2Tonight’s session objectives Child rearing stylesWhat is it?Different child rearing stylesCultural differences in child-rearingConsequences of child rearing stylesEffects on an individuals emotional, social and cognitive developmentParenting skillsIntervention programmesExam practiceThe student will be able to:Identify parenting styles, including positive guidance techniques that help children develop positive self-concepts, self-management, and responsibility.Identify parenting types and styles.List ways to foster a child’s self-concept.Identify positive guidance techniques.Write an abstract and a personal analysis of a child guidance articles.Apply positive guidance techniques to child-rearing problems and/or case studies.
3What is meant by child rearing styles? Strategies adopted by parents to bring up their childDifferent child rearing styles are distinguished by;the degree of demand placed on the child by the parent (expectations, standards)Responsiveness of parent to the individuals needs and rightsDiffer to which they are characterised by psychological control (e.g. guilt, love, withdrawl)
4Types of ParentingMost parent can be classified into three main types by the style in which they guide their children.As we discuss each, think about where your own parents fits most appropriately.Do each of your parents use the same style?Do you fit the outcome?If you are parents, think about which style you fit into.Do your children fit the outcome ?
53 different child rearing styles Baumrind, 1991 One theory of parenting was developed by Diana Baumrind .Proposed that parents fall into one of 3 categoriesAuthoritarianAuthoritativePermissiveThe theory was developed later
6Authoritarian Definition: Parents’ word is law, parents have absolute control.Set strict standards, boundariesMisconduct is punishedFocus on bad behaviourAffection and praise are rarely giveOver critical rather than giving feedback on the positivesParents try to control children's’ behaviour and attitudesThey value unquestioned obedienceChildren are told what to do, how to do it, and where to do it, and when to do it.Children are not provided with optionsChild is not provided with an explanation
7Outcome of an Authoritarian Parent ObedientDistrustfulDiscontentWithdrawn, Unhappy, anxiousHostilePoor reactionsNot High AchieversGive up easilyOften RebelInability to think for themselvesLack understanding of why behaviours are appropriate in certain contextsChildren from authoritarian homes are so strictly controlled, either by punishment or guilt, that they are often prevented from making a conscious choice about particular behavior because they are overly concerned about what their parents will do.
8Authoritative Definition: Middle ground between the two above Stress freedom along with rights of others and responsibilities of allParents set limits and enforce rulesBut give reasoning behind rulesWilling to listen receptively to child’s requests and questions.Both loves and limitsChildren contribute to discussion of issues and make some of their own decisionsEncourage child to think about the consequences of their behaviourExert firm control when necessary, but explain reasoning behind it.Respect children’s interest, opinions, unique personalities.Final decision lies with adultLoving, consistent, demandingCombine control with encouragementFocus on positives rather than negativesReasonable expectations and realistic standards.
9Outcomes Happy and lively disposition Mostly self-reliant Mostly self-controlledContent, friendly, generousDeveloped social skillsCooperativeHigh-achiever’Less likely to be seriously disruptive or delinquentWell developed emotional regulationChildren whose parents expect them to perform well, to fulfill commitments, and to participate actively in family duties, as well as family fun, learn how to formulate goals. They also experience the satisfaction that comes from meeting responsibilities and achieving success.
10Permissive Definition: Parents allow their children to do their own thing.Child is in controlChild makes the decisions even if not capableLittle respect for order and routine.Parents make few demands on children.Often inconsistent in reinforcing rules, boundariesImpatience is hidden.Discipline is laxParents are resources rather than standard makersRarely punishNon controlling, non-demandingUsually warmChildren walk all over the parents
11Outcome Aggressive Least self—reliant Least self-controlled Poor emotion regulationLeast self—reliantLeast self-controlledRebellious and defiantLeast exploratoryLow persistenceMost unhappyAntisocial behavioursVandalism, violenceChildren from permissive homes receive so little guidance that they often become uncertain and anxious about whether they are doing the right thing.
12Activity 1In groups of three or four have student develop a case study or story that fits each parenting style.Have group pass their stories to other group and have them read them to see if they can identify the parenting style.
13Activity 2 Match Responsive to children's’ needs. Indifferent to children, ignore themReject their childrenCritical, derogatory, dissatisfied with their children.Warm, understanding and accepting.Hostile and antisocialPoor self-control, difficulty with social interactions when teenagers.Compliant with parent’s wishesHappy and friendlyDissatisfied with themselves.
14Why does authoritative parenting style work Control that appears fair and reasonable (i.e. not arbitrary) to the child is far more likely to be complied with and internalized.Nurturing parents who are secure in the standards they hold for their children provide models of caring concern as well as confident, self-controlled behaviour. A child's modelling of these parents provides emotion regulation skills, emotional understanding, and social understanding.Parents who combine warmth and rational and reasonable control are likely to be more effective reinforcing agents. They praise children for striving to meet their expectations and making good use of disapproval, which works best when applied by an adult who has been warm and caring.Authoritative parents make demands that fit with children's ability to take responsibility for their own behaviour. Children subsequently learn that they are competent individuals who can do things successfully for themselves. This fosters high self-esteem, cognitive development, and emotional maturity.
15Cultural differences in child-rearing styles Small (1998)3 different culturesThe Kung San of BotswanaThe JapaneseThe Americans
16The Kung SanOne of the last remaining hunter-gatherer groups in the worldKey features of groupNo concept of personal ownership (e.g. food)No concern for privacyCare of infants and young children = close proximity to mother is a rule (e.g never alone)Carrying in a pouch/ sling on side or backYoung infants are in physical contact as well as proximity90% of time during first few monthsdirect skin-to-skin contact providing physical warmth and stimulationInfants sleep on a mat beside mother (equivalent of staying in the same bed)25% in middle of second year
17The Kung San ContinuedCrying in infancy and early childhood not considered a symptom of "spoiling" or any other negative psychological conditionNo sense yetTheory of child developmentChildren go through stagesYou have to respond to their needsNon- response = child abuse or neglect
18The Japanese Dependence on the mother Conformity Education Mum quits her jobCo-sleeping is normal until 12 yearsChild fed directlyChoose clothes rather than encouraging independenceResponsible for discipline – does not display angerConformityEncouraged to join groupsChild’s popularity is a reflection on parentsSharing is a social norm from early experiencesEducationStudy after schoolSign up for extra lessonsLiving at homeLive with parents until married
19The Americans Promote independence from minimal contact Parents do not feel the need to respond to needs straight awayParents view self as teachers, protectors, stimulators
20Conclusion from Small, 1998Child rearing practices in the west differ considerably from other parts of the worldGrowing movement towards attachment parenting in the westRespond to the basic needs of the childContradicts idea of promoting independence
21The Influence of Parenting Style on emotional development Baumrind, 1991Took 139, 15 year olds who had been studied at the age of 4 and 10 to determine impact of parenting on developmentChildren of authoritarian and permissive parents were less motivated, less independentChildren of authoritative parents more assertive, responsible, self-reliant and friendlyChamberlin, 1978Authoritarian parenting style led to issues at home and within school
22The Influence of Parenting Style on social development Weiss and Schwarz, 1996Authoritarian StylePoor social skillsLow self esteemHigh levels of depressionHoffman, 1970Relationship between child rearing styles and moral developmentCorrelational analysis studiesPermissive parenting resulted in lowest moral development
23The Influence of Parenting Style on cognitive development Weiss and Schwarz, 1996Authoritarian parenting style results in moderate performanceAdorno et al, 1950
24Evaluating Child Rearing Styles Research Lack of evidenceRowe, 1990Genetic factorsEnvironmental factorsSutton et al, 2004Parenting significantly effects outcomeA westernised worldDifferences disappearingValue of permissive parentingReeve, 2006Ideal parenting style for shy childrenMothers versus fathersFathers relationship with child effects employment outcomesMothers relationship shapes inner world of child
25Developing and Improving Parental Skills PolicyUN Convention on the Rights of the Child, 1989Right of child for healthy developmentNot to be separated from parentSeek views of child and parentParenting ProgrammesAim to support parentsSure Start, Triple P, Positive Parenting, Incredible Years, STAR
26Evaluation of Parenting Programmes Cultural relativismChild rearing practices vary between culturesEffectivenessScar, 1992 – parents provide warm supportive environment for healthy developmentBrenner et al, 1999 – interventions can improve aspects of parentingLewis, 2002 – parenting programmes are patronising, target high risk families that are hard to engageCan be ineffective – produce little changeExpense questionned
27STAR STUDY Paterson et al, 2005 Aims Method Procedure Results ConclusionEvaluationStrengthsWeaknesses
28Activity 3Describe and Evaluate Ainsworth’s categorisation of types of attachment and discuss evidence of cultural differences in these types of attachmentKU = 12AE = 8
29Activity 4Describe and evaluate Bowlby’s contribution to our understanding of attachment. You should refer to research evidence in your answer.KU = 8AE = 4