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Wireless Network Independent Hand-Off Bill Phillips 17 November 2006.

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1 Wireless Network Independent Hand-Off Bill Phillips 17 November 2006

2 November 17, 2006Wireless Network Independent Hand-Off2 Outline Motivation/Overview Types of Hand-Off 802.21 MIH –Protocol Description –MIH Function and Key Services –Link Layer Event Triggers –References 802.16e/WiMAX –Key Players –Protocol Description –References WiBro –Comparison to WiMAX –Hand-off Example –References

3 November 17, 2006Wireless Network Independent Hand-Off3 802.21 Media Independent Hand-off (MIH)

4 November 17, 2006Wireless Network Independent Hand-Off4 Motivation for Wireless Hand-Off Multiple Wireless Technologies Co-exist –WiMAX (802.16e)/WiBro –WLAN (802.11a,b,g) –Cellular (GPRS,CDMA-2000,3GPP) –Bluetooth Current technologies are limited to a specific range –WAN/MAN –LAN –PAN Users desire seamless wireless connectivity

5 November 17, 2006Wireless Network Independent Hand-Off5 Types of Hand-off Hard Hand-off –Link is broken before new one is formed Soft Hand-off –Link is established before old one is terminated. Seamless Hand-off –Soft hand-off in which there is no loss of information Homogeneous (Horizontal) Hand-off –Within Single Network (Localized Mobility) 802.11b to 802.11g One network access point to another in the same network. –Limited opportunities (reliant on a single network) Heterogeneous (Vertical) Hand-off –Across Different Networks (Global Mobility) Cellular to WIMAX to 802.11g –802.21 defines a framework for vertical handovers between heterogeneous networks. –Optimal Network Selection

6 November 17, 2006Wireless Network Independent Hand-Off6 802.21 Overview Emerging IEEE Standard for Media Independent Hand-off (MIH) First draft standard May ‘05/Current draft standard March ‘06 Includes protocol specifications for: –Cellular (GSM/GPRS) –WiFi (802.11a,b,g) –WiMAX (802.16e) –Bluetooth (802.15.1) Protocol benefits –Seamless (low latency), vertical hand-off –Automatic detection and selection of network access points –Hand-off triggers that allow smooth, low loss network transitions –Automatic, intelligence selection of the optimal network based on the user’s bandwidth and throughput requirements –Supports both point-to-multipoint (user to access point) and peer- to-peer (adhoc) connectivity –Open source, compatible with other 802 standards –Compatible with standard security algorithms

7 November 17, 2006Wireless Network Independent Hand-Off7 Optimal Network Selection 802.21 specifies triggers that are used by the mobile device to determine the optimal network when more than 1 is present (network overlays) –signal quality –synchronization time differences –transmission error rates –available bandwidth –quality of service (QoS) Metrics are tracked in the mobile device, which makes the determination to transfer to another access point. The access point does not make the decision to initiate hand-off (in the case of vertical hand-offs)

8 November 17, 2006Wireless Network Independent Hand-Off8 802.21 Protocol Responsibility Hand-off Initiation Hand-off Preparation Hand-off Execution Search New Link Network Discovery Network Selection Hand-off Negotiation Setup New Link Link Layer Connectivity IP Layer Connectivity Transfer Connection Handover Signaling Context Transfer Packet Reception 802.21 SpecificationOther 802 Standards

9 November 17, 2006Wireless Network Independent Hand-Off9 MIH Function MIH Function is the set of hand- off enabling functions in the protocol stack (hand-off intelligence). Primarily link layer protocols Event Service - info flows up (detection) Command Service – info flows down (control) Information Service – info flows both ways (query/response) Mobility Management Protocol Stack (Heterogeneous Hand-off)

10 November 17, 2006Wireless Network Independent Hand-Off10 MIH Services Media Independent Event Services (MIES) –Triggered events corresponding to dynamic changes in the link characteristics or status Media Independent Command Services (MICS) –Used to manage and control link behavior relevant to hand- offs and mobility –Uses event service information as part of the subscription and notification process Media Independent Information Services (MIIS) –Provides an information model that passes on awareness regarding the neighboring networks and their capabilities.

11 November 17, 2006Wireless Network Independent Hand-Off11 MIES (Event Services) Reports local and remote events to higher layers. –Local Events: take place at mobile node. –Remote Events: take place in other network elements (i.e. link A going down at time t) Subscription/Notification Procedure –MIES registers with MAC layer, and is notified if a subscription event occurs. –Trigger examples Link up/down Link parameters change Link hand-off imminent Link Characteristics Link Status Link Quality Link State Changes Event Classification Event Filtering Event Reporting Event Services

12 November 17, 2006Wireless Network Independent Hand-Off12 MICS (Command Services) Controls MIH functions, and layer 2 services Executes IP mobility and connectivity decisions Both local and remote commands are possible Includes link discovery and link configuration Example commands: –MIH Poll –MIH Scan –MIH Configure –MIH Switch

13 November 17, 2006Wireless Network Independent Hand-Off13 MIIS (Information Services) Link-Layer convergence zone for multiple heterogeneous access technologies Unified presentation to upper layers of the mobility- management protocol stack Awareness of neighboring networks and available resources Facilitates effective network access Facilitates hand-off decisions Information discovery only/Does not make hand-off decisions

14 November 17, 2006Wireless Network Independent Hand-Off14 802.21 Test Bed A.Dutta, S.Das, D. Famolari, Y.Ohba, K.Taniuchi, T.Kodama, H.Schulzrinne Seamless Handoff across Heterogeneous Networks - An 802.21 Centric Approach IEEE WPMC 2005Seamless Handoff across Heterogeneous Networks - An 802.21 Centric Approach IEEE WPMC 2005 802.21 Test Bed Scenario

15 November 17, 2006Wireless Network Independent Hand-Off15 Scenario Setup Mobile node (network 1) is communicating with the Correspondent node (network 4) Mobility management protocol: (SIP-M) Configuration protocol: DHCP Authentication agent: PANA Server Voice traffic protocol: RTP/UDP –CODEC sampling speed: 20ms During simulation, the mobile node travels from coverage area 1 to coverage area 2/3

16 November 17, 2006Wireless Network Independent Hand-Off16 Scenario Results (baseline) Non-802.21 based hand-off (baseline) –Hand-off delay: 4 seconds –200 packets lost –Packet loss during mobile node’s movement –Delays IP address assignment (DHCP identification of duplicate IP addresses) Post-authentication Mobility binding update Baseline repeated with CDMA and GPRS in coverage area 2/3 –Hand-off delay: 15 seconds –Lengthy authentication and connection establishment

17 November 17, 2006Wireless Network Independent Hand-Off17 Scenario Results 802.21 based hand-off implementation –Hand-off delay: 0 seconds –0 packets lost –Advanced network discovery Access points, channels, Ethernet addresses, DHCP and PANA servers –Information service: RDF/XML- based query response mechanism

18 November 17, 2006Wireless Network Independent Hand-Off18 802.21 References IEEE 802.21, Media Independent Handover Services, Draft Standard available at http://www.ieee802.org/21http://www.ieee802.org/21 A.Dutta, S.Das, D. Famolari, Y.Ohba, K.Taniuchi, T.Kodama, H.Schulzrinne Seamless Handoff across Heterogeneous Networks - An 802.21 Centric Approach IEEE WPMC 2005Seamless Handoff across Heterogeneous Networks - An 802.21 Centric Approach IEEE WPMC 2005 A.Dutta, S.Das, D.Famolari,Y.Ohba,K.Taniuchi,V.Fajardo,T.Kodama,H.Schulzrinne Secured Seamless Convergence across Heterogeneous Access Networks, World Telecommunication Congress 2006, Budapest, Hungary,. Secured Seamless Convergence across Heterogeneous Access Networks, World Telecommunication Congress 2006, Budapest, Hungary, C. Dannewitz, S. Berg, and H. Karl, "An IEEE 802.21-based Universal Information Service", in Proc. of the Wireless World Research Forum Meeting 16, April 2006.

19 November 17, 2006Wireless Network Independent Hand-Off19 802.16-2005 (802.16e) Wireless MAN/WiMAX

20 November 17, 2006Wireless Network Independent Hand-Off20 16 IEEE articles published since 2004 on WiMAX hand-off –No articles prior to 2004 (year work began on 802.16e) –802.16 committee formed in 1999 and first iteration of the standard was approved in 2002 (originally wired standard) 12 different research groups Spread across 6 different countries –USA (4 groups / 5 articles) –Korea (4 groups / 5 articles) –China (1 group / 3 articles) –France (1 group / 1 article) –Singapore (1 group / 1 article) –Sweden (1 group / 1 article) Conclusion: 802.16 handoff to other wireless or wired technologies is an emerging area of research. Key Players Vital Statistics No single center of research or field leader

21 November 17, 2006Wireless Network Independent Hand-Off21 Primary Players Jing Nie, Xin He, JiangChuan Wen, Qi Dong, Zheng Zhou, ChengLin Zhao –Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, China –3 articles on 802.16 to/from 802.11 handoff –All published in 2005 Sunghyun Cho, Jonghyung Kwan, Chihyun Park, Jung-Hoon Cheon, Ok-Seon Lee, Kiho Kim, Sik Choi, Gyung-Ho Hwang, Taesoo Kwon, Ae-Ri Lim, Dong-Ho Cho –Samsung Advanced Institute of Technology, Korea –2 articles on 802.16 hard/soft handoffs with simulations –Published 2005 & 2006 Kin K. Leung, Sayandev Mukherjee, George E. Rittenhouse –Imperial College, England / Bell Labs, Lucent Technologies –2 articles on 802.16 mobile handoff and energy conservation –All published in 2005

22 November 17, 2006Wireless Network Independent Hand-Off22 Handoff Parameter Consideration How to determine the ”best” network when making a vertical handoff decision? –Signal-to-interference ratio (or SNR or SSI) –Link/route cost (network policies) –Overall network performance (or capacity) –Power consumption/cost –Mobile host speed (small or large coverage foot print) –Traffic demand/speed-of-service (acceptable latency) –Quality of Service Algorithm should take all these parameters into consideration

23 November 17, 2006Wireless Network Independent Hand-Off23 802.16 QoS Features Differentiated levels of QoS. Demand Assigned Multiple Access (DAMA) allocates time slots (bandwidth resources) based on demand and QoS requirements. QoS is set at the time that the connection is established, and cannot be adjusted.

24 November 17, 2006Wireless Network Independent Hand-Off24 WiMAX Link Layer Specification WiBro web site

25 November 17, 2006Wireless Network Independent Hand-Off25 Convergence Sublayer Funnel point between the Link Layer and Network Layer. Data classification from higher layers Ensures delivery to proper MAC SAP Two sublayers specified: ATM and Packet ATM CS features –ATM cells mapped to MAC frames –Several ATM cells with same connection ID may be packed to save bandwidth –Supports common channel signaling (CCS) –Assigns channel ID (CID) –Performs Payload Header Suppression (PHS) Packet CS features –Used for all packet-based protocols (IP, Ethernet) –Performs Payload Header Suppression (PHS)

26 November 17, 2006Wireless Network Independent Hand-Off26 MAC Common Part Sublayer Defines multiple-access mechanism On downlink only base station transmitting –no need for coordination –base station broadcasts, –stations retain only messages addressed to them On uplink user stations have to share bandwidth –access determined by: unsolicited bandwidth grants polling procedures Contention procedures –sharing dynamic and with on-demand basis –sharing can depend on service classes (continuing rights to transmit / transmit right only on request)

27 November 17, 2006Wireless Network Independent Hand-Off27 Handoff Manager Located in network layer and interacts with both: –the physical and data link layer, and –the network layer Information collected: –User preferences –Network parameters (signal strength, available bandwidth, network latency, and route cost) Application Transport Network Data Link Physical TELNETFTPHTTP TCPUDP IP Handoff Manager 802.11n802.16e

28 November 17, 2006Wireless Network Independent Hand-Off28 WiMAX References Benefit-driven handoffs between WMAN and WLAN Jing Nie; Xin He; Zheng Zhou; Cheng Lin Zhao; Military Communications Conference, 2005. MILCOM 2005. IEEE 17-20 Oct. 2005 Page(s):2223 - 2229 Vol. 4 Military Communications Conference, 2005. MILCOM 2005. IEEE (ref A) Guo C, Guo Z, Zhang Q, Zhu W. A Seamless and Proactive End- to-End Mobility Solution for Roaming Across Heterogeneous Wireless Networks. Selected Areas in Communications, IEEE Journal on, Volume: 22, Issue 5, June 2004, Pages 834-848 WiMAX Link Layer Overview http://www.cs.tut.fi/~83180/83180_05_S8c.pdf http://www.cs.tut.fi/~83180/83180_05_S8c.pdf

29 November 17, 2006Wireless Network Independent Hand-Off29 Further Interest In-vehicle secure wireless personal area network (SWPAN) Mahmud, S.M.; Shanker, S.; Vehicular Technology, IEEE Transactions on Volume 55, Issue 3, May 2006 Page(s):1051 - 1061 Vehicular Technology, IEEE Transactions on Hard Handoff Scheme Exploiting Uplink and Downlink Signals in IEEE 802.16e Systems Sunghyun Cho; Kwun, J.; Chihyun Park; Jung-Hoon Cheon; Ok-Seon Lee; Kiho Kim; Vehicular Technology Conference, 2006. VTC 2006-Spring. IEEE 63rd Volume 3, 2006 Page(s):1236 – 1240 Vehicular Technology Conference, 2006. VTC 2006-Spring. IEEE 63rd An Architecture for UMTS-WIMAX Interworking Nguyen-Vuong, Q.; Fiat, L.; Agoulmine, N.; Broadband Convergence Networks, 2006. BcN 2006. The 1st International Workshop on 07-07 April 2006 Page(s):1 - 10 Broadband Convergence Networks, 2006. BcN 2006. The 1st International Workshop on A handover framework for seamless service support between wired and wireless networks Ok Sik Yang; Seong Gon Choi; Jun Kyun Choi; Jung Soo Park; Hyoung Jun Kim; Advanced Communication Technology, 2006. ICACT 2006. The 8th International Conference Volume 3, 20-22 Feb. 2006 Page(s):6 pp. Advanced Communication Technology, 2006. ICACT 2006. The 8th International Conference Fast Handover Algorithm for IEEE 802.16e Broadband Wireless Access System Doo Hwan Lee; Kyamakya, K.; Umondi, J.P.; Wireless Pervasive Computing, 2006 1st International Symposium on 16-18 Jan. 2006 Page(s):1 - 6 Wireless Pervasive Computing, 2006 1st International Symposium on Determining the best network to handover among various IEEE 802.11 and IEEE 802.16 networks by a mobile device Garg, A.; Kin Choong Yow; Mobile Technology, Applications and Systems, 2005 2nd International Conference on 15-17 Nov. 2005 Page(s):1 - 6Mobile Technology, Applications and Systems, 2005 2nd International Conference on Benefit-driven handoffs between WMAN and WLAN Jing Nie; Xin He; Zheng Zhou; Cheng Lin Zhao; Military Communications Conference, 2005. MILCOM 2005. IEEE 17-20 Oct. 2005 Page(s):2223 - 2229 Vol. 4 Military Communications Conference, 2005. MILCOM 2005. IEEE Communication with bandwidth optimization in IEEE 802.16 and IEEE 802.11 hybrid networks Jing Nie; Xin He; Zheng Zhou; Chenglin Zhao; Communications and Information Technology, 2005. ISCIT 2005. IEEE International Symposium on Volume 1, 12-14 Oct. 2005 Page(s):27 – 30 Communications and Information Technology, 2005. ISCIT 2005. IEEE International Symposium on

30 November 17, 2006Wireless Network Independent Hand-Off30 Wireless Broadband (WiBro)

31 November 17, 2006Wireless Network Independent Hand-Off31 WiBro Overview WiBro – Korean Wireless Broadband telecommunications technology. Cellular architecture where base stations offer a 30- 50 Mbps aggregate data throughput up to 5-km (eventual goal). Supports mobile users. Supports different levels of QoS. TDD Duplexing OFDMA Multiple Access 10-MHz Channel bandwidth Wikipedia WiBro web site Proprietary standard with consortium consisting of primary members: Korean Telecom, SK Telecom, Samsung, LG Electronics, and Intel Korea.

32 November 17, 2006Wireless Network Independent Hand-Off32 WiBro Achievements Feb 2002 – Korean government allocated 100 MHz in the 2.30 to 2.31-GHz band. Nov 2004 – WiMax and WiBro agree to make sure that these technologies are interoperable. Nov 2005 – Korean Telecom successfully demonstrated a WiBro network consisting of several hundred PDA and laptop users. Feb 2006 – Telecom Italia successfully demonstrated a WiBro network at the Winter Olympics with 10Mbps download speeds while moving at 120 km/h. Oct 2006 – WiBro conference hosted in Korea iBizToday Korean Times Telcoeye

33 November 17, 2006Wireless Network Independent Hand-Off33 WiBro Network Architecture HA – Home Agent AAA – Authentication, Authorization, Accounting Server ACR – Access Control Router RAS – Radio Access Station PSS – Personal Subscriber Station PSS HA RAS PSS ACR AAA Public IP Network ACR PSS Operator’s IP Network PSS RAS … … WiBro web site

34 November 17, 2006Wireless Network Independent Hand-Off34 Relationship between WiBro and WiMax WiBro is a complete subset of the 802.16 architecture / Developed in conjunction with the 802.16e standard –Supports IEEE Standard P802.16e (TDD, Freq Reuse Factor=1, at least 60km/hr mobility support, Freq Allocation >= 9 MHz, roaming between operators) –Supports the mandatory features of IEEE 802.16 (i.e. QoS). –WiBro Profile = the set of functionalities configuring every mandatory feature and many optional features of 802.16e. – WiBro Air Interface Specification is fully compatible with IEEE P802.16e –WiBro Profiles and Test Specifications will be harmonized with WiMAX Forum’s currently developing Mobile WiMAX Profiles and Test Specifications. (Most of the major manufacturers are participating as the active members of WiBro and WiMAX.) WiBro web site

35 November 17, 2006Wireless Network Independent Hand-Off35 WiBro Physical Layer Specification High spectrum efficiency –TDD –10-MHz channels 8.447-MHz signal bandwidth 1.553-MHz guard band –OFDMA multiple access scheme to support different bandwidth needs/QoS –QPSK, QAM-16 or QAM-64 modulation with convolution turbo coding Less need for retransmission Improves effective range up to 5-km Wide coverage –Frequency reuse factor = 1 –Reed Solomon orthogonal sequences minimize interference between neighboring subscribers WiBro web site

36 November 17, 2006Wireless Network Independent Hand-Off36 WiBro Physical Layer Specification Mobility performance enhancement features –Hybrid ARQ (H-ARQ) combines ARQ and FEC for better efficiency –Short OFDM symbol length in order to guarantee 60 km/h mobility Supports multiple types of QoS –Best effort –Real-time polling –Non real-time polling Power conservation –Supports sleep mode Smart antenna –Provides improved SNR and range extension (low mobility or stationary) WiBro web site

37 November 17, 2006Wireless Network Independent Hand-Off37 Hand-off Example

38 November 17, 2006Wireless Network Independent Hand-Off38 WiBro References Wikipedia entry on WiBro. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/WiBrohttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/WiBro iBizToday news article. “WiBro, WiMax Get Closer”. http://www.ibiztoday.com/eng/articleviewer.html?art_id=50032 &lang=eng; November 15, 2004. http://www.ibiztoday.com/eng/articleviewer.html?art_id=50032 &lang=eng Korean Times news article. “KT’s WiBro Broadens Wireless Realm”. http://times.hankooki.com/lpage/biz/200511/kt20051117161939 11860.htm; November 17, 2005. http://times.hankooki.com/lpage/biz/200511/kt20051117161939 11860.htm Italian Telecommunication Journal, Telcoeye. “WiBro a Torino: 10 Mbps in movimento”. http://www.maxkava.com/2006/02/wibro-torino-10-mbps-in- movimento.html; February 10, 2006. http://www.maxkava.com/2006/02/wibro-torino-10-mbps-in- movimento.html WiBro offical site (English). http://www.wibro.or.kr/http://www.wibro.or.kr/ Richardson, Michael and Ryan, Patrick S., "WiMAX: Opportunity or Hype?". ITERA, 2006 Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=892260 http://ssrn.com/abstract=892260


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