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An evaluation of scaffolding for virtual interactive tutorials 指導教授 : 陳 明 溥 研 究 生 : 許 良 村 Pahl, C.(2002).An evaluation of scaffolding for virtual interactive.

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Presentation on theme: "An evaluation of scaffolding for virtual interactive tutorials 指導教授 : 陳 明 溥 研 究 生 : 許 良 村 Pahl, C.(2002).An evaluation of scaffolding for virtual interactive."— Presentation transcript:

1 An evaluation of scaffolding for virtual interactive tutorials 指導教授 : 陳 明 溥 研 究 生 : 許 良 村 Pahl, C.(2002).An evaluation of scaffolding for virtual interactive tutorials. In G. Richards (Ed.), Proceedings of World Conference on E-Learning in Corporate, Government, Healthcare, and Higher Education 2002 (pp ). Chesapeake, VA: AACE.

2 Scaffolding  Internet technologies reduced direct contact between the instructor and the learner requires additional support  Scaffolding as an approach to support learners in their learning effort has been suggested - the idea can be traced back to (Vygotsky 1978).  Scaffolding refers to a temporary support framework that is used in the construction of buildings.  Scaffolding is needed in the construction process, but will be removed once the building process is advanced and the building supports itself.  Scaffolding is in particular suitable to support active learning approaches.

3 Scaffolding  Scaffolding refers to the support learners get from interaction with experts, teachers, and peers  Scaffolding enable the learner to accomplish a task in a self-reliant way  Scaffolding characteristics : -modelling: providing an adequate learning structure -modelling: providing an adequate learning structure -support: learning material, feedback, assessment, demonstration -support: learning material, feedback, assessment, demonstration -fading: support provision, support usage -fading: support provision, support usage  Scaffolding is often considered as a part of the cognitive apprenticeship theory

4 Scaffolding  Cognitive apprenticeship theory : - coaching a student to perform a specific task - coaching a student to perform a specific task - a student learns through active participation in a task in an authentic setting in a close collaboration with a master - a student learns through active participation in a task in an authentic setting in a close collaboration with a master - the master provides the scaffolding - the master provides the scaffolding - increasing control and ownership by the learner - increasing control and ownership by the learner - phase of learning - phase of learning coaching→ reflection →free and self-reliant learning coaching→ reflection →free and self-reliant learning  In CSTL, the instructor's role in providing the scaffolding support can be taken over by an intelligent software agent.

5 Experiment Design  Objective : evaluate the impact of scaffolding on student learning in a virtual interactive tutorial environment that supports the autonomous learner evaluate the impact of scaffolding on student learning in a virtual interactive tutorial environment that supports the autonomous learner  Independent variable scaffoldingscaffolding  Dependent variables Acceptance or opinionAcceptance or opinion student learning behaviorstudent learning behavior student performancestudent performance  Course : undergraduate Database course undergraduate Database course

6 A Virtual Tutorial  guided tour approach a simple example and substantial scaffoldinga simple example and substantial scaffolding increases the complexity of the problemincreases the complexity of the problem reduces the scaffolding featuresreduces the scaffolding features  four scaffolds types learning materiallearning material feedbackfeedback assessmentassessment demonstrationdemonstration

7  four scaffolds types as essential in Web environments : 1. a guided learning process allows the learner to progress in a structured fashion based on an expert model towards self-reliance. 2. assessment and correction features provide necessary feedback and criticism. 3. context pointers to background resources contextualize the active elements. 4.comments A Virtual Tutorial

8  learning process Firstly, a structured approach Firstly, a structured approach - students follows the guided tour and work on exercises - students follows the guided tour and work on exercises Secondly, an unstructured approach Secondly, an unstructured approach - students revise for their exams, re-address aspects that remained unclear before, etc. - students revise for their exams, re-address aspects that remained unclear before, etc.

9 Evaluation Results  Learning behaviour analysis [ExecQuery|Scaffold] - based on automatically generated Web server statistics. - based on automatically generated Web server statistics. - about 2/3 semester for the interactive tutorial - about 2/3 semester for the interactive tutorial - about 1/3 semester for the final exam preparation - about 1/3 semester for the final exam preparation - 77% of all tutorial sessions students have also used online course notes at the same time - 77% of all tutorial sessions students have also used online course notes at the same time - 84% of all sessions actually follow this pattern of mixing interactive and scaffolding material - 84% of all sessions actually follow this pattern of mixing interactive and scaffolding material

10 Evaluation Results - the absolute numbers of scaffold requests have been reduced to around 35% in the later units compared to the first four units. - the absolute numbers of scaffold requests have been reduced to around 35% in the later units compared to the first four units.  Student opinion analysis - based on student questionnaires that survey the student perception. - based on student questionnaires that survey the student perception. - students have pointed out that guidance and in particular the feedback features are central,i.e. scaffolding is necessary. - students have pointed out that guidance and in particular the feedback features are central,i.e. scaffolding is necessary.  Student performance analysis - based on exam, project and continuous assessment results. - based on exam, project and continuous assessment results.

11 Discussion and Conclusions  The tutorial not only knowledge retention is the objective, but also the transfer of knowledge and skills to new application areas.  Guidance of the learning process is the key ssue,ontextualised assistance of the learner is necessary to accomplish independence and self-reliance  Major functions of a teacher or coach have to be replaced by virtual system functions if direct contact is not possible, scaffolding can provide the learner with the necessary support scaffolding can provide the learner with the necessary support  In a Web environment scaffolding features need to replace the instructor  Scaffolding refers to a temporary support framework used during construction.

12 Discussion and Conclusions  Adaptive personalized scaffolding must consider - needs of individual students - needs of individual students - behavior of individual students - behavior of individual students - student tracking - student tracking - student learning performance - student learning performance - peer-communication and collaboration - peer-communication and collaboration - a user model needs to be built - a user model needs to be built


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