3The fear of strangers an infant displays around 8 months of age Stranger AnxietyThe fear of strangers an infant displays around 8 months of ageLasts until approx. 2 1/2
4AttachmentAn emotional tie with another person resulting in seeking closenessChildren develop strong attachments to their parents and caregivers.Body contact, familiarity, and responsiveness all contribute to attachment.
5Factors affecting attachment: NeglectAbuseTemperamentSeparation from the familyChronic stressCultural expectationsDaycare does not affect attachment !!!!
6Harry HarlowBody Contact Relates to attachment!The monkeys had to chose between a cloth mother or a wire mother that provided food.
10Strange Situation! Secure Attachment – Mother Present: Child explores and interacts with stranger.Mother Leaves: Child visibly upset; does not interact with stranger.Mother Returns: Child happy to see Mom.Insecure Attachment –Mother Present: Child is anxious of exploration and of strangers.Mother Leaves: Sometimes upset but sometimes ambivalent. Anxious of stranger.Mother Returns: Child may be ambivalent or angry (hitting or pushing Mother). Often shows little emotion when mother leaves or returns. Mother and stranger often treated the same.
11Secure attachment comes from Mother who is available and able to meet the needs of the child in a responsive and appropriate mannerInsecure attachment comes from Mother who ignores child’s needs (until Mother is ready to give it completed. Attention given when Mother wants to give it not when the child asks for it.Also occurs when the child's needs are frequently not met and the child comes to believe that communication of needs has no influence on the caregiver.
12Different results for different children Parenting StylesNo one type fits allDifferent results for different children
13Authoritarian Parenting Low in warmth, discipline is strict and sometimes physical.Communication high from parent to child and low from child to parent
20Language From cooing to communication “MOTHERESE” Babies respond to pitch , intensity, and sound of languagePeople talk to babies w/ varied pitch and intonationCLICK PHOTO TO HEAR“MOTHERESE”
21LanguageBy 4-6 months, babies have learned basic language sounds of their language, and over time lose ability to perceive speech sounds in another languageBetween 6 months to 1 year, babies enter the babbling phase; infants become more familiar with the sound structure of their native language
22Around 11 months, babies begin a “one-word” stage (Juice!)Between 18 months and 2 years, 2 and 3 word combinations are produced; Combinations “telegraph” meaning (Want Juice!)
23Is Language due to Nurture? BF Skinner – Operant ConditioningChildren learn to speak because they are rewarded for making certain sounds
24– Is Language Nurture? Noam Chomsky Chomsky argued the brain must contain a language acquisition device that enables children to develop a language if they are exposed to it.
25Language (Chomsky –Innate?) Children all over the world go through similar stages of linguistics developmentChildren combine words in ways that adults never would, so they could not be simply imitating adults
27Heinz DilemmaAfter listening to Heinz’s story, write down what you think he should have done and WHY
28The 3 Levels of Moral Development Lawrence KohlbergThe 3 Levels of Moral DevelopmentMoral level is determined by answers people give to hypothetical moral dilemmas
29Level One – Preconventional morality (self interest up to 10) This level is characterized by the desire to avoid punishment or gain rewardStage 1 – fear punishment for disobedienceStage 2 – fairness/what’s in it for me?
30Possible answersHeinz shouldn’t steal the drug because he might go to jailHe should steal the drug or his wife will yell at himIt is right for Heinz to steal the drug because it can cure his wife and then she can cook for him.The doctor scientist had spent lots of money and many years of his life to develop the cure so it's not fair to him if Heinz stole the drug.
31Level 2 – Conventional morality (10 through Adult) This Level is characterized by the Primary concern of fitting in and playing the role of a good citizenPeople have a strong desire to follow the rules and laws.Typical of most adultsStage 3 – based on conformity and loyaltyStage 4 – a “law-and-order” orientation
32Possible AnswersYes, Heinz should steal the drug. He probably will go to jail for a short time for stealing but everyone will think he is a good husband.As her husband, Heinz has a duty to save his wife's life so he should steal the drug. But it's wrong to steal, so Heinz should be prepared to accept the penalty for breaking the law.
33Most adults do not reach this level. Level 3 – Postconventional (“principled”) morality (Adolescence- through Adulthood)This level characterized by an appreciation of Universal ethical principles that represent the rights or obligations of all peopleMost adults do not reach this level.Stage 5 – values and laws are relative and change; recognition that people hold differing standardsStage 6 – standard based on universal human rights
34Possible answersHeinz should steal the drug because everyone has the right to life regardless of the law against stealing. Should Heinz be caught and prosecuted for stealing then the law (against stealing) needs to be reinterpreted because a person's life is at stake.The doctor scientist's decision is despicable but his right to fair compensation (for his discovery) must be maintained. Therefore, Heinz should not steal the drug.Heinz should steal the drug to save his wife because preserving human life is a higher moral obligation than preserving property.
35Limitations to theoryStage theory tends to over look cultural and educational influences on reasoningPeople’s moral reasoning is often inconsistent across situations (your morality changes all the time…)Moral reasoning and behavior are often unrelated