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Today’s Objectives City-States in Mesopotamia Summarize how geography affected cultural development in the Fertile Crescent Summarize how geography affected.

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Presentation on theme: "Today’s Objectives City-States in Mesopotamia Summarize how geography affected cultural development in the Fertile Crescent Summarize how geography affected."— Presentation transcript:

1 Today’s Objectives City-States in Mesopotamia Summarize how geography affected cultural development in the Fertile Crescent Summarize how geography affected cultural development in the Fertile Crescent Describe city-states and how other cultures learned about them Describe city-states and how other cultures learned about them Describe Sumerian religious beliefs, social structure, and Technology Describe Sumerian religious beliefs, social structure, and Technology Explain the influence of Sumer on later civilizations Explain the influence of Sumer on later civilizations

2 Where is Mesopotamia?

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4 Geography of the Fertile Crescent Living in Mesopotamia has disadvantages as well as benefits – –No natural barriers – –Limited natural resources – –Tigris/Euphrates flooded annually & unpredictable(silt)

5 Sumerians Create City-States Sumerians created city- states ruled by priests – –Success of crops depended on blessings of the gods Solving problems together was the beginning of Sumerian organized government – –Build city walls, irrigation, organized trade

6 Sumerians Create City-States During war, military leaders take over. They eventually become full time leaders

7 Sumerians Create City-States This concept of city- states spread to other cultures through trade – –Surplus food allowed trade to flourish

8 Sumerian Culture Sumerians believe that natural forces and human affairs are controlled by many gods Sumerians believe that natural forces and human affairs are controlled by many gods Polytheism Polytheism Enlil: god of clouds and air—among the most powerful Enlil: god of clouds and air—among the most powerful

9 Sumerian Culture Sumerian society developed a class structure Sumerian society developed a class structure Highest: Priest & Kings Highest: Priest & Kings Second tier: Wealthy merchants Second tier: Wealthy merchants Third tier: Ordinary Sumerians Third tier: Ordinary Sumerians Lowest: Slaves Lowest: Slaves What did each group contribute to Sumerian society? What did each group contribute to Sumerian society?

10 Sumerian Culture Sumerians make advances in farming and architecture – –Invented wheel, sail, plow – –1 st to use bronze – –Developed a system of writing – –Developed a number system in base 60 The Babylonians divided the day into 24 hours, each hour into 60 minutes, each minute into 60 seconds

11 First Empire Builders Sargon of Akkad created the first empire by uniting the city-states under his rule, 2350 B.C. – –200 yr rule Amorites created a new empire in Mesopotamia with Babylon as the capital Babylonian empire: 18 th -6 th century B.C.

12 Code of Hammurabi Strict legal code of equal retaliation or an “eye for eye” used to govern Babylonia – –282 “laws”

13 Code of Hammurabi

14 1792 BCE, Hammurabi becomes king Conquers Mari & Babylon Hammurabi rules for 43 years – –Conquers all the surrounding area

15 Code of Hammurabi Hammurabi is clever administrator – –Control his empire by promising harmony and obedience Brings together all the existing laws from all over Mesopotamia – –Becomes the “Code of Hammurabi

16 Code of Hammurabi 282 laws inscribed on an 8 foot stela – –Hammurabi receives the code from Babylonia Sun-god “Shamash” Promote the welfare of the people Hammurabi Shamash

17 Code of Hammurabi Code deals with aspects of daily life Administered by local judges Assembly consisted of free citizens who sat with judges – –First juries

18 Code of Hammurabi Refelct the values of Babylonian society Babylonian class structure dictated different punishments for same crime based on defendants gender and social class

19 Questions

20 Sphinx What are the cultural/religious meanings? What are the cultural/religious meanings? What depictions have you seen in American pop culture? What depictions have you seen in American pop culture?

21 Geography of Egypt Where is Egypt? Where is Egypt?

22 Geography of Egypt The Nile creates rich soil for crops and promotes Egyptian trade – –Annual flooding (like clockwork) left farmland rich – –Nile was worshiped as a god

23 Pharaohs, believed to be gods, ruled the Old Kingdom Pharaohs, believed to be gods, ruled the Old Kingdom 2 separate rules: Upper and Lower Egypt 2 separate rules: Upper and Lower Egypt Egypt Unites into a Kingdom King Menes Capitol

24 Egypt Unites into a Kingdom Upper/lower united under King Menes Upper/lower united under King Menes 3rd Dynasty known as the “Old Kingdom” 3rd Dynasty known as the “Old Kingdom” White: Upper Red: Lower

25 Egypt Unites into a Kingdom The pyramids, which were tombs for the pharaohs, reflected the strength of the Egyptian culture The pyramids, which were tombs for the pharaohs, reflected the strength of the Egyptian culture

26 Egyptian Culture Polytheistic beliefs (many gods) Polytheistic beliefs (many gods) 2000 gods and goddesses 2000 gods and goddesses Flexible class structure Flexible class structure Lower classes could gain status (marriage or job success) Lower classes could gain status (marriage or job success)

27 Egyptian Society King Queen Upper Class Rich Landowners Government officials Priests, Army Comdrs Middle Class Merchants, artisans Lower Class Largest class, Peasant farmers Unskilled laborers Not locked into social Classes -Must be able to read and write

28 Egyptian Culture Egyptians preserved bodies by mummification Egyptians preserved bodies by mummification Embalming and drying the corpse Embalming and drying the corpse Tut 40 Days to embalm 70 days until burial

29 Hieroglyphics Egyptian writing system Egyptian writing system Pictures stood for an idea Pictures stood for an idea “Owl” may have stood for the “m” sound “Owl” may have stood for the “m” sound Similar to cuneiform, it most likely came to Egypt when they began trading with the Sumerians

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31 Questions

32 Today’s Objectives The Afterlife Understand how belief systems can affect other aspects of culture Understand how belief systems can affect other aspects of culture See that information about a culture is not limited to written sources See that information about a culture is not limited to written sources Understand why many different articles were buried in Egyptian tombs Understand why many different articles were buried in Egyptian tombs

33 Taking it with You Thought to provide the king with an alternative body for the deceased spirit Jars holding internal Organs (canopic jars) Qebehsenuef, the falcon head -- intestines Duamutef, the jackal head -- stomach Hapy, the baboon head -- lungs Imsety, the human head -- liver They believed they could only reach their full potential after death

34 Each person also has a ba. Similar to what we call "personality" ba is represented as a bird Each person also has what is called a ka, or life-force Egyptians would bring food to a dead person's tomb as an offering to his or her ka "Opening of the Mouth." This ceremony was to magically give the deceased the ability to speak and eat again it released The ba and ka to the next world Osiris is the god of the dead and the god of the resurrection into eternal life; he is ruler, protector, and judge of the deceased Anubis: God of embalming Judgement

35 Warm-up Begin preparing a list of items you will need for the afterlife. At a minimum, use the following categories: Begin preparing a list of items you will need for the afterlife. At a minimum, use the following categories: Food Food Clothes Clothes Entertainment Entertainment Furniture Furniture Cosmetics/toiletries Cosmetics/toiletries Household goods Household goods Personal belongings Personal belongings You may list other categories—you decide!

36 Geography of South Asia The Indus and Ganges Rivers created a fertile plain The Indus and Ganges Rivers created a fertile plain

37 Geography of China The geography isolates China and determined where early settlements developed The geography isolates China and determined where early settlements developed Taklimakn Desert Pacific Ocean Himalaya Mtns Gobi Desert

38 Geography of South Asia Geography presented challenges for the Indus Valley Geography presented challenges for the Indus Valley Wet/Dry seasons Wet/Dry seasons Monsoons: Yearly floods unpredictable Monsoons: Yearly floods unpredictable World’s tallest mountains to the north World’s tallest mountains to the north

39 Civilization Emerges on the Indus Early Indus Valley settlers developed farming villages along the Indus River (3200 B.C.) Early Indus Valley settlers developed farming villages along the Indus River (3200 B.C.) Arrived by boat from Africa (?) 7000 B.C. Arrived by boat from Africa (?) 7000 B.C.

40 Civilization Emerges on the Indus Indus Valley cities were well planned and had plumbing and sewage systems (2500 B.C.) Indus Valley cities were well planned and had plumbing and sewage systems (2500 B.C.) Used a grid system and fortified citadel Used a grid system and fortified citadel Separate residential areas Separate residential areas

41 Civilization Emerges on the Indus Ruins reveal the character and trading patterns of the Indus Valley civilization Ruins reveal the character and trading patterns of the Indus Valley civilization Uniform housing social divisions not great Uniform housing social divisions not great Few weapons conflict not great Few weapons conflict not great Indus seals in Sumer meant trade occurred between the two Indus seals in Sumer meant trade occurred between the two

42 Mysterious End to Indus Valley Culture The Indus Valley civilization ends mysteriously in about 1500 B.C. The Indus Valley civilization ends mysteriously in about 1500 B.C. Indus River may have change course (no floods) Indus River may have change course (no floods) Possibly overgrazed/farmed Possibly overgrazed/farmed Possibly natural disaster or attack from north Possibly natural disaster or attack from north

43 Questions

44 Geography of China The geography isolates China and determined where early settlements developed The geography isolates China and determined where early settlements developed Taklimakn Desert Pacific Ocean Himalaya Mtns Gobi Desert

45 Geography of China Early settlers faced challenges as a result of China’s geography Early settlers faced challenges as a result of China’s geography Huang He (Yellow river) floods Huang He (Yellow river) floods Settlers more self reliant Settlers more self reliant Not immune to attack from outsiders Not immune to attack from outsiders

46 Civilization Emerges in Shang Times Before Sumer, Chinese built settlements along the Huang He Before Sumer, Chinese built settlements along the Huang He Legend: first Chinese dynasty is the Xia Legend: first Chinese dynasty is the Xia Leader: Yu—built first flood control projects Leader: Yu—built first flood control projects

47 Civilization Emerges in Shang Times When Mesopotamia, Egypt and Indus Valley fell to invaders When Mesopotamia, Egypt and Indus Valley fell to invaders Shang dynasty rose to power Shang dynasty rose to power Built palaces and left written records Built palaces and left written records

48 Civilization Emerges in Shang Times Shang society was divided between ruling nobles and peasant farmers Shang society was divided between ruling nobles and peasant farmers Warrior/nobles owned the land sent tribute to the Shang ruler Warrior/nobles owned the land sent tribute to the Shang ruler

49 Origins of Chinese Culture The Family was central to Chinese society The Family was central to Chinese society Chief loyalty throughout your life is to family Chief loyalty throughout your life is to family Highest virtue: honor your parents! Highest virtue: honor your parents! Men, most important, made the decisions Men, most important, made the decisions

50 Origins of Chinese Culture Chinese communicated with gods through ancestor spirits and oracle bones Chinese communicated with gods through ancestor spirits and oracle bones Questions written on the bones, then hot poker applied priests “read” the cracks for the answers Questions written on the bones, then hot poker applied priests “read” the cracks for the answers Oracle bones were the earliest form of written Chinese language

51 Origins of Chinese Culture China’s written language was not connected to its spoken language – –Each character represent an idea (not sound) – –Advantage: Everyone learned same writing Need to know 1000 characters to be literate

52 Origins of Chinese Culture Shang artisans made silk and excelled at bronzework Shang artisans made silk and excelled at bronzework Bronze used only for weapons Bronze used only for weapons Silk was a symbol of civilization Silk was a symbol of civilization

53 Zhou Bring New Ideas The Zhou use the Mandate of Heaven to overthrow the Shang ( B.C.) The Zhou use the Mandate of Heaven to overthrow the Shang ( B.C.) Natural disasters could spell the end to a ruler Natural disasters could spell the end to a ruler Established the Dynastic Cycle Established the Dynastic Cycle

54 Dynastic Cycle Mandate of Heaven New Dynasty -Brings Peace -(Re)builds infrastructure -Gives land to peasants -Protects people Generations go by New Dynasty becomes….. Old Dynasty -Taxes people too much -Stops protecting people -Lets infrastructure decay -Treats people unfairly Old Dynasty loses Mandate of Heaven Problems -Floods, earthquakes, etc -Peasant revolt -Invaders attack empire -Bandits raid countryside New Dynasty claims Mandate of Heaven

55 Zhou Bring New Ideas Feudalism led to increase local warfare Feudalism led to increase local warfare Zhou rulers gave control to local lords Zhou rulers gave control to local lords As lords grew more powerful, became less reliant on Zhou rulers fought among themselve As lords grew more powerful, became less reliant on Zhou rulers fought among themselve

56 Zhou Bring New Ideas War and the collapse of traditional values bring an end to the Zhou Dynasty War and the collapse of traditional values bring an end to the Zhou Dynasty

57 TAKS Test Review

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