Presentation on theme: "Development Through the Life Span"— Presentation transcript:
1 Development Through the Life Span Chapter 4Development Through the Life SpanPowerPoint® Presentationby Jim Foley
2 Developmental Issues, Prenatal Development, and the Newborn Topics we’ll be bringing to lifeIssues in Thinking about DevelopmentNature and NurtureContinuity and StagesStability and ChangePrenatal DevelopmentConception ZygoteEmbryo FetusTeratogen RisksNewborn Skills and BehaviorsNo animation.
3 Issues in Developmental Psychology nature and nurtureHow do genes and experience guide development over our lifespan?change and stabilityIn what ways do we change as we age, and in what ways do we stay the same?Issues in Developmental Psychologycontinuity and stagesClick to reveal issues.Instructor: You can mention here that nature and nurture don’t need further summary, because we just finished a chapter about it. However, if you skipped that chapter, you may want to go to the presentation for that chapter and use slides that summarize that issue, as well as slides that show the cell, chromosomes, and genes.Is development a gradual change or are there some leaps to a new way of thinking or behaving?
4 Starting the Path to Personhood: Prenatal Development and the Newborn ConceptionPrenatal DevelopmentThe Competent NewbornAutomatic animation.Instructor: You can note here (unless you think it’s obvious) that “prenatal” literally means “before birth.”You could ask students to answer or think about these questions over the next group of slides:--Where do you think the study of development should begin: at birth, or in utero?--At what stage in this process does it make sense to talk about the process of nature AND nurture? Is there “nurture” in utero?
5 In the beginning: Conception Sperm and egg unite to bring genetic material together and form one organism: the zygote (the fertilized cell).ConceptionNo animation.What does the Michael Phelps cartoon from the book illustrate?...that most sperm do not make it to the egg.Of those that make it, only one sperm is allowed through the protective coating. Then, after several hours, the nuclei fuse, which might be considered the actual moment of conception.
6 Prenatal Development The Zygote Stage: First 10 to 14 Days After the nuclei of the egg and sperm fuse, the cell divides in 2, 4, 8, 16, 100…Milestone of the zygote stage: cells begin to differentiate into specialized locations and structuresImplantation: The Embyro, 2 to 8 weeksThis stage begins with the multicellular cluster that implants in the uterine wall.Milestone of the implantation stage: differentiated cells develop into organs and bonesClick to reveal bullets.Instructor: You can ask students if they think that teratogens qualify as a “nurture” factor influencing development. If we recall that “nurture” really means “environmental influences” and not “cuddling,” it should be clear that this is an example of how nature and nurture both operate before birth.Sometimes, the zygote first fully splits into two; this is the start of identical twins.The outer layer of cells becomes the placenta, the mechanism for providing nutrients and oxygen to the child and filtering out toxins; it will be more visible on the next slide.Embryo
7 The FetusAt nine weeks, hands and face have developed; the embryo is now called a fetus (“offspring”).PlacentaAt 4 months, many more features develop.Milestone of the fetal stage: by six months, the fetus might be able to survive outside the wombClick to reveal bullets.
8 Fetal Life: The Dangers Teratogens (“monster makers”) are substances such as viruses and chemicals that can damage the developing embryo or fetus.Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) refers to cognitive, behavioral, and body/brain structure abnormalities caused by exposure to alcohol in the fetal stage.Click to reveal bullets.Examples of noticeable problems in FAS: hyperactivity, learning problems, emotion control problems, and unusual facial size, shape, and features. The underlying problem of FAS may be that alcohol switches genes on and off, diverting the normal course of development.
9 Teratogens and Timing of Their Effects on Prenatal Development Fig. 2.10
10 Teratogen: is a substance that can cross the placental barrier and harm the child. Alcohol and tobacco are perhaps the most common and damaging. Mercury, landfills, lead paintFetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS): combo of retarded growth, face and body malformations, disorders of the nervous system. ADHD symptoms, attention, distractibility, learning difficulties, memory and mood impairment.Nicotine: low birth weight, miscarriage, retardation, still birth, small head syndrome, medical problems.
12 HIV/AIDS: likely to spread it to fetus. Maternal Illnesses: colds, STDs, general medical problems.Maternal Stress: wide psychological disorders, deformities. Negative emotional/behavioralOver 35: for the mother-diabetes, high BP, severe bleeding. Child- premature birth, birth defects, retarded growth.
13 Physical Development— Hazards to Prenatal Development
14 Fetal life: Responding to Sounds Fetuses in the womb can respond to sounds.Fetuses can learn to recognize and adapt to sounds that they previously heard only in the womb.Fetuses can habituate to annoying sounds, becoming less agitated with repeated exposure.Click to reveal bullets.Evidence of learning to recognize sounds from inside the womb: immediately after birth, newborns prefer mother’s voice, and even coo and cry in the tones of her language.Evidence of habituating to annoying sounds: after birth, newborns can ignore sounds that would agitate other newborns.
15 After the fetal period, the child is born! No animation.
16 Inborn Skills The Competent Newborn Reflexes are responses that are inborn and do not have to be learned.Newborns have reflexes to ensure that they will be fed.The rooting reflex--when something touches a newborn’s cheek, the infant turns toward that side with an open mouth.The sucking reflex can be triggered by a fingertip.Crying when hungry is the newborn talent of using just the right sounds to motivate parents to end the noise and feed the baby.Click to reveal bullets.How do we conclude that these abilities are inborn?...because they are evident within hours of birth.The rooting reflex triggers the baby to get in position for breastfeeding.
17 More Inborn AbilitiesNewborns (one hour old!) will look twice as long at the image on the left.What can we conclude from this behavior?Click to show smiley face.Newborns might have an inborn preference for looking at faces, AND the ability to distinguish a facelike pattern of dots and lines from a less face-like pattern!You could ask if students can describe a possible survival/evolutionary function of this face preference. Perhaps this preference might help infants seek out and make eye contact with people rather than light bulbs, to assure that others are motivated to care for them.
18 Aspects of starting to grow up Physical Development/maturation, inc. brainCognitive Development: Piaget, VygotskySensorimotor, Preoperational, Concrete Operational, Formal Operational StagesEgocentrism, Theory of Mind, AutismVygotsky: Mind in Social ContextSocial DevelopmentAttachment: Origins, Styles, DeprivationDay Care; Self-Concept; Parenting StylesClick to reveal bullets.
19 Infancy and Childhood Infancy: newborns growing almost into toddlers Childhood: toddlers growing almost into teenagersFor each of these stages, we will study:brain development.motor development.cognitive development.social and emotional development.Click to reveal definitions and bar at bottom.The book defines the childhood age span as “growing from toddler to teenager.” This is not meant to imply that childhood includes the teenage years.
20 Maturation: not the meaning you might think In psychology, “maturation” refers to changes that occur primarily because of the passage of time.In developmental psychology, maturation refers to biologically-driven growth and development enabling orderly (predictably sequential) changes in behavior.Experience (nurture) can adjust the timing, but maturation (nature) sets the sequence.For example, infant bodies, in sequence, will lift heads, then sit up, then crawl, and then walk.Click to reveal bullets and example.Instructor: Mention before the text appears on screen:“This is one of the words in this course that means something different in psychology than in popular usage (other examples include arousal, learning, conservation, theory, etc.). When we use the term, we do NOT mean “becoming socially aware and competent as an adult, but… [now click to reveal text]”You might ask, “for these two topics, speculate: which of the changes, or the timing and sequence of those changes, is driven by biology/unfolding, and which are triggered or greatly effected by environment/experience?”Maturation, the biological unfolding, will be seen in:brain development.motor development.Maturation in infancy and early childhood affects the brain and motor skills.
21 Building and Connecting Neurons Brain Development:Building and Connecting NeuronsIn the womb, the number of neurons grows by about 750,000 new cells per minute in the middle trimester.Beginning at birth, the connections among neurons proliferate. As we learn, we form more branches and more neural networks.In infancy, the growth in neural connections takes place initially in the less complex parts of the brain (the brainstem and limbic system), as well as the motor and sensory strips. This enables body functions and basic survival skills.In early childhood, neural connections proliferate in the association areas. This enables advancements in controlling attention and behavior (frontal lobes) and also in thinking, memory, and language.Click to reveal bullets and images.
22 Impact of Experience/Nurture on Brain Development The Process Continues into Adulthood Automatic animation.Repeated practice at a finger-tapping task begins to activate a [slightly] larger group of motor neurons.
23 Experience and Brain Development Rats living in an “enriched” environment (more social interaction and physical play) experienced a greater growth in brain size and complexity than those rats living in an “impoverished” environment.Automatic animation.Many kinds of stimulation help generate brain development, even providing massage and other touch to newborns (especially those born prematurely).
24 Teratogens and Timing of Their Effects on Prenatal Development Fig. 2.10
25 Motor DevelopmentMaturation takes place in the body and cerebellum enabling the sequence below.Physical training generally cannot change the timing.No animation.Studies on an identical twins have shown that rushing kids to learn to walk, learn to climb stairs, etc. does not seem to do much to make it happen sooner than it would happen anyway.
26 Physical Development—Early Childhood Milestones in motor development
27 Baby Memory Infantile Amnesia Learning Skills In infancy, the brain forms memories so differently from the episodic memory of adulthood that most people cannot really recall memories from the first three years of life.A birthday party when turning three might be a person’s first memory.Learning SkillsClick to reveal bullets.Instructor--some details on infantile amnesia: the fourth birthday party is more likely (than the third) to be a real memory, and more accurate. Those memories from early years (like most memories, but even more so at this age) are likely to be reconstructions, built mostly from stories told to them by others when they were older. Yet these memories feel like recalled events; more about this in the chapter on memory.Learning skills: this skill or “procedural memory” could be seen as an example of operant conditioning. Babies also acquire fear, which of course is classical conditioning. These terms are omitted from the slide because these concepts typically would not have been introduced yet in the course, but you may want to mention it here.Infants can learn skills (procedural memories).This three month old can learn, and recall a month later, that specific foot movements move specific mobiles.
28 Cognitive Development Cognition refers to the mental activities that help us function, including:problem-solving.figuring out how the world works.developing models and concepts.storing and retrieving knowledge.understanding and using language.using self-talk and inner thoughts.No animation.
29 Cognitive Development: Jean Piaget (1896-1980) We don’t start out being able to think like adults.Jean Piaget studied the errors in cognition made by children in order to understand in what ways they think differently than adults.The error below is an inability to understand scale(relative size).Click to reveal bullets and example.Jean Piaget was originally a biologist but he began observing children, at first mainly his own kids and relatives. He generated novel ideas about development throughout the mid-20th century.
30 Jean Piaget and Cognitive Development: Schemas An infant’s mind works hard to make sense of our experiences in the world.An early tool to organize those experiences is a schema, a mental container we build to hold our experiences.Schemas can take the form of images, models, and/or concepts.This child has formed a schema called “COW” which he uses to think about animals of a certain shape and size.“Cow!”Click to reveal bullets and example.
31 Jean Piaget and Cognitive Development: Assimilation and Accommodation How can this girl use her “dog” schema when encountering a cat?Click to reveal answer/example.If students want this stated in definition form:assimilation refers to incorporating new experiences into our existing schema/categories;accommodation refers to adjusting our schema to better fit our experiences.Whether the mini-poodle in the picture is categorized as a dog may be subject to debate… She can assimilate the experience into her schema by referring to the cat as a “dog”orshe can accommodate her animal schema by separating the cat, and even different types of dogs, into separate schemas.
32 The Course of Development: Stages Jean Piaget believed that cognitive development:is a combination of nature and nurture. Children grow by maturation as well as by learning through interacting/playing with the environment.is not one continuous progression of change. Children make leaps in cognitive abilities from one stage of development to the next.Click to reveal bullets.Instructor: here you can highlight the “nature vs. nurture” and “continuity vs. stages” concepts, and question where Jean Piaget stands on these issues.You can mention here or later that Piaget’s positions have been somewhat modified by recent research, especially the idea that certain stages are tied maturationally/genetically to certain ages.IssueJean Piaget’s VoteNature vs. NurtureBothContinuity vs. StagesStages
33 Jean Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Development No animation.
34 Sensorimotor Stage (Birth to Age 2) In this stage, children explore by looking, hearing, touching, mouthing, and grasping.No animation.Image:Cool cognitive trick learned at 6 to 8 months, coming up next: object permanence.
35 Hmm, a bear, should I put it in my mouth? There’s a game I’ve learned to play all by myself: peekaboo!Object PermanenceThrough games like “peekaboo,” kids learn object permanence--the idea that objects exist even when they can’t be seen.Click to start animation.Peekaboo brings out issues of “nature vs. nurture,” as well as “stages of maturation vs. practice at playing.” Since kids develop this ability automatically but also practice to develop it, how much of the development of object permanence is nature/maturation, and how much is nurture/experience?
36 Can Children Think Abstractly? Jean Piaget felt that kids in the sensorimotor stage did not think abstractly. Yet there is some evidence that kids in this stage can notice violations in physics (such as gravity). Does that mean babies are doing physics?Click to reveal bullets/animation; see this in slide show mode to see the ball obeying gravity, and not obeying gravity.“Violations in physics and math” examples: kids look more surprised when they see a ball start to drop and then stop. You might want to simulate this with a ball on a stick.
37 Is This Math? If so, kids in the “sensorimotor” stage do math. Babies stare longer and with surprise when numbers don’t make sense.Is this math? Was Jean Piaget wrong?Click to start animation.This slide depicts the results of an experiment. In the animation, two toys minus one two should leave one two, but three are there. This would trigger a surprised stare in many babies.Jean Piaget believed that kids in the sensorimotor stage cannot handle even basic math, seeing this as a concrete operational skill. How can we explain this result? Are the kids doing subtraction, or is it something else?Narration: One toy comes in, then a second, then the toys are hidden. When the screen is taken away, the baby is less surprised if there is now one toy. However, if there is a different amount, they look more surprised and stare longer.
38 Egocentrism: “I am the World.” What mistake is this boy making?Do you have a brother?Yes. Jim.Does Jim have a brother?No.Click to reveal all text.Answer to the slide question: this boy is unable to see his brother Jim’s perspective and unable to see himself as a brother rather than just as ME, the center of the world.Egocentrism is another one of those terms that has a different meaning in psychology than in its more vague popular use. It is not about selfishness, but about being unable to see another person’s perspective, or even to imagine that other people have a perspective that might be different from your own.Hiding their eyes: If I can’t see, you can’t see, right? If the world has just become dark, how can anyone else see?Egocentrism is also a hallmark of autism, to such an extent that if you point somewhere, an autistic child might look at the end of your finger or at a point past the finger from their perspective, rather than being able to tell where you are looking.How does this relate to ego-centrism?
39 What can kids do in the preoperational stage? Represent their schema with words and images.Perform pretend play.Picture other points of view, replacing egocentrism with theory of mind.Use intuition, but not logic and abstraction yet.Click to reveal bullets.
40 Maturing beyond Egocentrism: Developing a “Theory of Mind” Theory of mind refers to the ability to understand that others have their own thoughts and perspective.Click through to show the three scenes.This test is typically called the “false belief test” because the younger child is asked to be able to tell when another person has the wrong idea, or a false belief, about where something is. It is a screening test for autism.The ability to understand a false belief appears at age 3.5 to 4.5, or much later in children with autism spectrum disorders (including Asperger’s Disorder), although I have had a first-year college male fail this test despite repeated explanation and in-class demonstration.With a theory of mind, you can picture that Sally will have the wrong idea about where the ball is.
41 Examples of Operations that Preoperational Children Cannot Do…Yet Conservation refers to the ability to understand that a quantity is conserved (does not change) even when it is arranged in a different shape.Click to reveal all text.This child could “conserve” the amount of fluid by mentally reversing the operation of pouring it into a different container, but this is difficult for a child at the start of the preoperational phase.Click for another example: if objects are arranged on a table in two rows of five, but one row is more spread out, a preoperational child will feel sure that there are more objects in the spread-out row.Which row has more mice?
42 Autism Spectrum Disorders Children with disorders on the autism spectrum have difficulties in three general areas:establishing mutual social interactionusing language and play symbolicallydisplaying flexibility with routines, interests, and behaviorChildren with disorders on the autism spectrum have more difficulty than a typical child in mentally mirroring the thoughts and actions of others; this difficulty has been called “mind blindness.”Click to reveal bullets.The brain in autism is marked by “islands of ability” (usually very concrete abilities) but the parts of the brain are not well connected to each other; the first talent to be missing is often social intuition.The official diagnosis of Asperger’s Disorder will disappear soon after this textbook is published. Asperger’s Disorder will be considered to be synonymous with the higher-functioning end of the autism spectrum. That diagnostic change may also affect the “1 in 110” figure; this is based on the current overall category of Pervasive Developmental Disorder, PDD, about half of which is “PDD-NOS”, Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified, which includes many children who do not meet the full criteria for autism or any other PDD.
43 How do we teach social/emotional understanding to children with autism? Happy trainClick to reveal question.The book recommends the transporter’s website, but the only way to see a video for free is to find some copy of an episode on YouTube, such asAnother path for teaching about emotions in real social context is the “Social Stories and Comic Book Conversations” techniques associated with Carol Gray.Are the autistic kids learning to understand the emotions of others, or are they memorizing that certain facial positions correspond to certain emotion words?
44 The Concrete Operational Stage begins at ages 6-7 (first grade) to age 11children now grasp conservation and other concrete transformationsthey also understand simple mathematical transformations the reversibility of operations (reversing3 + 7 = 10 to figure out that = 3).Click to reveal bullets.Just as toddlers enjoy practicing their newfound understanding of object permanence by playing peekaboo, kids in the concrete operational stage might like playing around with their understanding of conservation with jokes like the one in the book: “don’t cut the pizza into eight pieces, I can only eat six.” Back to the glass of milk example, a kid at this age might laugh at hearing or saying, “could you pour that milk into a taller glass, I’m really thirsty.”
46 Views and uses of Piaget’s Theory Although Jean Piaget’s observation and stage theory are useful, today’s researchers believe:development is a continuous process.children show some mental abilities at an earlier age than Piaget thought.formal logic is a smaller part of cognition, even for adults, than Piaget believed.Piaget helps us understand kids fairly. 3 year olds:May break things without intending to;Cannot tell that they are blocking your view, much less figuratively see from your viewpoint on issues;May complain about a sibling getting more food if the same sized pizza was cut into more pieces.May not get your sarcasm.Click to reveal all text.If this is symbolic thought, then adult primates such as bonobos have this too.There is a great video starring Alan Alda showing a bonobo (a peaceful relative of the chimpanzee) able to do what a two and a half year old cannot do; find the hidden object based on a model.Is this symbolic thought, or is a visual mental model not the same as an abstract symbol?Click to reveal sidebar.
47 Lev Vygotsky: Alternative to Jean Piaget Lev Vygotsky studied kids too, but focused on how they learn in the context of social communication.Principle: children learn thinking skills by internalizing language from others and developing inner speech.Vygotsky saw development as building on a scaffold of mentoring, language, and cognitive support from parents and others.Click to reveal bullets and example.Regarding the first bullet point: by contrast, Jean Piaget was more focused on how children learned through interaction with the physical environment.
48 Social Development Stranger Anxiety Stranger anxiety develops around ages 9 to 13 months. In this stage, a child notices and fears new people.Explaining Stranger AnxietyHow does this develop?As children develop schemas for the primary people in their lives, they are more able to notice when strangers do not fit those schemas. However, they do not yet have the ability to assimilate those faces.Why does this develop?An evolutionary psychologist would note that a child is learning to walk at this age. Some of the children who walked toward unfamiliar creatures might have died before having a chance to pass on genes.Click to reveal bullets.
49 Social Development: Attachment Attachment refers to an emotional tie to another person.In children, attachment can appear as a desire for physical closeness to a caregiver.Origins of AttachmentExperiments with monkeys suggest that attachment is based on physical affection and comfortable body contact, and not based on being rewarded with food.Click to reveal all text.Instructor: The word “tie” here implies something even stronger, tighter, and closer than the word “connection.” Sometimes this attachment includes anxiety/distress when separated from the caregiver, as we will see in upcoming slides.In experiments by Harry Harlow (in the late 1950s and 1960s) that gave monkeys a choice of surrogate mothers, a baby monkey would cling to a comfortable cloth ‘mother’ rather than the ‘mother’ that provided food. However, there are numerous critiques of these experiments.
50 Origins of Attachment: Familiarity Most creatures tend to attach to caregivers who have become familiar.Birds have a critical period, hours after hatching, during which they might imprint: become rigidly attached to the first moving object they see.No animation.Humans are more flexible than birds because humans do not have a critical period or rigid/imprinted attachments. However, humans still become emotionally attached to people and objects based on the mere exposure effect--feeling comfortable with what is familiar.This may be one small part of explaining hoarding, or why it is hard to lose a relationship because of breakup or death even when the relationship was dysfunctional.
51 Attachment Variation: Styles of Dealing with Separation Reactions to Separation and ReunionSecure attachment: mild distress when mother leaves, seeking contact with her when she returnsInsecure attachment (anxious style): not exploring, clinging to mother, loudly upset when mother leaves, remaining upset when she returnsInsecure attachment (avoidant style): seeming indifferent to mother’s departure and return“Strange situations” test:a mother and infant child are alone in an unfamiliar (“strange”) room; the child explores the room .the mother leaves the room.After a few moments, the mother returns.Click to reveal bullets and sidebar.The book mixes the descriptions of the two insecure attachment styles together; I have separated them here.Some theorists have added a fourth type of attachment--disorganized, not forming a coherent or consistent style.
52 What causes these different attachment styles: nature or nurture? Is the “strange situations” behavior mainly a function of the child’s inborn temperament?Is the child’s behavior actually caused by previous parenting behavior?Temperament refers to a person’s characteristic style and intensity of emotional reactivity.Some infants have an “easy” temperament happy, relaxed, and calm, with predictable rhythms of hunger and sleep.Some infants seem to be “difficult”; they are irritable, with unpredictable needs and behavior, and intense reactions.Mary Ainsworth believed that sensitive, responsive, calm parenting is correlated with the secure attachment style.Training in sensitive responding for parents of temperamentally-difficult children led to doubled rates of secure attachment.Click to show bullets under each question.Note: we are later going to take a broader look at different parenting styles and the correlation with child behaviors. Here, the focus is on parent and child behaviors related to attachment.Child temperament and attachment: there is usually a third style listed when describing temperament, called “slow to warm up.”As we shall see when discussing personality, these temperamental traits may be genetically based and persist into adulthood in some form.Parental influences on attachment: the correlational observations are not enough, since the correlation could have been driven either by the child’s temperament or by the parent’s behavior.The experiment, by Dymphna C. van den Boom, involved random assignment to experimental and control groups. The control group showed 28 percent of infants being securely attached at 12 months. The experimental group showed 68 percent, actually above the average for infants in general, despite beginning with temperamentally difficult infants.
53 Fathers Count TooMany studies of the impact of parenting have focused on mothers.Correlational studies show a strong relationship between paternal (father) involvement in parenting and the child’s academic success, health, and overall well-being.Click to reveal bullets.
54 Influences on Separation Anxiety Effects of Environment on AttachmentSeparation anxiety peaks and fades whether kids are at home or in day care.No animation.Instructor: More about day care coming up; this slide is in this location following the sequence of material in the text, but you could move it a few slides forward to join the slide on day care.
55 Attachment Styles… not just about bonding with parents Are basic trust and attachment styles determined in childhood?Erik Erikson believed that basic trust is established by relationships with early caregivers.Are trust and attachment styles:set by genetics?formed by early experiences with parents?reshaped by new relationship experiences?Erik Erikson’s concept of basic trust resembles the concept of attachment, but extends beyond the family into our feeling of whether the world is predictable and trustworthy.Attachment style may be relevant to our ability to manage and enjoy adult relationships.Click to reveal bullets and sidebar.
56 Deprivation of Attachment If children live without safe, nurturing, affectionate caretaking, they may still be resilient, that is bounce back, attach, and succeed.However, if the child experiences severe, prolonged deprivation or abuse, he or she may:have difficulty forming attachments.have increased anxiety and depression.have lowered intelligence.show increased aggression.Click to reveal bullets.Genetics and biology still play a role in determining the outcome of prolonged deprivation. Some people’s stress hormone systems seem to be more easily damaged by chronic stress, and some people’s serotonin pathways more easily become inefficient.
57 Children in Day CareWe have seen already that time in day care does not significantly increase or decrease separation anxiety.Warm interaction with multiple caretakers can result in multiple healthy attachments.Time in day care correlates with advanced thinking skills… and also with increased aggression and defiance.Click to reveal bullets.Instructor: For this last bullet point, see if students notice, thanks to the word “correlation,” that there is more than one possible explanation for this result:placement in day care may facilitate advanced thinking and encourage defiance and aggression,OR2) more educated parents, and more irritable and angry parents, are two populations more likely to place the child in day care.
58 Childhood: Parenting Styles Response to Child’s BehaviorAuthoritarian“Too Hard”Parents impose rules “because I said so”and expect obedience.Permissive“Too Soft”Parents submit to kids’ desires, not enforcinglimits or standards for child behavior.Authoritative“Just Right”Parents enforce rules, limits, and standardsbut also explain, discuss, listen, and expressrespect for child’s ideas and wishes.No animation.Instructor: You might note here that we have earlier discussed the influences of parenting behaviors on infant attachment. Now we’re looking at a slightly different picture--the way parents handle the issue of control in childhood.Response to child’s behavior: how does this style control, manage, or otherwise respond to child behavior?
59 Outcomes of these Parenting Styles Long term outcomes for the childAuthoritarian“Too Hard”Rebellion, compulsivity, identity issues.Permissive“Too Soft”Legal trouble, substance abuse, disorganization, unemployment.Authoritative“Just Right”Internalized rules, self-discipline, follow through, life planning.No animation.Instructor: You might note here that we have earlier discussed the influences of parenting behaviors on infant attachment. Now we’re looking at a slightly different picture--the way parents handle the issue of control in childhood.Response to child’s behavior: how does this style control, manage, or otherwise respond to child behavior?
60 Outcomes with Parenting Styles Authoritative parenting, more than the other two styles, seems to be associated with:high self-reliance.high social competence.high self-esteem.low aggression.But are these a result of parenting style, or are parents responding to a child’s temperament? Or are both a function of culture ? Or genes?Click to reveal bullets.There could also be other factors, such as genes or culture, affecting both the child outcomes and the parenting styles.
61 Child-rearing: Cultural Differences Individualist cultures: raising children to be self-reliant, independent and developing a personal identity.In Western cultures, parents maintain control over parenting but might pay others to care for their children.Collectivist cultures, e.g. Asia and Africa: raising children to be interdependent, developing a family self (what shames the child, shames the family).Children in Africa and Asia are often raised in close physical contact with adults, but also raised later by siblings, integrated into webs of mutual support.Click to reveal bullets.
62 Nature, Nurture, and Differences Childhood involves a genetically-driven process of maturation, AND a process of interacting with, and being formed by, the world of objects and media, parents and peers.When racial or ethnic or gender groups of people differ from each other in traits or abilities, the differences within groups tends to be greater than the difference between groups. Why?The environment and culture affects all of us, but due to our similar biological heritage, it affects us in much the same way.Genetic variations within groups affect traits and behavior more than the variations between groups.
63 Adolescence Teenage Topics Physical Development: Puberty and more Cognitive Development in AdolescenceReasoning PowerMoral Intuition, Reasoning, and ActionSocial Development in AdolescenceForming an IdentityParent and Peer RelationshipsEmerging AdulthoodNo animation.
64 The next phase of development Developmental psychologists used to focus attention only on childhood.Lifespan perspective refers to the idea that development is a lifelong process.The next phase of that process is adolescence.the transition period from childhood to adulthoodthe period of development ranging from puberty to independenceClick to reveal bullets.Longer narrative accompanying this slide:“Developmental psychologists used to focus on childhood, believing that is the period when maturation and experience formed our traits for life. But now we have the lifespan perspective, acknowledging that “development is a lifelong process.” And thus we move on to adolescence.In some cultures or periods in history, this transition period, especially by the second definition, would be short or non-existent. In the 21st-century, puberty is coming earlier and independence seems to be coming much later, so that we’ll be hearing of one more transitional phase, “emergent adulthood.”Are these kids adolescents yet?
65 Adolescent Physical Development Puberty is the time of sexual maturation (becoming physically able to reproduce).During puberty, increased sex hormones lead to:primary and secondary sex characteristics.some changes in mood and behavior.As with other maturation, the sequence is more predictable than the timing.Effects of Early Physical Maturation:Boys who become strong/athletic earlybecome more popular and confidentAre at greater risk of substance abuse, delinquency, premature sexual activity.Girls whose bodies mature early may associate with older teens or be teased or taunted.Click to reveal bullets.
66 Adolescent Brain Development During puberty, the brain stops automatically adding new connections, and starts pruning away the neurons and synapses that aren’t being used (Use them or lose them!)The frontal lobes are still forming during this time, still becoming more efficient at conducting signals.The adolescent brain is at its peak of learning ability but not fully able to inhibit impulses (good accelerator, bad brakes).Click to reveal bullets.Note: I have altered the caption of this cartoon from the text.“Young man, go to your room and stay until your frontal lobes finish forming.”
67 Adolescent Cognitive Development According to Jean Piaget, adolescents are in the formal operational stage. They use this reasoning to:think about how reality compares to ideals.think hypothetically about different choices and their consequences.critique the reasoning of others.debate matters of justice, meaning of life, and human nature.Click to reveal bullets.Although adolescents are cognitively able to consider consequences, they may seem like they’re ignoring consequences because they tend to weigh potential benefits much more heavily than potential risks.Although adolescents are able to make plans to meet goals, they may still tend to make choices based on shorter-term, immediate benefits rather than long-term goals.Adolescents can picture the minds of others, but they retain some childhood egocentrism; they mainly wonder what others think about them, and assume no one else can understand their experience.
68 Building Toward Moral Reasoning Adolescents see justice and fairness in terms of merit and equity instead of in terms of everyone getting equal treatment.Moral Intuition: Our reasoning may be directed by emotions, such asdisgust about evil acts, andelevated feelings about generosity and courage.Lawrence Kohlberg’sLevels of Moral ReasoningPreconventional morality (up to age 9): “Follow the rules because if you don’t, you’ll get in trouble; if you do, you might get a treat.”Conventional morality (early adolescence): “Follow the rules because we get along better if everyone does the right thing.”This is an optional slide that combines the next three slides.Click to reveal bullets and Kohlberg’s levels of moral reasoning.Instructor: You can add that Lawrence Kohlberg ( ) established these categories after studying the way kids of different ages created solutions to moral dilemmas. If you’re going to use the next slide, you can preview here, or wait until that slide has been discussed, to note that we might not agree that these levels of moral reasoning are really a function of age and development. Kohlberg’s levels have also been criticized as culturally determined.Postconventional morality (later adolescence and adulthood): “Sometimes rules need to be set aside to pursue higher principles.”
69 Building Toward Moral Reasoning Adolescents see justice and fairness in terms of merit and equity instead of in terms of everyone getting equal treatment.Adolescents may strive to advocate for ideals and political causes.Adolescents think about god, meaning, and purpose in deeper terms than in childhood.Lawrence Kohlberg’sLevels of Moral ReasoningPreconventional morality (up to age 9): “Follow the rules because if you don’t, you’ll get in trouble; if you do, you might get a treat.”Conventional morality (early adolescence): “Follow the rules because we get along better if everyone does the right thing.”Click to reveal bullets and Kohlberg’s levels of moral reasoning.Instructor: You can add that Lawrence Kohlberg ( ) established these categories after studying the way kids of different ages created solutions to moral dilemmas. If you’re going to use the next slide, you can preview here, or wait until that slide has been discussed, to note that we might not agree that these levels of moral reasoning are really a function of age and development. Kohlberg’s levels have also been criticized as culturally determined.Postconventional morality (later adolescence and adulthood): “Sometimes rules need to be set aside to pursue higher principles.”
70 Example: looting after a natural disaster Which level of moral reasoning is involved?Looting is a problem; if everyone did it, there would be escalating chaos and greater damage to the economy.Looting is generally wrong, yet morally right when your family’s survival seems to depend on it.Looting is wrong because you might get punished, but if no one is punished, that’s a sign that it’s okay.Click to reveal bullets.The goal here is not to have students answer the questions but to have students note that the questions use a variety of levels of moral reasoning. See if they can explain which level of moral reasoning is involved. This may bring out the critique of Lawrence Kohlberg for seeing these levels as stages based on age/development; after all, adults can be found thinking in any of these three ways.Answers:conventional morality--this is an example of thinking about rules based on the benefits they bring to society.postconventional morality--here we put aside rules that benefit society when we decide to invoke a higher moral principle, although it could be argued here that the “higher principle” here is actually selfish. An imperfect example can sometimes generate discussion.preconventional morality--using punishments and rewards as a cue for deciding what is right and wrong.
71 Moral IntuitionJonathan Haidt believed moral decisions are often driven by moral intuition, that is, quick, gut-feeling decisions.This intuition is not just based in moral reasoning but also in emotions such as:disgust. We may turn away from choosing an action because it feels awful.elevated feelings. We may get a rewarding delight from some moral behavior such as donating to charity.An Example of Moral Intuition:Given a hypothetical choice to save five people from an oncoming trolley by killing one person, many people’s choice is determined not just by reasoning, but by disgust.Many people would flip a switch to make this choice, but not as many would push a person on the tracks to save five others.Click to reveal bullets and example.The emotional areas of the brain, quiet when considering flipping a track switch to have a trolley kill one person instead of five, actually light up when considering pushing someone in the path of a trolley. This supports the idea that emotion is making the difference in the choice.
72 Moral Action: Doing the Right Thing Character education:what helps people choose principled actions over selfishness or social pressure?Empathy for the feelings of othersSelf-discipline, or the ability to resist impulsesDelaying gratification to plan for larger goalsExperience serving others/the greater goodNo animation.
73 Psychosocial Development: Erikson’s Stages Each age involves an “issue,” a psychological challenge in managing our interaction with the social world.The “vs.” part: there is tension between two opposing tendencies.Successfully resolving this tension gives us strengths that help us move to the next stage.Not resolving this tension can lead to lifelong emotional and social difficulties.Click to reveal bullets.
74 Social Development: Erik Erikson Erik Erikson’s model of lifelong psychosocial developmentsees adolescence as a struggle to form an identity, a sense of self.Adolescents may in different roles with peers, with parents, and with teachers, try out different “selves.”For Erikson, the challenge in adolescence is to test and integrate the roles/selves in order to prevent role confusion (which of those selves, or what combination, is really me?).Click to reveal bullets.
75 Erik Erikson: Stages of Psychosocial Development No animation.
76 Other Eriksonian stages on the minds of adolescents While currently in the identity vs. role confusion stage,adolescents have ideally just finished working through the tension of competence vs. inferiority.They are ready after adolescence to take on the challenge of intimacy vs. isolation.Click to reveal bullets.This is an optional slide, spotlighting material from the two previous slides, and putting the current stage in context of the course of psychosocial development.
77 Peer InfluenceThe degree of peer influence is hard to trace. Apparent conformity (the whole group smokes) could be a selection effect (they get together because they want to be with others who like to smoke).Interaction with peers can teach new social skills.Parents may try to have indirect influence by selecting a child’s peers, such as by selecting a school or neighborhood. However, ultimately, most children self-select their peers.Click to reveal bullets.
78 Influences on Identity: Parent and Peer Relationships During adolescence, peer relationships take center stage.Conflicts arise in this stage, especially with first born children.The challenge: finding how adolescent relationships with peers and with parents can coexist well, rather than being in conflict.Click to reveal bullets and example.
79 Parents vs. Peers Battling over non-genetic influence Parents have more influence on:Peers have more influence on:Education and career path Cooperation Self-discipline Responsibility Charitableness Religion Style of interaction with authority figuresLearning cooperation skills Learning the path to popularity Choice of music and other recreation Choice of clothing and other cultural choices Good and bad habitsHave students guess at these before clicking to reveal each list.
80 Adolescence, the sequel… Emerging Adulthood In some countries, added years of education and later marriage has delayed full adult independence beyond traditional adolescence. This seems to have created a new phase which can be called emerging adulthood, agesNo animation.The chart at the left shows how the time between the onset of puberty and fully moving on from one’s family of origin has grown to the point that it is not really one single “adolescent” phase anymore. It is now broken into parts, with the departure for college, around age 18, making a natural breaking point.
81 Stages and ContinuityThree different types of development--cognitive, moral, and psychosocial--have been running in parallel.Are they really separate stages, or a continuous process of development?Click to reveal bullets and example.
82 Continuity vs. StagesResearchers who see development as a function of experience tend to see development as continuous and gradual.Nurture is continuous.Researchers who focus on biological maturation see spurts of growth and other changes that make one stage of development very different from another.Nature has stages.Automatic animation.
83 Adulthood Topics Grown-Ups Think About Physical Changes in Middle Adulthood and in Later Life: Life expectancy, Sensory changes, Dementias including Alzheimer’s DiseaseCognitive Development and declineSocial Development: Love, WorkWell-Being across the LifespanDying and DeathNo animation.
84 AdulthoodIs the rest of the developmental story just one long plateau of work and possibly raising kids?Physical Developmentphysical declinelifespan and deathsensory changesCognitive DevelopmentmemorySocial DevelopmentcommitmentsClick to show box with upcoming topics.Early on in this section, I highlight that death comes to everyone, so that students will be prepared to shift gears and talk about sensory decline. You can choose to move those lifespan/death slides to the end of the physical development section or to the end of the entire discussion of adulthood.
85 Adult Physical Development In our mid-20’s, we reach a peak in the natural physical abilities which come with biological maturation:muscular strengthcardiac outputreaction timesensory sensitivityTo what extent can training overcome the decline that follows?Click to reveal bullets.Answering the last question: with strength and endurance training, you can improve compared to someone not training, but it does not change the decline compared to a younger person doing the same training.Question (with no correct answer) you can raise with students: does the word “development” still apply if we are talking about a decline?
86 Physical Changes: Middle Adulthood The end the reproductive yearsThere is a gradual decline in sexual activity in adulthood, although sexuality can continue throughout life.Around age 50, women enter menopause (the end of being able to get pregnant).According to evolutionary psychologists, why might it make sense for women’s fertility to end?Physical Changes: Middle AdulthoodBetween ages 40 and 60, physical vitality (such as endurance and strength) may still be more of a function of lifestyle than of biological decline.Some changes are still driven by genetic maturation, especially the end of our reproductive years.Click to reveal bullets and sidebar.Potential answer to the sidebar question: to ensure the presence of healthy mothers, AND to create a population of back-up help to these mothers (grandmothers).You might note that is human fertility did not end, evolutionary psychologists would easily explain that too (i.e., to maximize the number of offspring). This might help students understand the limits of evolutionary psychology; explanations cannot almost never be empirically tested.
87 The Aging Body More Aged Women The rise in life expectancy, combined with declining birth rates, means a higher percentage of the world’s population is old.More elderly people are women because more men die than women at every age. By age 100, women outnumber men by a ratio of 5 to 1.Potential lifespan for the human body is estimated to be about 122 years.Life expectancy refers to the average expected life span.The worldwide average has increased from 49 in 1950 to 69 in In 2012:South Africa—49Cameroon—55Pakistan—66Thailand--74United States--75Ireland--80Australia—82Japan--84Click to reveal bullets and sidebar bullets.Although the next few slides leading up to death are here to follow the sequence of the text, I suggest moving them to the end of this “Physical Development” section or even to the end of the chapter.About the change in life expectancy: picture how adding two more decades of life (on average) changes what a typical life is like, both for individuals and families. (Although actually, much of the rise of this average figure may be due to decreasing infant mortality; not all adults living two decades longer.)This life expectancy figure may seem low; keep in mind that it averages all countries, and that it is the life expectancy at birth. Figures for life expectancy for those who have survived the infant mortality years is higher, although this was even more true in the past.
88 Why don’t we live forever? Possible biological answers… Nurture/EnvironmentAn accumulation of stress, damage, and disease wears us down until one of these factors kills us.GenesSome people have genes that protect against some kinds of damage.Even with great genes and environment, telomeres (the tips at the end of chromosomes) wear down with every generation of cell duplication and we stop healing well.Click to reveal bullets.Philosophical and evolutionary answers to the question on this slide might speculate about the value of “new blood” but this is highly debatable.The answers on the slide are biological answers, and more about “how” we don’t live forever, perhaps not a full answer as to “why.”The wearing down of telomeres is worsened by smoking, obesity, and stress. It happens no matter how life is lived, although researchers are looking into extending the human lifespan by reducing the deterioration of the telomeres.
89 The Death-Deferral Phenomenon Can people will themselves to hold off death? There is some evidence that some people are able to stay alive to be with families at Christmas time.No animation.There is, however, some dispute about this data. We will return to the subject of dying later in the chapter, as a social rather than as a biological issue, although you could also move this slide to join that later discussion.
90 Physical Changes with Age The following abilities decline as we age:visual acuity, both sharpness and brightnesshearing, especially sensing higher pitchreaction time and general motor abilitiesneural processing speed, especially for complex and novel tasksClick to reveal bullets.The first bullet will shrink to play off the visual acuity issue.
91 Impact of Sensory and Motor Decline What specific factors and changes might explain the results below?No animation.It’s a more minor point, but you could ask students to explain why looking at accidents per mile driven rather than per driver is a more dramatic figure. Which figure is more appropriate in assessing the average risk of letting an older person drive?Age
92 Health/Immunity Changes with Age The bad newsThe good newsThe immune system declines with age, and can have difficulty fighting off major illnesses.The immune system has a lifetime’s accumulation of antibodies, and does well fighting off minor illnesses.Click to reveal good news and bad news.
93 Exercise Can Slow the Aging Process build muscles and bones.stimulate neurogenesis (in the hippocampus) and new neural connections.maintain telomeres.improve cognition.reduce the risk of dementia.Click to reveal bullets.
94 Changes in the Brain with Age Myelin-enhanced neural processing speed peaks in the teen years, and declines thereafter.Regions of the brain related to memory begin to shrink with age, making it harder to form new memories.The frontal lobes atrophy, leading eventually to decreased inhibition and self-control.By age 80, a healthy brain is 5 percent lighter than a brain in middle adulthood.Click to reveal bullets.
95 Alzheimer’s Disease and Other Dementias Brain Changes of Alzheimer’s Diseaseloss of brain cells and neural network connectionsdeterioration of neurons that produce acetylcholine, the memory neurotransmittershriveled and broken protein filaments forming plaques at the tips of neuronsdramatic shrinking of the brainDementia, including the Alzheimer’s type, is NOT a “normal” part of aging.Dementia Symptomsdecreased ability to recall recent events and the names of familiar objects and peopleemotional unpredictability; flat, then uninhibited, then angryconfusion, disorientation, and eventual inability to think or communicateClick to reveal bullets and sidebar bullets.Note: when a person has just one of the above symptoms, or general memory problems, it does NOT mean that person has dementia.There are many other kinds of dementia besides Alzheimer’s, including dementia related to strokes, or “multi-infarct dementia.”Sidebar: it is not clear which of these brain changes causes dementia and which simply tend to be associated with Alzheimer’s. Some of these changes are evident in people without Alzheimer’s, and some people with Alzheimer’s symptoms do not show these changes. Nonetheless, these brain changes, in addition to some associated genes, and other symptoms such as loss of ability to smell, can form early warning signs of Alzheimer’s.
96 Cognitive Development and Memory Even without the brain changes of dementia, there are some changes in our ability to learn, process, and recall information.The ability to recognize information, and to use previous knowledge as expertise, does not decline with age.Cognitive Development and MemoryCan you describe and explain the differences in performance changes in these charts?Click to reveal bullets and example. See if students can describe, or even try to explain, the change with age in performance depicted in these two charts. You may need to clarify that the “names recalled” in this study (on the left), refers to the names of people introducing themselves in video clips.
97 More Learning and Memory Changes Rote memorization ability declines more than ability to learn meaningful information.Prospective memory, planning to recall, (“I must remember to do…) also declines.The ability to learn new skills declines less than the ability to learn new information.Click to reveal bullets.
98 Comparing Young and Old People Cross-sectional studies compare people at different ages all at one time.What disadvantages can you see with this method?Hint: when, and how, were today’s 80-year-olds raised?Longitudinal studies compare the attributes of the same people as they change over time.Any disadvantages?Is it practical?Is it generalizable?Click to reveal bullets.Disadvantage of cross-sectional studies: comparing populations with different “nurture.” Today’s 80 year olds may be different because of the era in which they were raisedDisadvantage of longitudinal studies: a declining and narrow subject base, and it takes a long time to get useful data.Both types of studies have the weakness of comparing the average young person to the select group of older people who happen to live that long.All of these make it hard to gain knowledge that can predict how today’s young people will be when they are old.
99 Social Development in Adulthood Is adult social development driven by biological maturation or by life experiences and roles?The “midlife crisis”--re-evaluating one’s life plan and success--does not seem to peak at any age.For the 25 percent of adults who do have this emotional crisis, the trigger seems to be the challenge of major illness, divorce, job loss, or parenting.Click to reveal bullets.The sports car is a stereotypical, perhaps mythical, example of purchases by people in their 50’s trying to feel more youthful. You could ask if any students have parents showing this type of behavior.
100 Psychosocial Development Although the “midlife crisis” may not be a function of age, people do feel pressured by a “social clock” of achievement expectation.Erik Erikson’s observations of age-related issues:Click to reveal bullets.
101 Challenges of Healthy Adulthood Arising first:Erik Erikson’s intimacy issue (a.k.a. affiliation, attachment, connectedness)Sigmund Freud used simpler terms, saying that the healthy adult must find ways to love and to work.Arising later: Erik Erikson’s generativity issue (achievement, productivity, competence)Click to reveal all text.
102 Commitment to Love Commitment to Work The desire to commit to a loving relationship may have evolved to help vulnerable human children survive long enough to reproduce.Couples who go through marriage/union ceremonies tend to stay together more than couples who simply live together.Marriage, compared to being single, is associated with ‘happiness’ and with fewer social problems such as crime and child delinquency.Work roles can largely define adult identity, especially in individualistic capitalist societies.Tough economic times make it difficult to find work, much less follow a career path.Work satisfaction seems to be a function of having the work fit a person’s interests and providing a sense of competence and accomplishment.Click to reveal all bullets on each side.In both examples, it is possible to explain the causation in either direction, (e.g. that ceremonies make commitments last OR that people in relationships that are more likely to last choose to have a ceremony) or even that both factors are explained by a third factor such as culture or socioeconomic status.Work satisfaction is also caused by other factors such as financial reward and control over work tasks and schedules. However, the factors listed above fit with the challenges of Erik Erikson’s psychosocial crisis of “generativity vs. stagnation.”
103 Well-Being across the Lifespan Life satisfaction, as measured by how close people feel to the “best possible life,” is apparently not a function of age.No animation.
104 Why do people claim to be happy even as their body declines? Older people attend less to negative information and more to positive information.They are also more likely to have accumulated many mildly positive memories, which last longer than mildly negative memories.Older people feel an increased sense of competence and control, and have greater stability in mood.Click to reveal bullets.The first finding may be related to recent research on the brain: with age, the amygdala responds less actively to negative events, but not less actively to positively events. There is generally less brain wave activity in response to negative images.
105 Managing the Aging Process: Biopsychosocial Factors Many factors can support well-being in old age.No animation.
106 Coping with Death and Dying Below is an average reaction to a spouse’s death.No animation.The word “average” is underlined because one of the biggest struggles in grieving is trying to rush or skip the grieving process, or feeling incompetent if one is not following the “normal” timeline for “moving on.”
107 Coping with Death and Dying Individual responses to death may vary.Grief is more intense when death occurs unexpectedly (especially if also too early on the social clock).There is NO standard pattern or length of the grieving process.It seems to help to have the support of friends or groups, and to face the reality of death and grief while affirming the value of life.Click to reveal bullets.
108 Reflections on Change and Stability Are there some parts of who we are that remain stable throughout development?Our temperament? Our overall personality?Do some of our attributes change during development (even while we maintain our sense of identity)?Our abilities? Our interests? Our habits? Our traits?Click to reveal bullets.Some of these questions will be addressed in later chapters on intelligence and personality.
109 The Final Issue in Development: Stability and Change Are we essentially the same person over long periods?In general, temperament seems stable.Traits can vary, especially attitudes, coping strategies, work habits, and styles of socializing.Personality seems to stabilize with age.Stability helps us form identity, while the potential for change gives us control over our lives.Click to reveal bullets.