2Map to show the % of deaths from Heart Disease Describe the pattern shown on the map (Page 133 Agriculture and food)
3Map to show Malnutrition (Vitamin A deficiency) Compare this distribution with the previous map.
4Patterns of food consumption Patterns showing what people eat are evident at a range of scales, from local to global.Using the case study from page 129, Ag and Food, explain how culture affects the preparation and eating habits of the region.
5Regional Scale (UK example) People from the English midlands prefer a more ‘Sour Diet’. Midlanders have a particular taste for pickling (e.g. pickled onions, cabbage and walnuts). This is twice the acidity of what Londoners will buy. Vinegar consumption is also higher in the Midlands.Task: What factors may influence the distribution shown in the table.
7Global patterns of nutrition Although consumption patterns are of interest to food manufacturing companies and other specialists, geographers tend to concentrate on global patterns of nutrition.Use page 130 of Ag and Food and answer question 3.
8Daily calorie supply (Energy intake) as a % of requirements.
9Map to show the average daily calorie intake by country. Questions: a) Which countries have the lowest levels and the highest levels of calorie intake? b) Comment on the global pattern of food supply? (See page 85 PRD)
10The population food debate-Exposing the myths. Task:Read the true or false sheet and complete the left hand column of the table on the A3 sheet.In pairs, read exposing the myths, complete the second column and summarise the arguments in the article.
12Growth of Food Production. A) 10 –11% of the land area is cultivated. Why is this? (PRD 86)Food production globally has increased because of a variety of factors. List these factors using case studies from MEDCs and LEDCs. (See Pop, resources and Development 84, 87 & 88)Changes in world food production and population, 1981 – 1991World total food production %World total population increase %Food production per head %3. Read figure Summarise the arguments for and against genetic engineering as a way of solving food supply and distribution.
13Is there a correlation between income and diet? Income, or purchasing power, has an important impact on people’s diet. People are often constrained not only in their choice of food, but also in the quantity and quality they can afford. Certain food can only be consumed because low incomes prevent a more varied and more appetising diet. Study the graph to the right and describe the relationship between the consumption of cassava flour and wheat, compared to income.
14Engel’s law.States that as incomes increase, the proportion of income spent on food decreases. It is not unusual for poor people living in rural areas in LEDCs to spend 80% of their income on food. In contrast, people in the UK average 15% of their income on food.Describe what the graph to the right shows.Describe and attempt to explain the graph below (132 Ag and Food). Use page 134 for help.
15Food productionGrowth of food production has not been consistent in all parts of the world.The quantity however has grown in all parts of the world.
16Food per capitaProduction per capita in 1996 was less than it was in 1961 in 2 regions, Africa and the former USSR.Food production per capita increased most in Asia (by 66%), followed by Europe and Latin America (by 30% each).
1750,000 people die each day of under-nutrition. There has never been so many people suffering from starvation and malnutrition, in relation to food production , which has increase d(e.g. CAP food surpluses), although numbers are slightly decreasing. To be malnourished, a person consumes fewer calories and less protein than they need to maintain health. Chronic hunger is long-term and periodic hunger is short-term caused by factors such as drought, famine, war, conflict or political upheavals million people die of starvation or starvation related diseases each year (50,000 each day).The imbalance in production and distribution of food can be put down to levels of economic development and income, capital and technology, access to guaranteed markets and government intervention.
18Food production trade and AID. Changes in world food production and populationRegionTotal food production %Population increase %Food production per head %World+23.7+21.1+2.1Developed countries+ 6.9+ 7.4-0.5Developing countries+41.1+26.0+12.0India+50.9+26.3+19.5China+56.5+16.1+34.8Africa+33.6+40.1-4.7
19Global dependence on agriculture and trade in agricultural products Exercise: Study the world maps of work force employed in agriculture and balance of trade in agricultural products and complete the table below.Explain the results shown on the completed tableDependence on agricultureTrade in agricultural productsExports exceed importsImports exceed exportsHigh, more than 50%Medium, 25 –50%Low, less than 25%
21Countries reliant on a limited range of agricultural products. TASKS: 1. Study the table and consider the problems that can arise from being reliant on a small number of commodities.
22Is there enough food for everyone? There is no global food shortage and there is not likely to be in the future. With current levels of production, we could feed all the world’s population with an adequate and balanced diet. Where food shortages have occurred in recent years, they have often been caused by poverty and local problems of food production and distribution. Food shortages are best understood as a failure of economic and political systems to make food available where and when it is needed.
23Food security Food Security Term introduced in the mid 1970’s People are secure in their food supply only when they have access to sufficient food to lead a healthy lifeFood security is more than the availability of food – food can only be bought if it is sold at prices people can affordFood may be available within a country or region- but without adequate transport, storage and markets people may have no access to it.
24Food security.A recent survey reported that with all the potential cultivatable land was used, a population of around 8 billion could be supported. (Currently 11% but 25% could be cultivated) ¾ of the land surface is therefore either of low fertility and only suitable for rough grazing or forestry, or has some physical constraint e.g. too arid, too cold or adverse relief.TASKS:Textbook: Agriculture and Food – Michael Raw – page 148View Figure 11.4 – Factors in national food supplyAnd Figure 11.5 – Global food security statusAnswer questions 3 & 4.Textbook: Agriculture and Food – Michael Raw – page 149Answer Question 4
27Regional Food production and population change. The study also looked at 117 economically developing countries and concluded that 55 were currently ‘critical’ because of their inability to feed their populations adequately given their prevailing low technology. Most worrying was that 19 of these were still said to be critical even if their technology could be brought up to a high level.Textbook: Agriculture and Food – Michael Raw – page 149Answer Question 4
28Statistics for United Kingdom (Europe) and Ethiopia (Africa) ContinentEuropeAfricaPopulation59,511,46461,266,000 (1998)Population Density24249 people per square kmBirth Rate11.548 per 1000 of population per yearDeath Rate1018 per 1000 of population per yearNatural Increase0.15%3%Life Expectancy78 years47 yearsFertility rate1.78 children per femalePrimary Education (6-11 years)99.9%38%Secondary Education92%15%Adult Literacy99%66/71%Urbanisation13%% of people with access to safe water100%27%Annual deforestation-0.5%0.5%Per capita calories3,2761,858
29Food people balance UK.Read and complete the handout the phases of CAP using either previous sheets or your textbook.
30UK Producing too much Producing and consuming too much (UK) FPB (Food-People-Balance) in favour food surplus and overnutritionOver-production and over-consumptionFuture demand for exotic produce - importedIncrease in agricultural productivity- especially arable farming due to:Increased use of fertilisers, pesticides and fungicidesEfficient farming machinery‘Factory farming’Genetic crops and animalsCreation of agribusinessRole of Government – encouraged farming to:Maintained farm incomes to discourage rural depopulationKept food prices lowAchieve self-sufficiency in basic foodsRole of the EU – subsidies and grants e.g. sugar beet
31And what are the consequences? EU policies too successful – surpluses e.g. wine lakesCommodity prices not subsidisied – prices have fallen – problems for farmersMajor environmental and social ‘costs’ e.g. removal of hedgerowsNew ‘ideas’ expensive – farmers in debtOver-consumption of wrong types of food – changes in causes of death – average 3240 calories per day
33Producing and consuming too little - Ethiopia GNP $100 (one of poorest countries in the world)Famine – 1984 – 1985Arable land 11% of land area, permanent pasture 20% and forest 13%Population approx. 60 millionPopulation density 55 people per square km (UK 243)Population doubled in last 25 years75% of the economically active rely on agricultureDaily calorie consumption 1845Food-People-Balance in favour of food shortage and malnutrition and hunger
34Why has agriculture failed to cope? Only ½ country is suitable for agricultureLand exceeded carrying capacity70% country’s exports crops and live animals – cash crops grown instead of food crops1970 –80 – Military Government – land reform and controlling prices – failedLarge amount of national budget spent on weaponsFood Aid – 750,000 tonnes of cereals a year – ‘strings’- higher prices to be paid to growers of export cropsTASK: Read the Geofile on Food security in Ethiopia. Take notes and answer the focus questions.
35Summary of food production Producing more in the South1950 to 2000 there was a doubling of global food production (great regional variations)In the Far East food production outpaced population growthSub-Saharan Africa production per head has fluctuatedKey Factors in unfavourable food-people balance in the SouthPopulation of 4 billion that is still risingRapid urbanisation – 2 billion people living in cities that have to be fedRapid pace and cost of technological changeCopying high-tech Western methods is not the automatic solution to the food problem
36Issues other than actually producing more food: Cutting down on storage lossImproving inefficiency of transport and infrastructuresLand reformCoping with harsh environmentsLarge number of people living below the poverty linePeople cannot afford higher prices of imported foodCounteracting the increasing emphasis on cash crops grown at expense of subsistence cropsUncertain future as impact of Green Revolution levels off
37The increase in agricultural production has resulted from. Extensification - increasing the amount of agricultural landIntensification - producing more from existing land‘Bottom up’ initiativesSources of increased food output since 1950% contribution to increased food outputDecadeExtensificationIntensification1950’s82181960’s25751970’s16841980’s2981990’s397Task: Explain the differences shown in the tableThe statement below is designed to help you.Impact of Green Revolution (Intensification)Expansion of land has only gone on until most suitable land has been ‘used’Marginal land now being farmed –high ‘risk’ factor
39Continued:World trade and AID needs to be reformed to ensure food security, checking Global warming and grappling the controversial area of GM crops.The other area is to search for more sustainable methods of farming, exploiting alternative methods of food, land reform and revising traditional gender attitudes.TASK: Read the article on Bananas. Produce a mini report on the findings of the different countries.
40AgribusinessMany poor farmers have switched to growing cash crops which are often not food products in the hope of obtaining a better standard of living. This is known as crop substitution and is often promoted or forced upon by governments. Prices for export crops have failed to meet expectations (supply and demand), so farmers have not even been able to buy the amounts of food they previously had through subsistence farming. Crop substitution was popular in countries like Sudan and Ethiopia where they were once self sufficient in food production but now experience wide-spread malnutrition.
41The three way split of the WTO. Read the handout and take notes on the three different areas of the world and their differing attitudes to trade I food products.Explain how Cuba, even with a trade embargo against it, produced food for its nation without fair and free trade.
42AIDSurplus foodstuffs dumped on LEDC’s from the USA and EU have created problems. Food Aid is good on humanitarian grounds e.g. when there is a disaster but creates problems over a long period of time.View Table 11.4 (Ag and Food page 150). Is there a correlation between food AID and GNP/head and Food Aid and population size.Take notes explaining how Nigeria was caught in a Wheat trap and the problems this created.3. Read the information available on Food Aid. Why is Aid better in the form of technical assistance rather than foodstuffs?
434. Why are loans the least desirable form of Aid? 5. Define, Bilateral, Multilateral and voluntary Aid.6. Read and Highlight the handout on Africa’s hunger and the article on fighting famine in Southern Africa.7. Construct a case study of Food Aid in South Africa focusing on the advantages and disadvantages.8. Read and discuss in pairs the MDG’S and the links to reducing hunger. Write 300 words on the progress being made towards the MDG’s by 2008.9.Write a 300 word summary of the Food Force application. Including an evaluation and the reasons for the various simulations.10.Complete your topic glossary