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IGNIS ASSOCIATES Ltd Evacuation Strategies a Time to Reflect? 01/05/2015 NAHFO Newcastle 2011 Eur Ing Dr Jim Marsden Director Ignis Associates Ltd.

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Presentation on theme: "IGNIS ASSOCIATES Ltd Evacuation Strategies a Time to Reflect? 01/05/2015 NAHFO Newcastle 2011 Eur Ing Dr Jim Marsden Director Ignis Associates Ltd."— Presentation transcript:

1 IGNIS ASSOCIATES Ltd Evacuation Strategies a Time to Reflect? 01/05/2015 NAHFO Newcastle 2011 Eur Ing Dr Jim Marsden Director Ignis Associates Ltd

2 IGNIS ASSOCIATES Ltd Introduction Present methodologyPresent methodology The duties of a responsible personThe duties of a responsible person Does one size fit all?Does one size fit all? The importance of passive and active systemsThe importance of passive and active systems What are the challenges facing fire safety ManagersWhat are the challenges facing fire safety Managers Building acceptanceBuilding acceptance Risk assessmentRisk assessment The actions of other services on evacuation.The actions of other services on evacuation. Outside influencesOutside influences Compressed gasesCompressed gases ConclusionsConclusions 01/05/2015 NAHFO Newcastle 2011

3 IGNIS ASSOCIATES Ltd Present methodology Approved Document BApproved Document B 0.23 Health Care Premises diverse variety of patients0.23 Health Care Premises diverse variety of patients Fire strategy dependent uponFire strategy dependent upon The way in which the building is designed (MoE etc)The way in which the building is designed (MoE etc) The way the building is furnished (Fire loading)The way the building is furnished (Fire loading) The way in which the building is staffed and managedThe way in which the building is staffed and managed The principal of total evacuation may not be appropriate.The principal of total evacuation may not be appropriate. Designer directed to HTM FirecodeDesigner directed to HTM FirecodeWhere An evacuation strategy will be dependent upon theAn evacuation strategy will be dependent upon the type of building, its use, and the occupancy profile type of building, its use, and the occupancy profile (including staff levels). (including staff levels). 01/05/2015 NAHFO Newcastle 2011

4 IGNIS ASSOCIATES Ltd Present methodology Approved Document B Provides advice in respect to residential care. That occupants may require assistance to escapeThat occupants may require assistance to escape Building designed for progressive horizontal evacuation (PHE), but this is dependent uponBuilding designed for progressive horizontal evacuation (PHE), but this is dependent upon The installation of compartment wallsThe installation of compartment walls Fire doorsFire doors 01/05/2015 NAHFO Newcastle 2011

5 IGNIS ASSOCIATES Ltd The duties of the responsible person Article 17 of the FSO 2005 states Where necessary in order to safeguard the safety of relevant persons the responsible person must ensure that the premises and any facilities, equipment and devices provided in respect of the premises under this Order or, subject to paragraph (6), under any other enactment, including any enactment repealed or revoked by this Order, are subject to a suitable system of maintenance and are maintained in an efficient state, in efficient working order and in good repair. 01/05/2015

6 IGNIS ASSOCIATES Ltd Does one size fit all? Within health care there are wide range personsWithin health care there are wide range persons Awake and aware (staff)Awake and aware (staff) Unfamiliar with the building(visitors)Unfamiliar with the building(visitors) Alert and unable to move (patients)Alert and unable to move (patients) Type of evacuation strategyType of evacuation strategy SimultaneousSimultaneous PhasedPhased ProgressiveProgressive Stay putStay put 01/05/2015 NAHFO Newcastle 2011

7 IGNIS ASSOCIATES Ltd Progressive horizontal evacuation Persons are evacuated to a relative place of safety i.e. Adjoining compartment.Persons are evacuated to a relative place of safety i.e. Adjoining compartment. Reliant upon adequate staff trainingReliant upon adequate staff training Evacuation times can vary greatly dependent upon the condition of the personEvacuation times can vary greatly dependent upon the condition of the person 01/05/2015 NAHFO Newcastle 2011

8 IGNIS ASSOCIATES Ltd Progressive horizontal evacuation But what about the importance of passive and active systems.But what about the importance of passive and active systems. Progressive Horizontal Evacuation (PHE) is also heavily reliant upon passive and active systems such as:-Progressive Horizontal Evacuation (PHE) is also heavily reliant upon passive and active systems such as:- Compartment walls and floors being imperforateCompartment walls and floors being imperforate Fire dampers within compartment walls operating satisfactorily.Fire dampers within compartment walls operating satisfactorily. Adequate fire stopping where required.Adequate fire stopping where required. Water suppression systems controlling fireWater suppression systems controlling fire Within engineered design the satisfactory operation of smoke control systemsWithin engineered design the satisfactory operation of smoke control systems 01/05/2015 NAHFO Newcastle 2011

9 IGNIS ASSOCIATES Ltd The importance of active and passive systems 01/05/2015 NAHFO Newcastle 2011

10 IGNIS ASSOCIATES Ltd Passive and active systems Basic fire engineering principals dictate that the longer you have to remain in the building the greater the importance of passive systems in restricting the spread of fire and smoke from compartment to compartmentBasic fire engineering principals dictate that the longer you have to remain in the building the greater the importance of passive systems in restricting the spread of fire and smoke from compartment to compartment 01/05/2015 NAHFO Newcastle 2011

11 IGNIS ASSOCIATES Ltd What are the challenges facing fire safety managers Health care design is becoming more complex requiring different evacuation strategies for different uses.Health care design is becoming more complex requiring different evacuation strategies for different uses. The greater use of fire engineering systems such as smoke control, pressurisation and new technology such as water mist is becoming more prevelent in healthcare design.The greater use of fire engineering systems such as smoke control, pressurisation and new technology such as water mist is becoming more prevelent in healthcare design. Different purpose groups being combined in one design (Healthcare, shop/commercial, office, residential etc).Different purpose groups being combined in one design (Healthcare, shop/commercial, office, residential etc). Healthcare sites are becoming largerHealthcare sites are becoming larger 01/05/2015 NAHFO Newcastle 2011

12 IGNIS ASSOCIATES Ltd Building acceptance Building acceptance New Build Great reliance on the standard of works and the attention to detail by the contractor in the construction phase.Great reliance on the standard of works and the attention to detail by the contractor in the construction phase. Compartment floors and wallsCompartment floors and walls Cavity barriersCavity barriers In the case of active systems such as fire alarms, water suppression systems they are installed and certificated to the relevant standard.In the case of active systems such as fire alarms, water suppression systems they are installed and certificated to the relevant standard. Fire DampersFire Dampers Correct fire alarm logic to control other systems such as smoke vents etcCorrect fire alarm logic to control other systems such as smoke vents etc 01/05/2015 NAHFO Newcastle 2011

13 IGNIS ASSOCIATES Ltd Build quality 01/05/2015 NAHFO Newcastle 2011

14 IGNIS ASSOCIATES Ltd Building Maintenance Older buildings Maintaining and understanding the fire safety systems installed (continuity of knowledge).Maintaining and understanding the fire safety systems installed (continuity of knowledge). Fire safety PlansFire safety Plans Fire Strategy (Fire Engineered solutions)Fire Strategy (Fire Engineered solutions) Understanding why the system was installed in the first placeUnderstanding why the system was installed in the first place Contractors being competent also understanding the importance of the active and passive systems.Contractors being competent also understanding the importance of the active and passive systems. Fire stopping openings in compartment wallsFire stopping openings in compartment walls Smoke control systemsSmoke control systems 01/05/2015 NAHFO Newcastle 2011

15 IGNIS ASSOCIATES Ltd Testing and maintenance There is requirement under the fire safety order (Article 17)There is requirement under the fire safety order (Article 17) Should be undertaken by a competent person who fully understands the importance and relevance of fire safety systems)Should be undertaken by a competent person who fully understands the importance and relevance of fire safety systems) 01/05/2015 NAHFO Newcastle 2011

16 IGNIS ASSOCIATES Ltd Risk assessment The Fire Safety Order 2005 now applies to Health Care PremisesThe Fire Safety Order 2005 now applies to Health Care Premises The risk assessment (RA) should be suitable and sufficient.The risk assessment (RA) should be suitable and sufficient. Significant findings should be recordedSignificant findings should be recorded Action plans should be put in place to remedy the findings.Action plans should be put in place to remedy the findings. The risk assessment must be undertaken by a competent personThe risk assessment must be undertaken by a competent person 01/05/2015 NAHFO Newcastle 2011

17 IGNIS ASSOCIATES Ltd Risk assessment considerations The higher the dependancy of the persons (Intensive Care and HDU) the greater reliance on effective compartmentation and fire stopping. The time to evacuate the compartment is much greater.The higher the dependancy of the persons (Intensive Care and HDU) the greater reliance on effective compartmentation and fire stopping. The time to evacuate the compartment is much greater. The lower the dependacy of the persons (offices etc) the lower the reliance upon the compartmentation and fire stopping. The time to evacuate the compartment is considerably less that above.The lower the dependacy of the persons (offices etc) the lower the reliance upon the compartmentation and fire stopping. The time to evacuate the compartment is considerably less that above. Does the competent Risk assessor actually understand health care premises and their complex natureDoes the competent Risk assessor actually understand health care premises and their complex nature 01/05/2015 NAHFO Newcastle 2011

18 IGNIS ASSOCIATES Ltd The actions of other services Does our responsibilty end when the FRS arrive on the scene.Does our responsibilty end when the FRS arrive on the scene. Do they understand the importance and special nature of healthcare premises.Do they understand the importance and special nature of healthcare premises. 01/05/2015 NAHFO Newcastle 2011

19 IGNIS ASSOCIATES Ltd The actions of other services Will have an impact upon the evacuation strategyWill have an impact upon the evacuation strategy Fire fighting hoses may breach lobbies therefore allowing smoke to enter staircases resulting in spread to other areas.Fire fighting hoses may breach lobbies therefore allowing smoke to enter staircases resulting in spread to other areas. The flow of contaminated water (not confined to fire fighting debris but possible body fluids) flowing from the affected compartment to other areas.The flow of contaminated water (not confined to fire fighting debris but possible body fluids) flowing from the affected compartment to other areas. 01/05/2015 NAHFO Newcastle 2011

20 IGNIS ASSOCIATES Ltd The affect of other influences What about incidents in adjoining buildings?What about incidents in adjoining buildings? Surely that cannot affect an evacuation strategy?Surely that cannot affect an evacuation strategy? Do we risk assess the impact of contractors and building works?Do we risk assess the impact of contractors and building works? Incidents such as the recent fire underneath the M1 caused considerable disruption to the countries infrstructure.Incidents such as the recent fire underneath the M1 caused considerable disruption to the countries infrstructure. 01/05/2015 NAHFO Wrightington 2010

21 IGNIS ASSOCIATES Ltd Compressed Gases Current fire fighting tactics includeCurrent fire fighting tactics include The establishment of an exclusion zone up to 200mtrsThe establishment of an exclusion zone up to 200mtrs Cooling with water for 24hrsCooling with water for 24hrs Incident only closes when cylinder is removed from siteIncident only closes when cylinder is removed from site 01/05/2015 NAHFO Newcastle 2011

22 IGNIS ASSOCIATES Ltd Compressed Gases About 170 people have been evacuated from their homes in Manchester after a fire involving an acetylene cylinder.About 170 people have been evacuated from their homes in Manchester after a fire involving an acetylene cylinder. Firefighters were called to a premises behind Booze Busters, in Wilmslow Road, Fallowfield, on Saturday morning.Firefighters were called to a premises behind Booze Busters, in Wilmslow Road, Fallowfield, on Saturday morning. A 200m cordon was set up and Furness Road, Cawdor Road and Landcross Road were closed. Residents have been moved to nearby Owens Park.A 200m cordon was set up and Furness Road, Cawdor Road and Landcross Road were closed. Residents have been moved to nearby Owens Park. No-one was injured in the fire and investigations have begun into how the blaze began.No-one was injured in the fire and investigations have begun into how the blaze began. The cordon is likely to be in place for the next 24 hours while firefighters make the area safe.The cordon is likely to be in place for the next 24 hours while firefighters make the area safe. 01/05/2015 NAHFO Newcastle 2011

23 IGNIS ASSOCIATES Ltd But what about the future? Our understanding of fire and smoke behaviour is advancing at a pace.Our understanding of fire and smoke behaviour is advancing at a pace. There have been may lessons learned from previous fires.There have been may lessons learned from previous fires. Royal Marsden 2008, Complete Evac.Royal Marsden 2008, Complete Evac. University College Hospital 2008, Partial Evac.University College Hospital 2008, Partial Evac. Northwick Park Hospital 2009, Partial Evac.Northwick Park Hospital 2009, Partial Evac. Building standards are improving with designBuilding standards are improving with design But do we need to have a radical change?But do we need to have a radical change? 01/05/2015 NAHFO Newcastle 2011

24 IGNIS ASSOCIATES Ltd What about the future? Evacuation planning strategy developed at the design stage.Evacuation planning strategy developed at the design stage. Closer attention to commissioning and testing of active and passive systems.Closer attention to commissioning and testing of active and passive systems. Building bespoke evacuation systems i.e. Lifts and enhanced compartmentation.Building bespoke evacuation systems i.e. Lifts and enhanced compartmentation. Liasion with emergency services so they understand the impacts of their actions upon an evacuation strategy.Liasion with emergency services so they understand the impacts of their actions upon an evacuation strategy. The impact of outside influencesThe impact of outside influences The use of compentent Risk Assessors and competent service engineersThe use of compentent Risk Assessors and competent service engineers 01/05/2015 NAHFO Newcastle 2011

25 IGNIS ASSOCIATES Ltd 01/05/2015 NAHFO Newcastle 2011 Thank you Any Questions Ignis Associates Ltd Manchester


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