overview Building a better analytical capability… Three stages –A:Collate and Categorise –B:Research Metrics and Methodology –C:Conduct Gap and Risk Analysis
© Dstl 2011 Dstl is part of the Ministry of Defence Stage A: Collate and Categorise Identify links and related studies Categorise the Military Training System –Stages: Identifying individual, collective, and team training and the use of training assets –Roles: Taxonomy of roles –Cost: Cost of training Training Enterprise Concept Model
© Dstl 2011 Dstl is part of the Ministry of Defence Stage B: Research, Metrics, Methodology Training Requirement to Operations –Training Gap Analysis –Mission Essential Competencies (MECs) Links to HLOA and Campaign Analysis –Implicit Assumptions / Robustness of Force Mix Options Qualitative and Quantitative Approach –Integration of Costs / Effectiveness / Risks
© Dstl 2011 Dstl is part of the Ministry of Defence Stage B: Mission Essential Competencies Extent Delivered: What extent can be given Live? Syn/Sim? LVC? Extent Delivered: What extent can be given Live? Syn/Sim? LVC? Importance: How important is the experience? Importance: How important is the experience? Gaps Identified: Important experiences not encountered frequently? Gaps Identified: Important experiences not encountered frequently? Frequency: How often have units encountered event? Frequency: How often have units encountered event? “…fully prepared individual, crew, force, requires for successful mission completion under adverse conditions in a non- permissive environment.”
© Dstl 2011 Dstl is part of the Ministry of Defence Stage C: Analysis (Gaps and Risk) ‘Better’ Analytical Capability –Training Roles and (High-Level) link to Capability –Link to HLOA – validated method of use –Platforms / Roles - trade-offs and risks –Integration with cost model… –Capability to provide evidence
© Dstl 2011 Dstl is part of the Ministry of Defence Summary Challenging area of experimentation and OR research –Significant - UK MoD spends £Billions on training each year Need to do training cost-effectively –But effectively – not just cheaply! –LVC major part of way forward but needs care and planning Need to coordinate investment in training (all aspects) with investment in other areas, e.g. equipment OR must provide objective, robust, auditable evidence
© Dstl 2011 Dstl is part of the Ministry of Defence Questions
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