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Parenting Gemma Watson. Tonight’s session objectives Child rearing styles –What is it? –Different child rearing styles Cultural differences in child-rearing.

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Presentation on theme: "Parenting Gemma Watson. Tonight’s session objectives Child rearing styles –What is it? –Different child rearing styles Cultural differences in child-rearing."— Presentation transcript:

1 Parenting Gemma Watson

2 Tonight’s session objectives Child rearing styles –What is it? –Different child rearing styles Cultural differences in child-rearing Consequences of child rearing styles –Effects on an individuals emotional, social and cognitive development Parenting skills Intervention programmes Exam practice The student will be able to: Identify parenting styles, including positive guidance techniques that help children develop positive self-concepts, self-management, and responsibility. Identify parenting types and styles. List ways to foster a child’s self-concept. Identify positive guidance techniques. Write an abstract and a personal analysis of a child guidance articles. Apply positive guidance techniques to child-rearing problems and/or case studies.

3 What is meant by child rearing styles? Strategies adopted by parents to bring up their child Different child rearing styles are distinguished by; – the degree of demand placed on the child by the parent (expectations, standards) –Responsiveness of parent to the individuals needs and rights Differ to which they are characterised by psychological control (e.g. guilt, love, withdrawl)

4 Types of Parenting Most parent can be classified into three main types by the style in which they guide their children. As we discuss each, think about where your own parents fits most appropriately. Do each of your parents use the same style? Do you fit the outcome? If you are parents, think about which style you fit into. Do your children fit the outcome ?

5 3 different child rearing styles Baumrind, 1991 One theory of parenting was developed by Diana Baumrind. Proposed that parents fall into one of 3 categories –Authoritarian –Authoritative – Permissive The theory was developed later

6 Authoritarian Definition: –Parents’ word is law, parents have absolute control. Set strict standards, boundaries –Misconduct is punished Focus on bad behaviour –Affection and praise are rarely give Over critical rather than giving feedback on the positives –Parents try to control children's’ behaviour and attitudes –They value unquestioned obedience –Children are told what to do, how to do it, and where to do it, and when to do it. Children are not provided with options Child is not provided with an explanation

7 Outcome of an Authoritarian Parent Obedient Distrustful Discontent Withdrawn, Unhappy, anxious Hostile –Poor reactions Not High Achievers –Give up easily Often Rebel Inability to think for themselves Lack understanding of why behaviours are appropriate in certain contexts Children from authoritarian homes are so strictly controlled, either by punishment or guilt, that they are often prevented from making a conscious choice about particular behavior because they are overly concerned about what their parents will do.

8 Authoritative Definition: Middle ground between the two above Stress freedom along with rights of others and responsibilities of all Parents set limits and enforce rules –But give reasoning behind rules Willing to listen receptively to child’s requests and questions. Both loves and limits Children contribute to discussion of issues and make some of their own decisions –Encourage child to think about the consequences of their behaviour Exert firm control when necessary, but explain reasoning behind it. Respect children’s interest, opinions, unique personalities. –Final decision lies with adult Loving, consistent, demanding Combine control with encouragement –Focus on positives rather than negatives Reasonable expectations and realistic standards.

9 Outcomes Happy and lively disposition Mostly self-reliant Mostly self-controlled Content, friendly, generous –Developed social skills Cooperative High-achiever’ Less likely to be seriously disruptive or delinquent Well developed emotional regulation Children whose parents expect them to perform well, to fulfill commitments, and to participate actively in family duties, as well as family fun, learn how to formulate goals. They also experience the satisfaction that comes from meeting responsibilities and achieving success.

10 Permissive Definition: Parents allow their children to do their own thing. –Child is in control –Child makes the decisions even if not capable Little respect for order and routine. Parents make few demands on children. –Often inconsistent in reinforcing rules, boundaries Impatience is hidden. Discipline is lax Parents are resources rather than standard makers Rarely punish Non controlling, non-demanding Usually warm Children walk all over the parents

11 Outcome Aggressive –Poor emotion regulation Least self—reliant Least self-controlled –Rebellious and defiant Least exploratory –Low persistence Most unhappy Antisocial behaviours –Vandalism, violence Children from permissive homes receive so little guidance that they often become uncertain and anxious about whether they are doing the right thing.

12 Activity 1 In groups of three or four have student develop a case study or story that fits each parenting style. Have group pass their stories to other group and have them read them to see if they can identify the parenting style.

13 Activity 2 Match 1.Responsive to children's’ needs. 2.Indifferent to children, ignore them 3.Reject their children 4.Critical, derogatory, dissatisfied with their children. 5.Warm, understanding and accepting. A.Hostile and antisocial B.Poor self-control, difficulty with social interactions when teenagers. C.Compliant with parent’s wishes D.Happy and friendly E.Dissatisfied with themselves.

14 Why does authoritative parenting style work Control that appears fair and reasonable (i.e. not arbitrary) to the child is far more likely to be complied with and internalized. Nurturing parents who are secure in the standards they hold for their children provide models of caring concern as well as confident, self- controlled behaviour. A child's modelling of these parents provides emotion regulation skills, emotional understanding, and social understanding. Parents who combine warmth and rational and reasonable control are likely to be more effective reinforcing agents. They praise children for striving to meet their expectations and making good use of disapproval, which works best when applied by an adult who has been warm and caring. Authoritative parents make demands that fit with children's ability to take responsibility for their own behaviour. Children subsequently learn that they are competent individuals who can do things successfully for themselves. This fosters high self-esteem, cognitive development, and emotional maturity.

15 Cultural differences in child-rearing styles Small (1998) –3 different cultures The Kung San of Botswana The Japanese The Americans

16 The Kung San One of the last remaining hunter-gatherer groups in the world Key features of group –No concept of personal ownership (e.g. food) –No concern for privacy –Care of infants and young children = close proximity to mother is a rule (e.g never alone) Carrying in a pouch/ sling on side or back Young infants are in physical contact as well as proximity –90% of time during first few months direct skin-to-skin contact providing physical warmth and stimulation Infants sleep on a mat beside mother (equivalent of staying in the same bed) –25% in middle of second year

17 The Kung San Continued Crying in infancy and early childhood not considered a symptom of "spoiling" or any other negative psychological condition –No sense yet Theory of child development –Children go through stages –You have to respond to their needs Non- response = child abuse or neglect

18 The Japanese Dependence on the mother –Mum quits her job –Co-sleeping is normal until 12 years –Child fed directly –Choose clothes rather than encouraging independence –Responsible for discipline – does not display anger Conformity –Encouraged to join groups –Child’s popularity is a reflection on parents –Sharing is a social norm from early experiences Education –Study after school –Sign up for extra lessons Living at home – Live with parents until married

19 The Americans Promote independence from minimal contact Parents do not feel the need to respond to needs straight away Parents view self as teachers, protectors, stimulators

20 Conclusion from Small, 1998 Child rearing practices in the west differ considerably from other parts of the world Growing movement towards attachment parenting in the west –Respond to the basic needs of the child –Contradicts idea of promoting independence

21 The Influence of Parenting Style on emotional development Baumrind, 1991 –Took 139, 15 year olds who had been studied at the age of 4 and 10 to determine impact of parenting on development –Children of authoritarian and permissive parents were less motivated, less independent –Children of authoritative parents more assertive, responsible, self-reliant and friendly Chamberlin, 1978 –Authoritarian parenting style led to issues at home and within school

22 The Influence of Parenting Style on social development Weiss and Schwarz, 1996 –Authoritarian Style Poor social skills Low self esteem High levels of depression Hoffman, 1970 –Relationship between child rearing styles and moral development –Correlational analysis studies –Permissive parenting resulted in lowest moral development

23 The Influence of Parenting Style on cognitive development Weiss and Schwarz, 1996 –Authoritarian parenting style results in moderate performance Adorno et al, 1950

24 Evaluating Child Rearing Styles Research Lack of evidence –Rowe, 1990 Genetic factors Environmental factors –Sutton et al, 2004 Parenting significantly effects outcome A westernised world –Differences disappearing Value of permissive parenting –Reeve, 2006 Ideal parenting style for shy children Mothers versus fathers –Fathers relationship with child effects employment outcomes –Mothers relationship shapes inner world of child

25 Developing and Improving Parental Skills Policy –UN Convention on the Rights of the Child, 1989 Right of child for healthy development Not to be separated from parent Seek views of child and parent Parenting Programmes –Aim to support parents Sure Start, Triple P, Positive Parenting, Incredible Years, STAR

26 Evaluation of Parenting Programmes Cultural relativism –Child rearing practices vary between cultures Effectiveness –Scar, 1992 – parents provide warm supportive environment for healthy development –Brenner et al, 1999 – interventions can improve aspects of parenting –Lewis, 2002 – parenting programmes are patronising, target high risk families that are hard to engage –Can be ineffective – produce little change –Expense questionned

27 STAR STUDY Paterson et al, 2005 –Aims –Method –Procedure –Results –Conclusion –Evaluation Strengths Weaknesses

28 Activity 3 Describe and Evaluate Ainsworth’s categorisation of types of attachment and discuss evidence of cultural differences in these types of attachment –KU = 12 –AE = 8

29 Activity 4 Describe and evaluate Bowlby’s contribution to our understanding of attachment. You should refer to research evidence in your answer. KU = 8 AE = 4


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