Presentation on theme: "LECTURE NO 4 The general term "Production" is the creation of new organic matter. The process of photosynthesis converts light energy into energy stored."— Presentation transcript:
LECTURE NO 4
The general term "Production" is the creation of new organic matter. The process of photosynthesis converts light energy into energy stored in chemical bonds within plant tissue. This energy fuels the metabolic machinery of the plant. New compounds and structures are synthesized, cells divide, and the plant grows in size over time. The plant requires sunlight, carbon dioxide, water, and nutrients, and through photosynthesis the plant produces reduced carbon compounds and oxygen.
All life on earth is directly or indirectly reliant on primary production. The organisms responsible for primary production are known as primary producers or autotrophs, and form the base of the food chain. In terrestrial ecoregions, these are mainly plants, while in aquatic ecoregions algae are primarily responsible. aquatic ecoregionsalgae
Consumption of primary producers by heterotrophic organisms, such as animals, then transfers these organic molecules (and the energy stored within them) up the food web, fueling all of the Earth's living systems. heterotrophicanimalsfood webEarth
Definition : the synthesis and storage of organic molecules during the growth and reproduction of photosynthetic organisms. Over time, primary production results in the addition of new plant biomass to the system. Consumers derive their energy from primary producers, either directly (herbivores, some detritivores), or indirectly (predators, other detritivores). Primary production is distinguished as either net or gross, the former accounting for losses to processes such as cellular respiration, the latter not.cellular respiration
Photosynthesis stores energy, and respiration releases it for use in functions such as reproduction and basic maintenance. When calculating the amount of energy that a plant stores as biomass, which is then available to heterotrophs, we must subtract plant respiration costs from the total primary production.
Gross Primary Production, GPP, is the total amount of CO 2 that is fixed by the plant in photosynthesis.
Gross primary production (GPP) is the rate at which an ecosystem's producers capture and store a given amount of chemical energy as biomass in a given length of time. Some fraction of this fixed energy is used by primary producers for cellular respiration and maintenance of existing tissues (i.e., "growth respiration" and "maintenance respiration"). The remaining fixed energy (i.e., mass of photosynthate) is referred to as net primary production (NPP).
Respiration, R, is the amount of CO 2 that is lost from an organism or system from metabolic activity. Respiration can be further divided into components that reflect the source of the CO 2.
Net Primary Production, NPP, is the net amount of primary production after the costs of plant respiration are included. Therefore, NPP = GPP - R
NPP = GPP - respiration [by plants] Net primary production is the rate at which all the plants in an ecosystem produce net useful chemical energy; it is equal to the difference between the rate at which the plants in an ecosystem produce useful chemical energy (GPP) and the rate at which they use some of that energy during respiration. Some net primary production goes toward growth and reproduction of primary producers, while some is consumed by herbivores.
Both gross and net primary production are in units of mass / area / time. In terrestrial ecosystems, mass of carbon per unit area per year (g C/m 2 /yr) is most often used as the unit of measurement.
Net Ecosystem Production, NEP, is the net amount of primary production after the costs of respiration by plants, hetertrophs, and decomposers are all included. Therefore, NEP = GPP - (R p + R h + R d )
Chemical energy has to be passed from one trophic level to another (autotrophs to heterotrophs). This process is about 10% efficient.
Three hundred trout are needed to support one man for a year. The trout, in turn, must consume 90,000 frogs, that must consume 27 million grasshoppers that live off of 1,000 tons of grass. -- G. Tyler Miller, Jr., American Chemist (1971)
There are two general approaches: one can measure either (a) the rate of photosynthesis, or (b) the rate of increase in plant biomass.
The equation for photosynthesis 6 CO 2 + 6 H 2 O sunlight C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6 O 2 Carbon dioxide assimilation: The uptake of CO2 in photosynthesis or its loss in respiration has been determined by use of infrared gas analysis.
In aquatic ecosystems One takes a series of small glass bottles with stoppers, and half of them are wrapped with some material such as tinfoil so that no light penetrates. These are called the "light" and "dark" bottles, respectively. In the light bottles, both photosynthesis and respiration occur while in the dark bottles, only respiration occurs. The oxygen content is determined by titration to approximate GP.
What do you do with plants that are too large to put in bottles? Consider the following example. Suppose we wish to know the primary production of a corn crop. We plant some seeds, and at the end of one year we harvest samples of the entire plants including the roots that were contained in one square meter of area. We dry these to remove any variation in water content, and then weigh them to get the "dry weight". Thus our measure of primary production would be grams m -2 yr - of stems, leaves, roots, flowers and fruits, minus the mass of the seeds that may have blown away.
The world's ecosystems vary tremendously in productivity, as illustrated in the following figures. In terms of NPP per unit area, the most productive systems are estuaries, swamps and marshes, tropical rain forests, and temperate rain forests
Standing crop, on the other hand, is a measure of the biomass of the system at a single point in time, and is measured as calories or grams per m 2.