Presentation on theme: "The Child The Adolescent The Adult. Social Development in Infancy and Childhood."— Presentation transcript:
The Child The Adolescent The Adult
Social Development in Infancy and Childhood
Stranger Anxiety The fear of strangers an infant displays around 8 months of age Lasts until approx. 2 1/2
Attachment An emotional tie with another person resulting in seeking closeness Children develop strong attachments to their parents and caregivers. Body contact, familiarity, and responsiveness all contribute to attachment.
Neglect Abuse Temperament Separation from the family Chronic stress Cultural expectations Daycare does not affect attachment !!!! Factors affecting attachment:
Harry Harlow Body Contact Relates to attachment! The monkeys had to chose between a cloth mother or a wire mother that provided food.
The monkeys spent most of their time by the cloth mother…even if the other “mother” gave food!
Strange Situation! Strange Situation! Secure AttachmentSecure Attachment – Mother Present:Mother Present: Child explores and interacts with stranger. Mother Leaves:Mother Leaves: Child visibly upset; does not interact with stranger. Mother Returns:Mother Returns: Child happy to see Mom. Insecure AttachmentInsecure Attachment – Mother Present:Mother Present: Child is anxious of exploration and of strangers. Mother Leaves:Mother Leaves: Sometimes upset but sometimes ambivalent. Anxious of stranger. Mother Returns:Mother Returns: Child may be ambivalent or angry (hitting or pushing Mother). Often shows little emotion when mother leaves or returns. Mother and stranger often treated the same.
Secure attachmentSecure attachment comes from Mother who is available and able to meet the needs of the child in a responsive and appropriate manner Insecure attachmentInsecure attachment comes from Mother who ignores child’s needs (until Mother is ready to give it completed. Attention given when Mother wants to give it not when the child asks for it. Also occurs when the child's needs are frequently not met and the child comes to believe that communication of needs has no influence on the caregiver.
Parenting Styles No one type fits all Different results for different children
Authoritarian Parenting Low in warmth, discipline is strict and sometimes physical. Communication high from parent to child and low from child to parent
Maturity expectations are high. Results- withdrawn & distrustful child
Permissive Parenting High in warmth but rarely discipline Communication is low from parent to child but high from child to parent.
Expectations of maturity are low. Results- Child with little self- control, dependent on others
Authoritative Parenting High in warmth with moderate discipline High in communication and negotiating Parents set and explain rules.
From cooing to communication –Babies respond to pitch, intensity, and sound of language –People talk to babies w/ varied pitch and intonation CLICK PHOTO TO HEAR “MOTHERESE”
Language –By 4-6 months, babies have learned basic language sounds of their language, and over time lose ability to perceive speech sounds in another language –Between 6 months to 1 year, babies enter the babbling phase; infants become more familiar with the sound structure of their native languagebabbling phase
Around 11 months, babies begin a “one- word” stage Juice!) (Juice!) Want Juice!) –Between 18 months and 2 years, 2 and 3 word combinations are produced; Combinations “telegraph” meaning (Want Juice!)
Is Language due to Nurture? Children learn to speak because they are rewarded for making certain sounds BF Skinner – Operant Conditioning
– Is Language Nurture? Noam Chomsky language acquisition deviceChomsky argued the brain must contain a language acquisition device that enables children to develop a language if they are exposed to it.
Language (Chomsky –Innate?) –Children all over the world go through similar stages of linguistics development –Children combine words in ways that adults never would, so they could not be simply imitating adults
Heinz Dilemma After listening to Heinz’s story, write down what you think he should have done and WHY
Lawrence Kohlberg The 3 Levels of Moral Development Moral level is determined by answers people give to hypothetical moral dilemmas
Level One – Preconventional morality (self interest up to 10) This level is characterized by the desire to avoid punishment or gain reward –Stage 1 – fear punishment for disobedience –Stage 2 – fairness/what’s in it for me?
Possible answers Heinz shouldn’t steal the drug because he might go to jail He should steal the drug or his wife will yell at him It is right for Heinz to steal the drug because it can cure his wife and then she can cook for him. The doctor scientist had spent lots of money and many years of his life to develop the cure so it's not fair to him if Heinz stole the drug.
Level 2 – Conventional morality (10 through Adult) This Level is characterized by the Primary concern of fitting in and playing the role of a good citizen People have a strong desire to follow the rules and laws. Typical of most adults –Stage 3 – based on conformity and loyalty –Stage 4 – a “law-and-order” orientation
Possible Answers Yes, Heinz should steal the drug. He probably will go to jail for a short time for stealing but everyone will think he is a good husband. As her husband, Heinz has a duty to save his wife's life so he should steal the drug. But it's wrong to steal, so Heinz should be prepared to accept the penalty for breaking the law.
Level 3 – Postconventional (“principled”) morality ( Adolescence- through Adulthood) This level characterized by an appreciation of Universal ethical principles that represent the rights or obligations of all people Most adults do not reach this level. –Stage 5 – values and laws are relative and change; recognition that people hold differing standards –Stage 6 – standard based on universal human rights
Possible answers Heinz should steal the drug because everyone has the right to life regardless of the law against stealing. Should Heinz be caught and prosecuted for stealing then the law (against stealing) needs to be reinterpreted because a person's life is at stake. The doctor scientist's decision is despicable but his right to fair compensation (for his discovery) must be maintained. Therefore, Heinz should not steal the drug. Heinz should steal the drug to save his wife because preserving human life is a higher moral obligation than preserving property.
Limitations to theory 1.Stage theory tends to over look cultural and educational influences on reasoning 2.People’s moral reasoning is often inconsistent across situations (your morality changes all the time…) 3.Moral reasoning and behavior are often unrelated
Lets try another one…
What is Adolescence?
Adolescence The period between childhood and adulthood From puberty (the start of sexual maturation) to independence from parents
Physical Development in Adolescence
Puberty The period of sexual maturation where the person becomes capable of reproducing Starts at approximately age 11 in females and age 13 in males Major growth spurt
Primary Sex Characteristics The body structures that make sexual reproduction possible Ovaries in females Testes in males
Secondary Sex Characteristics Non-reproductive sexual characteristics Breasts and hips in females Facial hair and voice changes in males
Social Development in Adolescence
Erik Erikson 8-stage theory of social development Each stage has its own psychosocial, developmental task: a “crisis”.
Trust v. mistrust Infancy to 1 year If needs met, develop a sense of basic trust, otherwise will develop mistrust
Autonomy v. Shame/Doubt 1 to 2 years Learn to exercise and do things for self or they will doubt their abilities
Initiative v. guilt 3 to 5 Learn to initiate tasks and carry out plans or they feel guilty about efforts to be independent
Competence v. Inferiority 6 years to puberty Positive experiences develop pride & competence Negative experiences may lead to feelings of inferiority
Identity v. Role Confusion Teens into 20s (Adolescence) Refining sense of self by testing roles – challenging authority Find SELF or become confused about who they are
Intimacy v. Isolation 20s to 40s (Young Adulthood) Forming close relationships Deeper love or socially isolated
Generativity v. Stagnation 40s to 60s (Middle Adulthood) Discover sense of contributing to the world or they may feel lack of purpose
Ego integrity v. Despair 60 and up Reflecting on life either feel satisfied or failure
Social Development in Adolescence: Developing Identity
Identity A strong, consistent sense of who and what a person is, search through: –Experimentation –Rebellion –“Self”-ishness –Optimism and energy
Intimacy A close, sharing, emotional, and honest relationship with other people (primary task of early adulthood) Not necessarily one’s spouse or a sexual relationship
Adulthood –How easily one passes between stages depends on cultural and economic factors –Erickson showed that development is an ongoing process that is never finished
Are Adults Prisoners of Childhood? Traumatized children are more likely to have emotional and behavioral problems
Partnerships formed Parenthood Work (double shift) Midlife crisis/transition
Menopause Retirement Change in relationships- empty nest, death of family & friends
Death Denying culture Stages of Dying (D-A-B-D-A) Kubler-Ross
5 Stages of Dying Denial Anger Bargaining Depression Acceptance