Presentation on theme: "Values Based Assessment Lyn Dale Assessment Psychologist July 1 st 2013."— Presentation transcript:
Values Based Assessment Lyn Dale Assessment Psychologist July 1 st 2013
Cambridge University Cambridge Assessment Cambridge English Language Assessment Admissions tests for entrance to education TSA, BMAT, IMAT, English language testing New CPSQ Admissions Testing Service
Agenda 1 Psychologists’ perspective on values Research study of nurse values Survey and discussion on professional values
Definition of values Ongoing belief or attitude about a certain type of behaviour or state that is considered desirable. Rokeach, 1973 What people want & consider important in their lives. Enduring beliefs (but can be changed). Values act as motives and guide behaviour and judgement.
Part of our identity
Schwartz (1992) values taxonomy 1 Benevolence: active protection of others’ welfare 2 Universalism: equality and justice 3 Self-direction: independence in thought and action 4 Stimulation: excitement 5 Hedonism: sensuous and emotional gratification 6 Achievement: personal success through competence 7 Power: status and respect 8 Security: safety and harmony of self and social group 9 Conformity: restraint of actions and impulses 10 Tradition
Rokeach’s values theory (1975) People have terminal values (desirable end states) and instrumental values (desirable conduct or behaviour). Desirable modes of conduct are instrumental to attaining end states. Rokeach’s Value Survey - values have a hierarchy and can be ranked in order of importance to the person.
Study of nurses’ professional and personal values Participants 323 Israeli nurses. Asked about 36 personal values and 20 professional values. Rokeach’s theory. Terminal personal values: family security, happiness, sense of accomplishment, a world of peace (free from war & conflict). Instrumental behaviours: honesty, responsible, intellectual, loving, self-reliant
What are your professional values? Please select 10 values Now rank them in order Comparison to Israeli study
What effects nursing values? Culture, Japanese and American nurses how different ideas about the value of truth telling and patient autonomy. Professional experience? Inconclusive. Vocational education? Personal values appear to direct people towards certain career choices but inconclusive as to whether education influences values.
Key Reference Nurses’ Professional and Personal Values Michal Rassin Nursing Ethics (5) SAGE Publications
Agenda 2 – Putting (terminal)values into action (with instrumental behaviours) Instrumental behaviours or desired conduct Development of a non-cognitive assessment CPSQ Ask any questions you like!
Driver for the CPSQ BioMedical Admissions Test (BMAT) Medical competency frameworks include non- cognitive attributes NCA already in use e.g. interview, personal statement, reference etc. Typically non-standardised & highly subjective Selectors want a ‘scientific approach’
Assessment need Based on interviews with medicine, nursing, midwifery, dentistry, teacher training, AHP. Good ‘fit’ with the course and profession (idea of a ‘profile’). Avoid selecting the highly unsuitable. Admissions interviewers look for … What desired conduct or ‘instrumental’ behaviour would you want to assess?
Development of the CPSQ
Personality assessment works Lievens et al. (2009) personality scale validities increased throughout medical school: - longitudinal 1-7 years. N = 627 medical students (Belgium) - predicted grade point average year 1 = r.18 at year 7 = r.45 McManus et al. (2004) personality determinants of stress: - longitudinal 12 year study. N= 1668 UK-based medical students - personality questionnaire given at the start of their course - stress levels measured 5 years post graduation - high levels of neuroticism, low level of extraversion and low conscientiousness determined stress levels for doctors
Adapt personality model using interview work Conscientious
Likert or rating scale
Forced-choice or ranking
Trials Trial1Trial 2Trial 3Trial 4Final Version Question Version 320 items 288 items240 items 164 items Response Method RatingRating & Ranking Format Paper& Pencil Computer Sample N Volunteer Student Groups A levelHealthcare University & A level Healthcare University Healthcare University & A level
CPSQ 5 StylesDescription ThinkingIntellectual curiosity and openness Study & WorkMotivation and self-management CopingResilience and adaptability to demands InterpersonalSocial confidence and helping others SocialResponsibility, rules and cooperation
Relationship with emotional intelligence Measure TEIQue (Petrides, 2009), self report measure of Global Trait Emotional Intelligence: - completed concurrently with CPSQ (N=114) - predicts Global Trait EI (multiple R = 0.7) - emotion-based Coping Styles and Social Confidence r = >0.3
Profile nursing & midwifery
Uses Suggestions: -course placement & recruitment -target interview questions -extra supporting evidence -filter out extreme profiles (validation evidence required) -early warning of student needs -careers advisory (modified version) -professional development Feedback report format and length needs matched to use
Person x Situation System 1960s social psychology experiment on unquestioning compliance with authority Unfamiliar hospital staff doctor calls up 22 nurses and requests that a patient immediately be given 20 milligrams of “Astrogen”. The patient ‘must have this before I arrive’. Bottle states 5 mg is usual, 10 mg max dose How many nurses comply?