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Information processing Ch 8. I. Aquiring Information (learning and storing) A. Learning Curve -gradual upward slope representing increased retention of.

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Presentation on theme: "Information processing Ch 8. I. Aquiring Information (learning and storing) A. Learning Curve -gradual upward slope representing increased retention of."— Presentation transcript:

1 Information processing Ch 8

2 I. Aquiring Information (learning and storing) A. Learning Curve -gradual upward slope representing increased retention of material as the result of learning 1. attention - alert focusing on material B. Chemical influence on learning 1. Stimulants - can increase learning (caffeine+sugar) 2. strong stimulants - can over stimulate the brain and cause the reverse (amphetamines - speed) 3. depressants - will block the firing of brain nerve cells and reduce learning (tranquilizers, alcohol, hot dogs, cold cuts) 4. state-dependent learning - learning and reproduction of the material are reliant on the condition of the body at the time of learning A. Learning Curve -gradual upward slope representing increased retention of material as the result of learning 1. attention - alert focusing on material B. Chemical influence on learning 1. Stimulants - can increase learning (caffeine+sugar) 2. strong stimulants - can over stimulate the brain and cause the reverse (amphetamines - speed) 3. depressants - will block the firing of brain nerve cells and reduce learning (tranquilizers, alcohol, hot dogs, cold cuts) 4. state-dependent learning - learning and reproduction of the material are reliant on the condition of the body at the time of learning

3 I. Acquiring Information (learning and storing) A. Learning Curve -gradual upward slope representing increased retention of material as the result of learning 1. attention - alert focusing on material B. Chemical influence on learning 1. Stimulants - can increase learning (caffeine+sugar) 2. strong stimulants - can over stimulate the brain and cause the reverse (amphetamines - speed) 3. depressants - will block the firing of brain nerve cells and reduce learning (tranquilizers, alcohol, hot dogs, cold cuts) 4. state-dependent learning - learning and reproduction of the material are reliant on the condition of the body at the time of learning C. Transfer of training - learning task A will carry over to learning task B if there are similarities between them 1. positive transfer - transfer of learning that results from similarities between two tasks 2. negative transfer - previously learned task is interfering with the present one A. Learning Curve -gradual upward slope representing increased retention of material as the result of learning 1. attention - alert focusing on material B. Chemical influence on learning 1. Stimulants - can increase learning (caffeine+sugar) 2. strong stimulants - can over stimulate the brain and cause the reverse (amphetamines - speed) 3. depressants - will block the firing of brain nerve cells and reduce learning (tranquilizers, alcohol, hot dogs, cold cuts) 4. state-dependent learning - learning and reproduction of the material are reliant on the condition of the body at the time of learning C. Transfer of training - learning task A will carry over to learning task B if there are similarities between them 1. positive transfer - transfer of learning that results from similarities between two tasks 2. negative transfer - previously learned task is interfering with the present one

4 II. Information Processing (learning and reproduction) A. Schema - organized and systematic approach to answering questions or solving problems

5 II. Information Processing (learning and reproduction) A. Schema - organized and systematic approach to answering questions or solving problems B. Special learning processes 1. elaboration - the process of attaching the maximum number of associations to a basic concept or other material to be learned so that it can be retrieved more easily a. poets and fiction writers are masters of elaboration b. especially useful are colorful association that grab your attention C. Mnemonic devices - unusual associations made to make material aid memory 1. can be useful in remembering names, routine tasks, information for tests 2. if images are to bizarre you won’t remember associations 3. can help slightly mentally retarded in learning and remembering 4. won’t work unless you use them from the beginning with whatever you are trying to remember 5. it becomes hard to use them as you get older (keep your imagination active) A. Schema - organized and systematic approach to answering questions or solving problems B. Special learning processes 1. elaboration - the process of attaching the maximum number of associations to a basic concept or other material to be learned so that it can be retrieved more easily a. poets and fiction writers are masters of elaboration b. especially useful are colorful association that grab your attention C. Mnemonic devices - unusual associations made to make material aid memory 1. can be useful in remembering names, routine tasks, information for tests 2. if images are to bizarre you won’t remember associations 3. can help slightly mentally retarded in learning and remembering 4. won’t work unless you use them from the beginning with whatever you are trying to remember 5. it becomes hard to use them as you get older (keep your imagination active)

6 II. Information Processing (learning and reproduction) D. Principle Learning - focus on the basic idea behind what is being learned 1. tie the new material to be learned to a principle E. Chunking - putting items into clusters or “chunks” so that the items are learned in groups rather than separately D. Principle Learning - focus on the basic idea behind what is being learned 1. tie the new material to be learned to a principle E. Chunking - putting items into clusters or “chunks” so that the items are learned in groups rather than separately

7 SLICNEK NICKELS SLICNEK NICKELS

8 III. Retaining Information A. Principles of forgetting 1. Forgetting - an increase in errors in bringing back material from memory a. doe not necessarily mean losing what learn b. could be the inability to retrieve material c. other material may interfere (phone #) 2. Overlearning - rehearse something over and over beyond one perfect recitation A. Principles of forgetting 1. Forgetting - an increase in errors in bringing back material from memory a. doe not necessarily mean losing what learn b. could be the inability to retrieve material c. other material may interfere (phone #) 2. Overlearning - rehearse something over and over beyond one perfect recitation

9 III. Retaining Information A. Principles of forgetting 1. Forgetting - an increase in errors in bringing back material from memory a. doe not necessarily mean losing what learn b. could be the inability to retrieve material c. other material may interfere (phone #) 2. Overlearning - rehearse something over and over beyond one perfect recitation (I pledge allegiance...) 3. Recall - bringing back and integrating many specific learned details(essays) 4. Recognition - recognize the right answer(multiple choice) 5. Interference Theory - we forget because there is a conflict between new and old material in the memory system 6. Amnesia - the blocking of older material or the loss of new ones a. caused by a head blow, major trauma, or an electric shock b. exaggerated on TV c. memory will usually come back A. Principles of forgetting 1. Forgetting - an increase in errors in bringing back material from memory a. doe not necessarily mean losing what learn b. could be the inability to retrieve material c. other material may interfere (phone #) 2. Overlearning - rehearse something over and over beyond one perfect recitation (I pledge allegiance...) 3. Recall - bringing back and integrating many specific learned details(essays) 4. Recognition - recognize the right answer(multiple choice) 5. Interference Theory - we forget because there is a conflict between new and old material in the memory system 6. Amnesia - the blocking of older material or the loss of new ones a. caused by a head blow, major trauma, or an electric shock b. exaggerated on TV c. memory will usually come back

10 B. Mechanisms of Memory 1. the physical process of how we encode memory is not exactly understood 2. It is believed to be similar to a computer analog 3. Humans have billions of nerve cells with millions of connections 1. the physical process of how we encode memory is not exactly understood 2. It is believed to be similar to a computer analog 3. Humans have billions of nerve cells with millions of connections

11 C. Memory System 1. Sensory memory - system that includes direct receiver of information from the environment a. iconic memory - a very brief visual memory that can be sent to the short term memory b. acoustic memory - a very brief sound memory that can be sent to short term memory 1. Sensory memory - system that includes direct receiver of information from the environment a. iconic memory - a very brief visual memory that can be sent to the short term memory b. acoustic memory - a very brief sound memory that can be sent to short term memory

12 Short Term Memory Test

13 C. Memory System 1. Sensory memory - system that includes direct receiver of information from the environment a. iconic memory - a very brief visual memory that can be sent to the short term memory b. acoustic memory - a very brief sound memory that can be sent to short term memory 2. Short term memory (STM) - memory that retains information for few seconds to few minutes a. first place memory goes b. will only hold seven items; does not matter how long each of the seven item are (chunking) c. material is either eliminated or moved to LTM d. consolidation - a memory solidifies over time, eventually becoming permanent 3. Long term memory (LTM) - memory system that retains information for hours, days, weeks, months, or decades 1. Sensory memory - system that includes direct receiver of information from the environment a. iconic memory - a very brief visual memory that can be sent to the short term memory b. acoustic memory - a very brief sound memory that can be sent to short term memory 2. Short term memory (STM) - memory that retains information for few seconds to few minutes a. first place memory goes b. will only hold seven items; does not matter how long each of the seven item are (chunking) c. material is either eliminated or moved to LTM d. consolidation - a memory solidifies over time, eventually becoming permanent 3. Long term memory (LTM) - memory system that retains information for hours, days, weeks, months, or decades

14 IV. Special Issues in Memory A. Eidetic memory (photographic memory) - an iconic memory lasting a memory or so that keeps images “in front of” the persons the objects can be counted or analyzed 1. Some people do have longer iconic memories that may last up to a minute 2. Only one or two people have ever been found to have eidetic memory A. Eidetic memory (photographic memory) - an iconic memory lasting a memory or so that keeps images “in front of” the persons the objects can be counted or analyzed 1. Some people do have longer iconic memories that may last up to a minute 2. Only one or two people have ever been found to have eidetic memory

15 IV. Special Issues in Memory A. Eidetic memory (photographic memory) - an iconic memory lasting a memory or so that keeps images “in front of” the persons the objects can be counted or analyzed 1. Some people do have longer iconic memories that may last up to a minute 2. Only one or two people have ever been found to have eidetic memory B. Eyewitness memory 1. Facts in real life seldom fit completely together; your mind fills in the blanks to have it make sense (perception) 2. Frequently fits stereotypes of “bad guys” 3. Crimes usually take place quickly (no time for elaboration) 4. Identification across racial lines is extremely poor A. Eidetic memory (photographic memory) - an iconic memory lasting a memory or so that keeps images “in front of” the persons the objects can be counted or analyzed 1. Some people do have longer iconic memories that may last up to a minute 2. Only one or two people have ever been found to have eidetic memory B. Eyewitness memory 1. Facts in real life seldom fit completely together; your mind fills in the blanks to have it make sense (perception) 2. Frequently fits stereotypes of “bad guys” 3. Crimes usually take place quickly (no time for elaboration) 4. Identification across racial lines is extremely poor


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