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Knowledge Acquisition and Application

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1 Knowledge Acquisition and Application
Chapter 6

2 Knowledge Management Cycle
Knowledge Acquisition: Reuse Promote efficiency Lead to Innovation More effective ways of doing things Knowledge Application Application of knowledge is filtered through human brain and applied to job tasks

3 Knowledge Reuse Most jobs require certain amount of knowledge creation but we don’t want everyone creating new knowledge Want to apply existing knowledge in new or unfamiliar situations Want “small ideas” from individuals, not reinvention of jobs Example: Lawyer reuses knowledge created in another case Programmer employs a subroutine that someone else created Effective knowledge workers reuse their own knowledge all the time

4 Individual Level Personal (Individual) knowledge acquisition and application Personalization and Profiling Cognitive Styles and MBTI Bloom Taxonomy of Learning Objectives i

5 Cognitive Styles and MBTI
Cognitive differences We all have preferred habits of thought that influence how we make decisions, how we interact with others and how we prefer to learn These are neither good nor bad They emerge early in our lives and tend to remain fairly stable through the years People tend to choose professions that reward or correspond to their preferred cognitive styles Myers-Briggs Type Indicator an example of a widely used tool to assess cognitive styles 5

6 Meyers Briggs Personality Type Indicator
Four Dimensions of Personality Type How we interact with the world and where we direct our energy The kind of information we naturally notice How we make decisions Whether we prefer to live in a more structured way or a more spontaneous way Will B. Good, University of Iowa,

7 E I Extraversion Introversion Interest Orientation
Outer world of actions, objects, and people Inner world of ideas and concepts Will B. Good, University of Iowa,

8 S N Sensing iNtuition Perception
Immediate reality and direct experience Inferred meanings and relationships Will B. Good, University of Iowa,

9 T F Thinking Feeling Judgment
Reliability of logical order – cause and effect Priorities based on personal importance and values Will B. Good, University of Iowa,

10 J P Judgment Perception Environment Orientation
Judging attitude – Control of events and systematic planning Spontaneity – Curious, awaiting events and adapting to them Will B. Good, University of Iowa,

11 ISTJ ISFJ INFJ INTJ ISTP ISFP INFP INTP ESTP ESFP ENFP ENTP ESTJ ESFJ
“Take Your Time and Do It Right” ISFJ “On My Honor, to Do My Duty…” INFJ “Catalyst for Positive Change” INTJ “Competence + Independence = Perfection” ISTP “Doing the Best I Can With What I’ve Got” ISFP “It’s the Thought That Counts” INFP “Still Waters Run Deep” INTP “Ingenious Problem Solvers” ESTP “Let’s Get Busy!” ESFP “Don’t Worry, Be Happy” ENFP “Anything’s Possible” ENTP “Life’s Entrepreneurs” ESTJ “Taking Care of Business” ESFJ “What Can I Do For You?” ENFJ “The Public Relations Specialist” ENTJ “Everything’s Fine – I’m in Charge”

12 Bloom’s Hierarchy of Learning Objectives
Conceptual systems theory that describes progressively complex levels of learning achievement – as evidenced by learner behaviours Prerequisite structure Need to master lower level before moving up to the next level E.g. your course objectives Good model for knowledge acquisition B. Bloom (1956) Taxonomy of Educational Objectives: Cognitive Domain 12

13 Bloom: Cognitive Learning Objectives (continued)
Evaluation Synthesis Analysis Application Comprehension Knowledge 13

14 Bloom: Cognitive Learning Objectives (continued)
Evaluation Synthesis Define Memorize Repeat Record List Recall Name Relate Analysis Application Comprehension Knowledge 14

15 Bloom: Cognitive Learning Objectives (continued)
Evaluation Restate Discuss Describe Recognize Explain Express Identify Locate Report Review Synthesis Analysis Application Comprehension Knowledge 15

16 Bloom: Cognitive Learning Objectives (continued)
Translate Interpret Apply Employ Use Demonstrate Dramatize Practice Illustrate Operate Schedule Sketch Evaluation Synthesis Analysis Application Comprehension Knowledge 16

17 Bloom: Cognitive Learning Objectives (continued)
Compose Analyze Differentiate Appraise Calculate Experiment Compare Contrast Inventory Question Solve Examine Evaluation Synthesis Analysis Application Comprehension Knowledge 17

18 Bloom: Cognitive Learning Objectives (continued)
Distinguish Plan Propose Design Formulate Arrange Assemble Construct Create Collect Set up Organize Manage Evaluation Synthesis Analysis Application Comprehension Knowledge 18

19 Bloom: Cognitive Learning Objectives (continued)
Judge Evaluate Rate Value Revise Score Select Assess Prioritize Justify Debate Evaluation Synthesis Analysis Application Comprehension Knowledge 19

20 Example: Course Objectives
Use a framework and a clear language for intellectual capital and organizational memory concepts Model the flow, sharing and leveraging of intellectual assets Identify some of the principal cultural characteristics that are necessary to encourage organizational learning and innovation Describe the links between individual and organizational learning Monitor, value, categorize, report intellectual capital 20

21 Successful Internalization of Knowledge
Individual must access and understand available knowledge And consciously decide this is better way of doing things Apply knowledge to real-world situation

22 Organization Size Small organizations focus on knowledge acquisition
with few people and limited dispersal of knowledge, they seem to face relatively few obstacles sharing or reusing knowledge. Large organizations, in contrast, have difficulty finding and reusing knowledge. Even determining whether the knowledge exists within the organization can be difficult. For example, a pharmaceutical company found that although clinical tests of a compound are expensive, searching for possible past test results of a compound would be more expensive than retesting some of them.

23 Different Types of Knowledge Work
Transactions work highly structured, limited discretion, individual oriented - call center workers Integration work process can be articulated, discretion in specific steps - IS development work Expert work hard to articulate process, high autonomy and discretion - primary care physicians Collaboration work hard to articulate process, requires judgment and expertise, integration across functional areas - investment bank work

24 Different Types of Knowledge Work
Integration Model Systematic, repeatable work Reliant on formal processes, methodologies, or standards Dependent on integration across function borders Collaboration Model Improvisational work Highly reliant on deep expertise across functions Dependent on fluid deployment of flexible teams Transactional Model Routine work Reliant on formal rules, procedures, and training Dependent on low-discretion workforce of information Expert Model Judgment-oriented work Reliance on individual expertise and experience Dependent on star performance Collaboration/ groups Level of Interdependence Individual Actors Complexity of Work Routine Interpretation/ Judgment

25 Knowledge Reuse Knowledge management projects have pursued many approaches to capturing and reusing knowledge. These include creating document repositories; recording meetings, conversations, and exchanges; organizing discussions in document databases; and providing annotation systems. Key obstacles to success are: Digital objects are difficult to find. When found, objects are difficult to assess. Systems are not strong at identifying people who can help find or assess objects.

26 Knowledge Reuse Document management systems, directories of personnel identifying areas of expertise, and other repositories are constructed and used in some circumstances KM systems that focus on gathering, recording, and accessing reams of “knowledge” at expense of person-to-person interaction have been expensive and unsatisfactory

27 Knowledge Reuse: Three Major Roles
Knowledge Producer Person who produced knowledge or object Knowledge Intermediary Prepares knowledge for reuse by indexing, packaging, marketing Knowledge Reuser Retrieves, understands and applies knowlege

28 What is a Learning Organization?
A learning organization is an organization skilled at creating, acquiring, and transferring knowledge, and at modifying its behavior to reflect new knowledge and insights. New ideas are essential if learning is to occur Sometimes they are created from scratch (flash) At other times they come from outside the organization Triggers for organizational learning but by themselves, ideas do not bring about organizational learning: needs to be accompanied by changes in the way that work gets done – otherwise, no potential for improvement Acquisition and application of knowledge must go hand-in-hand in KM & OL 28 28

29 Management: Building Blocks
Learning organizations are skilled at 5 main activities: Systematic problem solving e.g. use scientific approach Experimentation with new approaches Learning from their own experience & past history (lessons learned, project reviews) Learning from the lessons learned and best practices of others (benchmarking, networking) Transferring knowledge quickly and efficiently throughout the organization (training, lunch and learns…) 29

30 Steps Leading to a Learning Organization
Foster an environment that is conducive to learning Time for reflection, analysis, to think about strategic plans, dissect customer needs, assess current work systems and invent new products Open up boundaries and stimulate the exchange of ideas – destroy the silos & ivory towers with conferences, meetings, project teams Create learning forums: programs or events designed with explicit learning goals e.g. study missions, committees, symposiums, etc. 30

31 Lessons Learned and Knowledge Inventories
Whenever an exceptional situation occurs – opportunities for best practices (creative innovations) and lessons learned to be drawn from them Need to be captured, described and preserved to be accessible again when needed Continued learning of employees, communities and of the organization 31

32 KM Organizational Architecture
Data Layer Process Layer - logic that links data with use and people who use it User Interface - access to information assets of company via logic incorporated in process layer


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