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© Center for Tax and Budget Accountability CENTER FOR TAX AND BUDGET ACCOUNTABILITY 70 E. Lake Street Suite 1700 Chicago, Illinois direct: Money Matters: How the Illinois School Funding System Creates Educational Inequities that Impact Most Students in the State For: Tuesday, December 1, 2009 United We Learn Winnetka Community House 620 Lincoln Avenue Winnetka, IL Presented by: Ralph Martire Executive Director
© Center for Tax and Budget Accountability Illinois State & Local Revenue In 2006 (the most recent national comparison available), state and local revenue came from the following sources: PROPERTY TAX38% SALES TAX17% EXCISE TAX17% INDIVIDUAL INCOME TAX16.2% OTHER 7.4% CORPORATE INCOME TAX 4.4% SOURCE: Federal Tax Administrators Data PROPERTY TAX RELIANCE A SNAPSHOT OF WHAT IS
© Center for Tax and Budget Accountability This makes Illinois the 6 th most reliant state on property tax revenue in the nation. Illinois is more reliant on property taxes than Florida, Nevada, Tennessee, Alaska, South Dakota, Washington and Wyoming – which don’t have income taxes. PROPERTY TAX RELIANCE
© Center for Tax and Budget Accountability WHY – EDUCATION Illinois ranks 49 th out of 50 states in the portion of education funding covered by state – versus local – revenue just 28% of the cost. Illinois is the most reliant state on property taxes to fund schools in the nation. (National Education Association Data) PROPERTY TAX RELIANCE
© Center for Tax and Budget Accountability THE BURDEN IS TOUGH All data inflation adjusted to 2008 Income Data: US Department of Census Property Tax Data: IL Department of Revenue
© Center for Tax and Budget Accountability The Context: BIG ‘N RICH In 2008, Illinois ranked fifth nationally with a Gross State Product in excess of $633 billion (BEA). That would be the 27 th largest economy of any nation in the world- greater than Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Colombia, Belgium, Sweden, Greece, Ireland, Portugal, Norway and Nigeria, to name a few. ILLINOIS’ ECONOMY IS LARGE
© Center for Tax and Budget Accountability Illinois GDP Growth Lags THE ILLINOIS ECONOMY Source: Bureau of Economic Analysis, US Dept. of Commerce
© Center for Tax and Budget Accountability IS ILLINOIS PROFLIGATE? Why the Economic Problems? —Not Wasteful Spending
© Center for Tax and Budget Accountability Why the Economic Problems? –NOT OVERALL TAX BURDEN Illinois ’ total state AND local tax burden, as a percentage of personal income ranks only 41 st in the nation. The second lowest tax burden in the Midwest to Missouri (Missouri is all of one-tenth of one percent lower). Illinois also ranks only 45 th in state spending as a percentage of GDP among the states (BEA data) ILLINOIS IS LOW TAX OVERALL
© Center for Tax and Budget Accountability Education now matters more than ever to economic prosperity: Generally: unemployment rates are highest for those with the least education. Wages are now tied to education as well. EXHIBIT “A” IS EDUCATION
© Center for Tax and Budget Accountability Wages for Minorities lag Whites Real wages for Whites increased modestly between 1980 and 2007, but : The White-Hispanic wage gap is larger in amount, but increased by a smaller percentage, growing from $3.82 in 1980 to $5.34 in 2007, an increase of 39.7% over 1980 Real wages for African-Americans declined. The hourly wage gap between Whites and African- Americans grew from $1.52 in 1980 to $3.44 in 2007, an increase of 126.3% over 1980 WAGE DIFFERENCES
© Center for Tax and Budget Accountability Still Separate.... Illinois is the third most segregated state in K-12 education for blacks 82% of black children attend majority/minority schools 90% of white children attend virtually all white schools (*Source: 2006 Education Trust study on segregation) SEGREGATION
© Center for Tax and Budget Accountability Still Unequal Minority school districts start out with $1,154 less per child to spend on education That’s the second worst gap in the nation (*Source: 2006 Education Trust study on segregation) SEGREGATION
© Center for Tax and Budget Accountability Current Basis for Foundation Level The Illinois state “Foundation Level” is the minimum per child guaranteed expenditure for K-12 Does NOT include: poverty, special ed, transportation, etc. For FY2009: $5,935 – but not tied to any measurable standard K-12 FUNDING
© Center for Tax and Budget Accountability Education Funding Advisory Board (“EFAB”) Change basis to a measurable outcome standard, predicated on costs and test results Foundation Level should be at least $7,330 (after adjusting for inflation) Total cost: $2.1 billion EFAB
© Center for Tax and Budget Accountability Based upon the ability to pay Foundation Level with property tax revenue, school districts are divided into three groups. Flat Grant: districts whose property tax revenue exceeds 175% of the Foundation level of funding. Just over four percent of all Illinois districts, educating about 4.5% of all students, fall into this funding category. Alternative: districts whose property tax revenue funds between 93 and 175% of the Foundation level of funding. Fifteen percent of all districts, or 18% of all students, fall into this category. Foundation: Districts whose property tax revenue covers 93% or less of the Foundation Level. Eighty-one percent of all districts, and 77% of all students, fall into this funding category. FUNDING SYSTEM DEFINITIONS
© Center for Tax and Budget Accountability Foundation formula districts receive significantly less than the amount received by flat grant and alternative formula districts in property tax revenue, meaning they rely far more heavily on state support. – “2007 IL Report Card” PROPERTY TAXES
© Center for Tax and Budget Accountability Equalized Assessed Valuation (EAV) is a proxy for a school district’s local property wealth available to be taxed. The average EAV of flat grant districts is more than 5 times greater than foundation-formula districts. SCHOOL DISTRICT TYPE “2007 Illinois Report Card”
© Center for Tax and Budget Accountability MONEY MATTERS “2007 Illinois Report Card”
© Center for Tax and Budget Accountability Total and Instructional Spending Differentials On average, Flat Grant districts spend $4186 more in total per pupil spending than Foundation Formula school districts. When it comes to instructional expenses, Flat Grant districts spend $2324 more per student on average than do Foundation Formula districts. MONEY MATTERS “2007 Illinois Report Card”
© Center for Tax and Budget Accountability YEAH, $ DOES APPEAR TO MATTER *Linear regression is a statistical analysis that shows the correlation of two or more variables, in this case, how per-pupil expenditures correspond to ISAT test scores. The regression line (heavy red) represents the predicted test score results a school district should obtain, given a specific level of instructional expenditure.
© Center for Tax and Budget Accountability “IL State Report Cards” LOW INCOME FOCUS
© Center for Tax and Budget Accountability The percentage of students meeting or exceeding ISAT standards in the districts with the lowest levels of poverty is markedly different from those districts with the highest levels of poverty. MONEY MATTERS “2007 Illinois Report Card”
© Center for Tax and Budget Accountability RACE MATTERS
© Center for Tax and Budget Accountability RACE MATTERS
© Center for Tax and Budget Accountability STATE BUDGET
© Center for Tax and Budget Accountability THINGS LOOK BAD IN
© Center for Tax and Budget Accountability AND WORSE IN
© Center for Tax and Budget Accountability FAIR PROGRESSIVE RESPONSIVE TO MODERN ECONOMY STABLE DURING POOR ECONOMIES EFFICIENT DOESN ’ T DISTORT PRIVATE MARKETS ELEMENTS OF A SOUND AND FAIR FISCAL SYSTEM WHAT SHOULD BE: BUT ISN’T
© Center for Tax and Budget Accountability STRUCTURAL DEFICIT *Adjusts solely for historic rates of inflation and population growth, and assumes normal economic growth. WHICH CREATES:
© Center for Tax and Budget Accountability % 5% % 50.20% 93.4% -20% 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100 % Bottom 60% Next 20% Top 20% Top 15% Top 1% Income Growth in the United States (Real 1999 Dollars) *Source U.S. Census Data Percent Change INCOME INEQUALITY Fair? Responsive?
© Center for Tax and Budget Accountability State & Local Tax Burden as a Percentage of Income REGRESSIVE Fair? Responsive?
© Center for Tax and Budget Accountability SALES TAX BASE
© Center for Tax and Budget Accountability Quinn’s Proposal vs. HB174
© Center for Tax and Budget Accountability For More Information: Center for Tax and Budget Accountability Ralph M. Martire Executive Director (312) Yerik Kaslow Research Associate (312) Further Information
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