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Food Insecurity and Health Lynne Giroux, RD Public Health Nutritionist Eastern Ontario Health Unit.

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Presentation on theme: "Food Insecurity and Health Lynne Giroux, RD Public Health Nutritionist Eastern Ontario Health Unit."— Presentation transcript:

1 Food Insecurity and Health Lynne Giroux, RD Public Health Nutritionist Eastern Ontario Health Unit

2 Food security exists when... “all people, at all times, have physical and economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food to meet their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life” Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations

3 (Tarasuk, Mitchell, & Dachner, 2014, p. 4) Household food insecurity in Canada

4 (Tarasuk, Mitchell, & Dachner, 2014, p. 2) Household food insecurity by province & territory

5 (Tarasuk, Mitchell, & Dachner, 2014, p. 9) Household food insecurity in Ontario

6 Determinants of Food Insecurity: Income Having an income below the Low Income Measure (29.0% are food insecure). Unpublished analysis of 2011 Canadian Community Health Survey data, as cited in PROOF. Retrieved from: toronto.ca/food-insecurity/ toronto.ca/food-insecurity/

7 Determinants of Food Insecurity Sources of income –Food insecurity affected 69.5% of Canadian households reliant on social assistance (i.e., welfare and disability support programs). –58.3% (62.2% Canada) of food insecure households were reliant on wages and salaries. Housing –Renting rather than owning one’s home (26.1% were food insecure vs. 6.4% of homeowners ) (Tarasuk, Mitchell, & Dachner, 2014). Education –Less than secondary (21% food insecure) –Completed a Bachelor’s degree or higher (6.3%) (Tarasuk, Mitchell, & Dachner, 2014).

8 Determinants of Food Insecurity: Household Composition (Tarasuk, Mitchell, & Dachner, 2014, p. 9)

9 Chronic Diseases: A Public Health Priority Most significant cause of death (63%) worldwide 1 [1]. Chronic diseases increase income inequities, deplete household wealth, increase health spending and lower labour productivity [2]. Chronic diseases cause premature deaths under age 60: 13% in high income countries like Canada [1]. Chronic disease rates are increasing at 14% each year [3]. 3 out of 5 Canadians older than 20 have a chronic disease; and 4 out of 5 are at risk [3]. [1] World Health Organization 1 Except in sub-Saharan Africa [2] World Bank, 2011 [3] Centre for Chronic Disease Prevention and Control, Public Health Agency of Canada, using POHEM Model, Statistics Canada.

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11 Impact of Food Insecurity on Health Poverty Poor Health Food Insecurity

12 Impact of Food Insecurity on Health Chronic conditions such as… [1] diabetes heart disease hypertension depression fibromyalgia Household food insecurity also affects people’s ability to manage chronic health problems [1]. [1] 5-10 as cited in Tarasuk, Mitchell, & Dachner, 2014.

13 Impact of Food Insecurity on Health mental health –feelings of anxiety (anxiety disorders), depression, distress, stress, and suicidal tendencies –social isolation and alienation –eating disorders well-being/social health –impaired ability to work and learn physical health oral health Source: 5-10 as cited in Tarasuk, Mitchell, & Dachner, 2014; Dietitians of Canada, 2012

14 Causal evidence that children and youth who experienced hunger, especially repeated hunger [1]: -were more likely to have poorer health, and -were more likely than others to have developed several chronic health conditions, including asthma. Impact of Food Insecurity on Health: Children [1] Tarasuk, Mitchell, & Dachner, 2014.

15 Impact of severe food insecurity The prevalence of severe food insecurity in Ontario (2.7%) is above the national prevalence (2.6%). In 2012, 29.4% of households who reported their main source of income as social assistance were severely food insecure. (Tarasuk, Mitchell, & Dachner, 2014, p. 14)

16 Impact of Food Insecurity on Nutrition Food Insecurity is associated with... A less varied diet [1], A lower intake of fruits and vegetables [1], A lower intake of milk and alternatives [3], [1] Gorton, Bullen, and Mhurchu, as cited in Conference Board of Canada, [2] Cummins and Macintyre, as cited in Conference Board of Canada, [3] Kirkpatrick and Tarasuk, 2008, as cited in PROOF. Retrieved from:

17 Impact of Food Insecurity on Nutrition Food Insecurity is associated with... Malnutrition [1] An increased consumption of processed foods (i.e., higher intakes of sodium, trans fat, and sugar) [2] An increased risk of inadequate nutrient intakes [1,3] [1] Gorton, Bullen, and Mhurchu, as cited in Conference Board of Canada, [2] Cummins and Macintyre, as cited in Conference Board of Canada, [3] Kirkpatrick and Tarasuk, 2008, as cited in PROOF. Retrieved from:

18 EOHU Nutritious Food Basket SDOH PHN – partnerships to address income and poverty ATF collaborative member/partner GFB partnerships Directory of Local Food Programs and Services

19 Nutritious Food Basket Data Family of four, EOHU, 2014: $ Family of four, EOHU, 2013: $ Family of four, EOHU, 2012: $ Family of four, EOHU, 2011: $ Family of four, EOHU, 2010: $ Family of four, EOHU, 2009: $ Household food insecurity in the Eastern Ontario Region

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22 This has been a presentation by the Eastern Ontario Health Unit. ©EOHU. All rights reserved.


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