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Knowledge Acquisition and Application Chapter 6. Knowledge Management Cycle Knowledge Acquisition: Reuse –Promote efficiency –Lead to Innovation More.

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Presentation on theme: "Knowledge Acquisition and Application Chapter 6. Knowledge Management Cycle Knowledge Acquisition: Reuse –Promote efficiency –Lead to Innovation More."— Presentation transcript:

1 Knowledge Acquisition and Application Chapter 6

2 Knowledge Management Cycle Knowledge Acquisition: Reuse –Promote efficiency –Lead to Innovation More effective ways of doing things Knowledge Application –Application of knowledge is filtered through human brain and applied to job tasks

3 Knowledge Reuse Most jobs require certain amount of knowledge creation but we don’t want everyone creating new knowledge –Want to apply existing knowledge in new or unfamiliar situations –Want “small ideas” from individuals, not reinvention of jobs Example: –Lawyer reuses knowledge created in another case –Programmer employs a subroutine that someone else created Effective knowledge workers reuse their own knowledge all the time

4 Individual Level Personal (Individual) knowledge acquisition and application –Personalization and Profiling –Cognitive Styles and MBTI –Bloom Taxonomy of Learning Objectives i

5 5 Cognitive Styles and MBTI Cognitive differences We all have preferred habits of thought that influence how we make decisions, how we interact with others and how we prefer to learn These are neither good nor bad They emerge early in our lives and tend to remain fairly stable through the years People tend to choose professions that reward or correspond to their preferred cognitive styles Myers-Briggs Type Indicator an example of a widely used tool to assess cognitive styles

6 Meyers Briggs Personality Type Indicator Four Dimensions of Personality Type How we interact with the world and where we direct our energy The kind of information we naturally notice How we make decisions Whether we prefer to live in a more structured way or a more spontaneous way Will B. Good, University of Iowa,

7 ExtraversionIntroversion Interest Orientation EI Outer world of actions, objects, and people Inner world of ideas and concepts Will B. Good, University of Iowa,

8 SensingiNtuition Perception SN Immediate reality and direct experience Inferred meanings and relationships Will B. Good, University of Iowa,

9 ThinkingFeeling Judgment TF Reliability of logical order – cause and effect Priorities based on personal importance and values Will B. Good, University of Iowa,

10 JudgmentPerception Environment Orientation JP Judging attitude – Control of events and systematic planning Spontaneity – Curious, awaiting events and adapting to them Will B. Good, University of Iowa,

11 ISTJ “ Take Your Time and Do It Right ” ISFJ “ On My Honor, to Do My Duty …” INFJ “ Catalyst for Positive Change ” INTJ “ Competence + Independence = Perfection ” ISTP “ Doing the Best I Can With What I ’ ve Got ” ISFP “ It ’ s the Thought That Counts ” INFP “ Still Waters Run Deep ” INTP “ Ingenious Problem Solvers ” ESTP “ Let ’ s Get Busy! ” ESFP “ Don ’ t Worry, Be Happy ” ENFP “ Anything ’ s Possible ” ENTP “ Life ’ s Entrepreneurs ” ESTJ “ Taking Care of Business ” ESFJ “ What Can I Do For You? ” ENFJ “ The Public Relations Specialist ” ENTJ “ Everything ’ s Fine – I ’ m in Charge ”

12 12 Bloom’s Hierarchy of Learning Objectives Conceptual systems theory that describes progressively complex levels of learning achievement – as evidenced by learner behaviours Prerequisite structure –Need to master lower level before moving up to the next level –E.g. your course objectives Good model for knowledge acquisition B. Bloom (1956) Taxonomy of Educational Objectives: Cognitive Domain

13 13 Bloom: Cognitive Learning Objectives (continued) Knowledge Comprehension Application Analysis Synthesis Evaluation

14 14 Bloom: Cognitive Learning Objectives (continued) Knowledge Comprehension Application Analysis Synthesis Evaluation Define Memorize Repeat Record List Recall Name Relate

15 15 Bloom: Cognitive Learning Objectives (continued) Knowledge Comprehension Application Analysis Synthesis Evaluation Restate Discuss Describe Recognize Explain Express Identify Locate Report Review

16 16 Bloom: Cognitive Learning Objectives (continued) Knowledge Comprehension Application Analysis Synthesis Evaluation Translate Interpret Apply Employ Use Demonstrate Dramatize Practice Illustrate Operate Schedule Sketch

17 17 Bloom: Cognitive Learning Objectives (continued) Knowledge Comprehension Application Analysis Synthesis Evaluation Compose Analyze Differentiate Appraise Calculate Experiment Compare Contrast Inventory Question Solve Examine

18 18 Bloom: Cognitive Learning Objectives (continued) Knowledge Comprehension Application Analysis Synthesis Evaluation Distinguish Plan Propose Design Formulate Arrange Assemble Construct Create Collect Set up Organize Manage

19 19 Bloom: Cognitive Learning Objectives (continued) Knowledge Comprehension Application Analysis Synthesis Evaluation Judge Evaluate Rate Value Revise Score Select Assess Prioritize Justify Debate

20 20 Example: Course Objectives 1.Use a framework and a clear language for intellectual capital and organizational memory concepts 2.Model the flow, sharing and leveraging of intellectual assets 3.Identify some of the principal cultural characteristics that are necessary to encourage organizational learning and innovation 4.Describe the links between individual and organizational learning 5.Monitor, value, categorize, report intellectual capital

21 Successful Internalization of Knowledge Individual must access and understand available knowledge And consciously decide this is better way of doing things –Apply knowledge to real-world situation

22 Organization Size Small organizations focus on knowledge acquisition –with few people and limited dispersal of knowledge, they seem to face relatively few obstacles sharing or reusing knowledge. Large organizations, in contrast, have difficulty finding and reusing knowledge. –Even determining whether the knowledge exists within the organization can be difficult. –For example, a pharmaceutical company found that although clinical tests of a compound are expensive, searching for possible past test results of a compound would be more expensive than retesting some of them.

23 Different Types of Knowledge Work Transactions work highly structured, limited discretion, individual oriented - call center workers Integration work process can be articulated, discretion in specific steps - IS development work Expert work hard to articulate process, high autonomy and discretion - primary care physicians Collaboration work hard to articulate process, requires judgment and expertise, integration across functional areas - investment bank work

24 Different Types of Knowledge Work Integration Model Systematic, repeatable work Reliant on formal processes, methodologies, or standards Dependent on integration across function borders Collaboration Model Improvisational work Highly reliant on deep expertise across functions Dependent on fluid deployment of flexible teams Transactional Model Routine work Reliant on formal rules, procedures, and training Dependent on low- discretion workforce of information Expert Model Judgment-oriented work Reliance on individual expertise and experience Dependent on star performance Routine Individual Actors Collaboration/ groups Interpretation/ Judgment Complexity of Work Level of Interdependence

25 Knowledge Reuse Knowledge management projects have pursued many approaches to capturing and reusing knowledge. –These include creating document repositories; recording meetings, conversations, and exchanges; organizing discussions in document databases; and providing annotation systems. Key obstacles to success are: – Digital objects are difficult to find. –When found, objects are difficult to assess. –Systems are not strong at identifying people who can help find or assess objects.

26 Knowledge Reuse Document management systems, directories of personnel identifying areas of expertise, and other repositories are constructed and used in some circumstances KM systems that focus on gathering, recording, and accessing reams of “knowledge” at expense of person-to-person interaction have been expensive and unsatisfactory

27 Knowledge Reuse: Three Major Roles Knowledge Producer –Person who produced knowledge or object Knowledge Intermediary –Prepares knowledge for reuse by indexing, packaging, marketing Knowledge Reuser –Retrieves, understands and applies knowlege

28 28 What is a Learning Organization? A learning organization is an organization skilled at creating, acquiring, and transferring knowledge, and at modifying its behavior to reflect new knowledge and insights. –New ideas are essential if learning is to occur –Sometimes they are created from scratch (flash) –At other times they come from outside the organization –Triggers for organizational learning but by themselves, ideas do not bring about organizational learning: needs to be accompanied by changes in the way that work gets done – otherwise, no potential for improvement

29 29 Management: Building Blocks Learning organizations are skilled at 5 main activities: 1.Systematic problem solving e.g. use scientific approach 2.Experimentation with new approaches 3.Learning from their own experience & past history (lessons learned, project reviews) 4.Learning from the lessons learned and best practices of others (benchmarking, networking) 5.Transferring knowledge quickly and efficiently throughout the organization (training, lunch and learns…)

30 30 Steps Leading to a Learning Organization Foster an environment that is conducive to learning –Time for reflection, analysis, to think about strategic plans, dissect customer needs, assess current work systems and invent new products Open up boundaries and stimulate the exchange of ideas – destroy the silos & ivory towers with conferences, meetings, project teams Create learning forums: programs or events designed with explicit learning goals e.g. study missions, committees, symposiums, etc.

31 31 Lessons Learned and Knowledge Inventories Whenever an exceptional situation occurs – opportunities for best practices (creative innovations) and lessons learned to be drawn from them –Need to be captured, described and preserved to be accessible again when needed –Continued learning of employees, communities and of the organization

32 KM Organizational Architecture Data Layer Process Layer - logic that links data with use and people who use it User Interface - access to information assets of company via logic incorporated in process layer


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