GERMANY Hated Treaty of Versailles War Guilt Clause, $32 billion in reparations, printed $, inflation. -The west tried to make payments easier. - Germany still could not meet payments. ASIA Japan hit hard by tariffs. Keynesian economics – gov’t $ to help. Invade China for much needed resources. RUSSIA 1917 = Bolshevik Revolution => U.S.S.R. Appeared to work during depression => people questioned capitalism. Stalin = dictator policies = millions of deaths. U.S. gave Germany money & later lowered payments but recalled these loans when depression hit. SLIDE FROM CH. 4
STALIN’S SOVIET UNION 1917 = Communism (Lenin)/ 1924 = Stalin 5 Yr. Plans – Industrialize the USSR 1 st Collectivization agr. => 2 nd Industrialize. Censorship, secret police, Great Purge, Gulags Millions would die from “Man of Steel” MUSSOLINI’S ITALY ( Il Duce ) Fascism - authoritarian gov’t /. Supported by middle class. Blackshirts intimidated for the National Fascist Party. Anti-communist but used Soviet model as an example. Censorship, Ind., Agr., & labour all under his control. ** Invaded Ethiopia in 1935. GERMANY ( Fuhrer Hitler / 1933) WW I = democratic Weimar Republic => lost trust of the people. Nazis to power in 1921 (National Socialist German’s Worker Party) Censorship, fear, SS / Gestapo, defied Treaty Of Versailles (Reparations / Increased Military), Autobahn, Improved Economy/Jobs. Master ‘ Aryan’ Race – Nuremberg Laws, Kristallnact, Final Solution, Holocaust (more to come ) SPAIN -A brutal depression led to Spanish Civil War. - Franco = help from Mussolini & Hitler. -Despite Canadian help Franco = violent controlling fascist dictator. - Francisco Franco Stalin / ‘ Mr. Paranoia’ JAPAN - Depression allowed military & large corporations to take control. -Run like a Fascist state but controlled by Emperor. -Power through seizing resources – Asia. ** Invaded Manchuria (1931) Emperor Hirohito “Messier” “Lance Armstrong” “Brad Marchand” “George St. Pierre” “Hulk Hogan”
TREATY OF VERSAILLES Too harsh???? / Loans called in. APPEASEMENT -Germany Advances: Rhineland=> annexed Austria => Sudetenland (Germans in Czech ) => “Peace In Our Time” => Czech. NAZI-SOVIET NON-AGGRESSION PACT Hitler wanted Poland / Russia would see it as a threat Deal => Hitler take Poland give half to Soviets (Russia) Germany took Poland & Brt. & Fr. declare war. FAILURE OF THE LEAGUE OF NATIONS No army to back it up. (Depression/No USA) Japan invades Manchuria (China). Resources needed League condemned ;Japan left League. Italy invades Abyssinia (Ethiopia) Angry that Italy received no land after WW I. League boycott does not include oil. => Hoped Italy would join against Germany.
AN AUTONOMOUS CANADA In WW I if Britain was at war, Canada was at war. Now Canada was an autonomous country. PARLIAMENT VOTES FOR WAR - Parliament encouraged Canadians to support the war effort. -King promised ‘no conscription’. -Remember WW I???? -Sept 10, 1939, Canada declared war. MOBILIZING CANADA’S RESOURCES - No cheering crowds like WW I - 58 000 volunteers. - Canada = small unprepared armed forces. - Aboriginals still = highest % BRITISH COMMONWEALTH AIR TRAINING PLAN (BCATP) - King hoped to avoid conscription by showing our support through supplies & training. -BCATP created to train pilots. TOTAL WAR – all resources put towards war effort. -Howe put in charge of Dept. of Munitions & Supplies. -produce everything from wheat & beef, to planes & tanks. C.D. Howe (“Min. of Everything”)
ALLIES Britain France Commonwealth - Canada - New Zealand - Australia AXIS Germany Italy Japan WW II : THE START “Phony War” -7 months of nothing. April 1940 Gemany launched “Blitzkreig” - first Denmark & Norway. - Netherlands, Luxembourg, & Belgium. - French troops pushed to shores of the English Channel (Port of Dunkirk) EVACUATION AT DUNKIRK -Allied troops surrounded. - ‘Anything that floats’sent to rescue => ‘A Miracle’ - Morale was boosted even though great losses. Luftwaffe sent to cut communication Tanks rolled thru front lines. Soldiers followed to clean up afterwards GERMAN BLITZKREIG Surprise/Speed/Strength (‘Lightning War’) Parachute behind the enemy 1941 ***USA ***USSR Ardennes Forest Surprise Attack
BATTLE OF BRITAIN – ‘Operation Sea Lion’ -“The Blitz” Hitler bombed RAF, industry, harbours, miliray, & London. -Blitz failed due to radar, Spitfire, & Hurricane. - Was Hitler closer than he thought???? OPERATION BARBAROSSA – ‘Red Beard’ -Hitler broke Non-Aggression Pact. - wanted Soviet agr., resources, oil, & labour. - Early success => ill-equipped for winter. - Troops spread thin in Africa. NORTH-AFRICA CAMPAIGN – ‘Desert War’ -A war of: resources (oil in Mid East) - Strategic locations (Suez Canal / St. of Gibraltor) - Italian failures forced Germany to spread army thin. WAR IN THE PACIFIC -Japan knew USA threatened oil, rubber, & tin in Asia. -Pearl Harbor (Dec.7, 1941 )=>USA became involved. -Battle of Hong Kong / Black Christmas – Dec 25, 1941,Hong Kong fell to Japan. -Every Canadian killed or POW / Harsh treatment = anti-Japanese. -Carried over to internment camps. - would later face war crimes ‘Blitz’ caused high civilian losses. RAF Spitfire Pearl Harbor War in the Pacific
BATTLE OF THE ATLANTIC (RCN) Allies reliant on Canadian & US goods & transportation. Wolf packs / U-boats became an issue. Early = adv. Germany / Later adv. Allies (more ships/convoys/corvettes & cracked Naval code) WAR IN THE AIR (RCAF) Bomber Command =>controversial bombing of German cities. Corvettes protected convoys. German u-boats targeted British supplies. Convoys were set up To protect supply lines From the ‘wolf packs’ Britain bombed German cites in retaliation of the ‘Blitz’. Industry, military, & German morale were targeted but civilian losses caused heated debate.
THE DIEPPE RAID – Aug. 1942 - USSR in the East lost close to a million men. - Stalin demanded the allies attack from west. -Allied forces attempted to land at Dieppe. -‘Disaster at Dieppe’ – 2 nd Canadian Division to lead. -Failure – Germ. convoy alerted => no surprise - Pre-dawn delayed => broad daylight. - tanks stuck on beach. - poor communication. -Disaster or Learning experience????? THE ITALIAN CAMPAIGN - Failure at Dieppe led Churchill to the “Soft Underbelly” -Not Soft – 6 000 Canadians died in Italy. - Battle of Sicily – Victory led to Mussolini’s downfall. -Mussolini was overthrown & new government surrendered. -Battle of Ortona – Canadians pushed Germans north and Joined troops in France.
OPERATION OVERLORD – June 6, 1944. -Five beaches – Sword, Juno (Canadians), Gold, Omaha, & Utah - Reasons for success: paratroopers, weather, secrecy (dummy camps), After Juno, Canadians marched through Dieppe, Belgium, & the Netherlands.
VICTORY IN EUROPE - Allies push from the west; USSR pushed from the east. - Germany surrendered May 7, 1945. - Hitler committed suicide. -May 8 declared Victory in Europe (VE) Day JAPAN SURRENDERS - Fighting in the Pacific continued after VE Day. - Japan = “Fight to the last person” despite fire-bombings. - Truman and the Manhattan Project / Atomic Bomb. - Canada supplied the uranium. -Enola Gay => Hiroshima / Three days later = Nagasaki - Japan surrendered Aug. 14, 1945.
As the troops closed in on Germany, the truth about the Jewish people became known. Hitler’s anti-Semitic views were well know by the 1930s. The Nazi government adopted “The Final Solution”/ Genocide By the end of thr war the Nazis killed 6 million Jews & another 5 million “undesirables” Goering at Nuremberg Trials The Nuremberg Trials put Nazi leaders on trial for atrocities committed during the war. It was the first time ever this had happened Nazi medical experiments Gruesome discoveries as the allies move in. “The Ovens” Buchenwald Concentration Camp Families split, transported, stripped, hair cut, deloused, killed or sent to labour camps.
Rosie the Riveter” – Nickname for women workers. WOMEN & THE WAR EFFORT They were in demand as factory workers Even daycares provided. CANADA’S WATIME ECONOMY -People were working & had $$$. -King feared inflation & encouraged: - Victory Bonds - Increased Income tax, - Wartime Prices & Trade Board (Controlled prices, tried to limit labor/union activity) - Rationing Ronnie the Bren Gun Girl THE CONSCRIPTION CRISIS - At start of war King promised no conscription. - By 1940 we needed more men. ‘Not necessarily conscription, but conscription if necessary.’ - National Resources Mobilization Act. (NRMA) - Allowed gov’t emergency powers (conscription) - Plebiscite – Canada voted yes. - Quebec did not. - In reality only 2500 made it to the front. The very popular American campaign. WPTB USA Canada
Japanese fish boats tied up at the mouth of the Fraser R. All were shipped to concentration camps in the interior. By the 1940s, over 23 000 Japanese lived in Canada. Prime Minister Brian Mulroney signing the Japanese Canadian Redress Agreement in 1988. ($21 000) David Suzuki stayed in an internment camp at age six while his father was sent to a labour camp. One of the many interior camps The government gave in to public pressure and removed the threat of spies. Many had never set foot in Japan.
ECONOMIC GROWTH - Due to war almost every sector of the Canadian economy boomed. (Aluminum, wood, paper, mining, smelting, petroleum, production, transportation, processing, services) - Canada transformed from a rural economy to a modern industrial nation. - Manufacturing out did agriculture. SOCIETAL CHANGES -War increased prestige of women - War brides (48 000 came back to Canada) - Unions build power with shortage of laborers BUILDING AN IDENTITY -By the end of WW II Canada was -a major player in global conflict. - One of the world’s top navies, 4 th largest allied air force, COUNTRY CASUALTIES Canada42 000 Britain326 000 France340 000 Germany325 000 Soviets8 668 000 Japan1 506 000 USA295 000 WAS IT WORTH IT???
ALBERT EINSTEIN – “I don’t know what weapons will be used in WW III, but in WW IV, people will use sticks and stones” (1879-1955). WINSTON CHURCHILL – “ An appeaser is one Who feeds a crocodile hoping it will eat him last”. WINSTON CHURCHILL – “A prisoner of war is a man who tries to kill you and fails, and then Asks you not to kill them”.
How did WWII affect Canada socially, economically, and politically? Introduction -_______________ Socially -_______________ Economically -_______________ Conclusion -_______________ Canadian Military? Army -_______________ Navy -_______________ Air Force -_______________ Politcally -_______________