Map to show the % of deaths from Heart Disease Describe the pattern shown on the map (Page 133 Agriculture and food)
Map to show Malnutrition (Vitamin A deficiency) Compare this distribution with the previous map.
Patterns of food consumption Patterns showing what people eat are evident at a range of scales, from local to global. Using the case study from page 129, Ag and Food, explain how culture affects the preparation and eating habits of the region.
Regional Scale (UK example) People from the English midlands prefer a more ‘Sour Diet’. Midlanders have a particular taste for pickling (e.g. pickled onions, cabbage and walnuts). This is twice the acidity of what Londoners will buy. Vinegar consumption is also higher in the Midlands. Task: What factors may influence the distribution shown in the table.
Global patterns of nutrition Although consumption patterns are of interest to food manufacturing companies and other specialists, geographers tend to concentrate on global patterns of nutrition. Use page 130 of Ag and Food and answer question 3.
Daily calorie supply (Energy intake) as a % of requirements.
Map to show the average daily calorie intake by country. Questions: a) Which countries have the lowest levels and the highest levels of calorie intake? b) Comment on the global pattern of food supply? (See page 85 PRD)
The population food debate- Exposing the myths. Task: 1.Read the true or false sheet and complete the left hand column of the table on the A3 sheet. 2.In pairs, read exposing the myths, complete the second column and summarise the arguments in the article.
Growth of Food Production. 1.A) 10 –11% of the land area is cultivated. Why is this? (PRD 86) 2. Food production globally has increased because of a variety of factors. List these factors using case studies from MEDCs and LEDCs. (See Pop, resources and Development 84, 87 & 88) Changes in world food production and population, 1981 – 1991 World total food production + 23.7% World total population increase + 21. 1% Food production per head + 2.1% 3. Read figure 5.20. Summarise the arguments for and against genetic engineering as a way of solving food supply and distribution.
Is there a correlation between income and diet? Income, or purchasing power, has an important impact on people’s diet. People are often constrained not only in their choice of food, but also in the quantity and quality they can afford. Certain food can only be consumed because low incomes prevent a more varied and more appetising diet. Study the graph to the right and describe the relationship between the consumption of cassava flour and wheat, compared to income.
Engel’s law. States that as incomes increase, the proportion of income spent on food decreases. It is not unusual for poor people living in rural areas in LEDCs to spend 80% of their income on food. In contrast, people in the UK average 15% of their income on food. 1.Describe what the graph to the right shows. 2.Describe and attempt to explain the graph below (132 Ag and Food). Use page 134 for help.
Food production 1961-2000 Growth of food production has not been consistent in all parts of the world. The quantity however has grown in all parts of the world.
Food per capita 1961-2000 Production per capita in 1996 was less than it was in 1961 in 2 regions, Africa and the former USSR. Food production per capita increased most in Asia (by 66%), followed by Europe and Latin America (by 30% each).
50,000 people die each day of under-nutrition. There has never been so many people suffering from starvation and malnutrition, in relation to food production, which has increase d(e.g. CAP food surpluses), although numbers are slightly decreasing. To be malnourished, a person consumes fewer calories and less protein than they need to maintain health. Chronic hunger is long-term and periodic hunger is short-term caused by factors such as drought, famine, war, conflict or political upheavals. 18-20 million people die of starvation or starvation related diseases each year (50,000 each day). The imbalance in production and distribution of food can be put down to levels of economic development and income, capital and technology, access to guaranteed markets and government intervention.
Food production trade and AID. Changes in world food production and population 1981-1991 RegionTotal food production % Population increase % Food production per head % World+23.7+21.1+2.1 Developed countries + 6.9+ 7.4-0.5 Developing countries +41.1+26.0+12.0 India+50.9+26.3+19.5 China+56.5+16.1+34.8 Africa+33.6+40.1-4.7
Global dependence on agriculture and trade in agricultural products Exercise: Study the world maps of work force employed in agriculture and balance of trade in agricultural products and complete the table below. Explain the results shown on the completed table Dependence on agriculture Trade in agricultural products Exports exceed importsImports exceed exports High, more than 50% Medium, 25 –50% Low, less than 25%
Countries reliant on a limited range of agricultural products. TASKS: 1. Study the table and consider the problems that can arise from being reliant on a small number of commodities.
Is there enough food for everyone? There is no global food shortage and there is not likely to be in the future. With current levels of production, we could feed all the world’s population with an adequate and balanced diet. Where food shortages have occurred in recent years, they have often been caused by poverty and local problems of food production and distribution. Food shortages are best understood as a failure of economic and political systems to make food available where and when it is needed.
Food security Food Security Term introduced in the mid 1970’s People are secure in their food supply only when they have access to sufficient food to lead a healthy life Food security is more than the availability of food – food can only be bought if it is sold at prices people can afford Food may be available within a country or region- but without adequate transport, storage and markets people may have no access to it.
Food security. A recent survey reported that with all the potential cultivatable land was used, a population of around 8 billion could be supported. (Currently 11% but 25% could be cultivated) ¾ of the land surface is therefore either of low fertility and only suitable for rough grazing or forestry, or has some physical constraint e.g. too arid, too cold or adverse relief. TASKS: Textbook: Agriculture and Food – Michael Raw – page 148 View Figure 11.4 – Factors in national food supply And Figure 11.5 – Global food security status Answer questions 3 & 4. Textbook: Agriculture and Food – Michael Raw – page 149 Answer Question 4
Regional Food production and population change. The study also looked at 117 economically developing countries and concluded that 55 were currently ‘critical’ because of their inability to feed their populations adequately given their prevailing low technology. Most worrying was that 19 of these were still said to be critical even if their technology could be brought up to a high level. Textbook: Agriculture and Food – Michael Raw – page 149 Answer Question 4
Statistics for United Kingdom (Europe) and Ethiopia (Africa) United KingdomEthiopia ContinentEuropeAfrica Population59,511,46461,266,000 (1998) Population Density24249 people per square km Birth Rate11.548 per 1000 of population per year Death Rate1018 per 1000 of population per year Natural Increase0.15%3% Life Expectancy78 years47 years Fertility rate1.7 8 children per female Primary Education (6-11 years) 99.9%38% Secondary Education92%15% Adult Literacy99%66/71% Urbanisation13% % of people with access to safe water 100%27% Annual deforestation-0.5%0.5% Per capita calories3,2761,858
Food people balance UK. Read and complete the handout the phases of CAP using either previous sheets or your textbook.
UK Producing too much Producing and consuming too much (UK) FPB (Food-People-Balance) in favour food surplus and overnutrition Over-production and over-consumption Future demand for exotic produce - imported Increase in agricultural productivity- especially arable farming due to: Increased use of fertilisers, pesticides and fungicides Efficient farming machinery ‘Factory farming’ Genetic crops and animals Creation of agribusiness Role of Government – encouraged farming to: Maintained farm incomes to discourage rural depopulation Kept food prices low Achieve self-sufficiency in basic foods Role of the EU – subsidies and grants e.g. sugar beet
And what are the consequences? EU policies too successful – surpluses e.g. wine lakes Commodity prices not subsidisied – prices have fallen – problems for farmers Major environmental and social ‘costs’ e.g. removal of hedgerows New ‘ideas’ expensive – farmers in debt Over-consumption of wrong types of food – changes in causes of death – average 3240 calories per day
Producing and consuming too little - Ethiopia GNP $100 (one of poorest countries in the world) Famine – 1984 – 1985 Arable land 11% of land area, permanent pasture 20% and forest 13% Population approx. 60 million Population density 55 people per square km (UK 243) Population doubled in last 25 years 75% of the economically active rely on agriculture Daily calorie consumption 1845 Food-People-Balance in favour of food shortage and malnutrition and hunger
Why has agriculture failed to cope? Only ½ country is suitable for agriculture Land exceeded carrying capacity 70% country’s exports crops and live animals – cash crops grown instead of food crops 1970 –80 – Military Government – land reform and controlling prices – failed Large amount of national budget spent on weapons Food Aid – 750,000 tonnes of cereals a year – ‘strings’- higher prices to be paid to growers of export crops TASK: Read the Geofile on Food security in Ethiopia. Take notes and answer the focus questions.
Summary of food production Producing more in the South 1950 to 2000 there was a doubling of global food production (great regional variations) In the Far East food production outpaced population growth Sub-Saharan Africa production per head has fluctuated Key Factors in unfavourable food-people balance in the South Population of 4 billion that is still rising Rapid urbanisation – 2 billion people living in cities that have to be fed Rapid pace and cost of technological change Copying high-tech Western methods is not the automatic solution to the food problem
Issues other than actually producing more food: Cutting down on storage loss Improving inefficiency of transport and infrastructures Land reform Coping with harsh environments Large number of people living below the poverty line People cannot afford higher prices of imported food Counteracting the increasing emphasis on cash crops grown at expense of subsistence crops Uncertain future as impact of Green Revolution levels off
The increase in agricultural production has resulted from. Extensification - increasing the amount of agricultural land Intensification - producing more from existing land ‘Bottom up’ initiatives Sources of increased food output since 1950 % contribution to increased food output DecadeExtensificationIntensification 1950’s8218 1960’s2575 1970’s1684 1980’s298 1990’s397 Task: Explain the differences shown in the table The statement below is designed to help you. Impact of Green Revolution (Intensification) Expansion of land has only gone on until most suitable land has been ‘used’ Marginal land now being farmed –high ‘risk’ factor
Continued: TASK: Read the article on Bananas. Produce a mini report on the findings of the different countries. World trade and AID needs to be reformed to ensure food security, checking Global warming and grappling the controversial area of GM crops. The other area is to search for more sustainable methods of farming, exploiting alternative methods of food, land reform and revising traditional gender attitudes.
Agribusiness Many poor farmers have switched to growing cash crops which are often not food products in the hope of obtaining a better standard of living. This is known as crop substitution and is often promoted or forced upon by governments. Prices for export crops have failed to meet expectations (supply and demand), so farmers have not even been able to buy the amounts of food they previously had through subsistence farming. Crop substitution was popular in countries like Sudan and Ethiopia where they were once self sufficient in food production but now experience wide-spread malnutrition.
The three way split of the WTO. 1.Read the handout and take notes on the three different areas of the world and their differing attitudes to trade I food products. 2.Explain how Cuba, even with a trade embargo against it, produced food for its nation without fair and free trade.
AID Surplus foodstuffs dumped on LEDC’s from the USA and EU have created problems. Food Aid is good on humanitarian grounds e.g. when there is a disaster but creates problems over a long period of time. 1.View Table 11.4 (Ag and Food page 150). Is there a correlation between food AID and GNP/head and Food Aid and population size. 2.Take notes explaining how Nigeria was caught in a Wheat trap and the problems this created. 3. Read the information available on Food Aid. Why is Aid better in the form of technical assistance rather than foodstuffs?
4. Why are loans the least desirable form of Aid? 5. Define, Bilateral, Multilateral and voluntary Aid. 6. Read and Highlight the handout on Africa’s hunger and the article on fighting famine in Southern Africa. 7. Construct a case study of Food Aid in South Africa focusing on the advantages and disadvantages. 8. Read and discuss in pairs the MDG’S and the links to reducing hunger. Write 300 words on the progress being made towards the MDG’s by 2008. 9.Write a 300 word summary of the Food Force application. Including an evaluation and the reasons for the various simulations. 10.Complete your topic glossary