Presentation on theme: "CH 11 – Teaching Styles and Strategies to Meet Learners’ Needs"— Presentation transcript:
1 CH 11 – Teaching Styles and Strategies to Meet Learners’ Needs Direct teaching:Most teachers use thisYou explain and demonstrate a skill and everyone practices the same skill at the same time and they same way and the teacher gives feedbackSaves instructional time and is good when the material can be learned in a strictly sequential, progressive manner.Does NOT help with skills requiring higher-order thinking & unstructured organization.
2 Teaching StylesThe following styles are on a continuum from the command style, for which the teacher makes all of the decisions to the self-teaching style where the students make nearly all of the decisionsEVERY style has a place depending on the situation (time and environment), students, teachers, and content
3 1. Command Style Teacher makes all the decisions. Teacher gives step by step instructionsAll students perform the same task at the same timeOften appropriate for the initial learning stages, especially where safety is a concernAlso appropriate when instructional time is limited or student behavior dictates a highly structured class routine
4 2. Practice Style Most commonly used style in PE Teacher determines what is taught, introduces the skills and tasks through demonstration or the use of task cards.Student determine the number of practice trials and often the order in which they will practice the skillsTeacher circulates throughout the class giving feedback and answering questionsGood for initial state of learning and when you don’t have a lot of instructional time.Better than command, because students have more time to practice skills and have more responsibility for their learning
5 3. Reciprocal Students give each other feedback Teacher determines the task they practice and identify crucial features for themBefore this, you check for understanding by providing a number of demonstrations that include common errors, asking students to identify the errors and you give appropriate feedbackStudents work in pairs and the observer gives the doer feedback – a check list or criteria sheet helpsTeacher communicates only with the observerHelps with social skillsLimit to review of previously learned information
6 4. Self-checkTeacher determines the task the student will practice and identify the critical features.The feedback comes from the studentShould be skills where they can clearly see results.Helps them become more self-reliant, but does limit interactions with others – not really appropriate for middle schoolers
7 5. Inclusion Very appropriate for middle schoolers Teacher determines the task and its critical features, but you also give the students a choice of performance levels for the task from which they may select the level of practice that they think is right for them.May change size and weight of an object; size; distance, and height of a target; body position, etc.It is the students’ responsibility to determine when they are ready to move to a more difficult performance level
8 6. Guided DiscoveryTeacher determines the task and then arranges a sequence of problems or questions that, when solved by the students, leads to the one correct response.Students must give a verbal or motor response to each promptMust give the students enough time to think through each question or problemMay need to adjust prompts if all or most of students respond incorrectlyYour goal is to logically guide studentsTakes time, BUT students will learn material
9 7. Convergent DiscoveryStudent goes though the discovery process without any clues from youShould master guided discovery firstMust select activities through which the students are able to discover the correct answer.
10 8. Divergent Production A problem-solving style You select a task and design a problem that can be solved in a variety of ways. Then ask students to find solutions and evaluate the effectiveness of each.Improve motor skills by showing students many different ways to accomplish tasksBest for learning tasks similar to tasks students have already mastered.Great at developing social skills
11 9. Individual Program-Learner’s Design Teacher chooses the general subject material, but you allow the learner to choose the specific question and determine possible solutions.We don’t use this much yet – but with more emphasis on individualized learning, we will
12 10. Learner InitiatedLearner initiates the style for themselves. The student approaches you and states their desire to initiate and conduct learning activities.We don’t use this much, yet
13 11. Self-teaching Exact opposite of command style Doesn’t exist in the classroom, but it does in real life.Encourages students to pursue their own educational interests, based on their own capabilities and needs both outside the school setting and when possible within the school setting.
14 Instructional Strategies Teaching styles – address the question of who is making the decisions about instructionInstructional strategies – refer to the arrangement of the teacher, learner, and environmentMany different types – we will explore only two
15 Station TeachingStudents are in small groups and rotate from learning center to learning center effectively and efficiently.Provides students with a variety of drills and tasksWorks best when equipment or space is limitedProvides students with opportunities to practice and apply the same skill to different situations – crucial to mastering open skills
16 Station Teaching (Cont.) Set up different activities around the gymnasiumDivide class into equal number of groups and assign to a different starting stationPlace a task card describing what you want them to doMake sure each station requires about the same amount of time to complete.
17 Station Teaching (Cont.) Have students complete a data sheet at each station.It is best to start with only 3-4 stations and then add more -this will minimize teacher talkCan use this with a variety of teaching styles – reciprocal, self-check, and inclusionKeep tasks fairly simple
18 Cooperative LearningResearch shows that cooperative learning results in greater achievement gains, improved cross-cultural friendships, increased social skills, enhanced self-esteem, greater interdependence (teamwork), increased cognitive and affective abilities, and an improved classroom climate.
19 Cooperative Learning (Cont.) True cooperative learning requires:Formation of heterogeneous teamsEstablishment of positive interdependence and individual accountabilityOpportunity for team members to get acquainted with one another and establish a team identity.Use of an established structureOpportunity to debrief the situation
20 1. Form heterogeneous teams Teams should have a balance of gender, ethnicity, ability, etc.You can randomly assign and then adjust for the above or you can rank students by ability and then assign one from the top with one from the bottom, etc.Group sizes of 4-6 are about right, but partners can work too.
21 2. Establish positive interdependence and individual accountability Set up one task to be accomplished by each group. Make sure it can be completed ONLY if the students cooperateEstablish individual accountability making sure each member has a specific task, role, or resource ensuring that each must contribute to the successful completion of the task
22 3. Promote Team BuildingStudents need time to get to know one another and develop trust before being presented with a taskGroups go through 4 stages:FormingStormingNormingPerforming
23 4. Select a Structure There are many – we will limit to four Think-pair-share:Students work with partners. You pose a question and give students time to think about their answer.After thinking, they share their responses with their partners.Partners question each other to help refine the answer
24 Structure for Cooperative Learning (Cont.) 2. Numbered Heads:Students work in partnersYou pose a question and they solve it together – asking each other questions to make sure their answer is appropriate
25 Structure for Cooperative Learning (Cont.) 3. STAD (student teams achievement divisions)Students assigned to groups of fourYou present the lesson and supply instructional materials, then students work to make sure everyone in their group masters the informationReciprocal style helps here
26 Structure for Cooperative Learning (Cont.) 4. Jigsaw:Students assigned to home teams of 4-6 membersEach member of the home team selects a different piece of material to learn.Have students from different teams who have similar pieces of information, forms expert groups to discuss their information and develop a presentation for their home teams. No more than 4-6 in expert groupsHave students return to home groups to share information
27 5. Be Sure to Debrief Ask students: Was the task completed? If not, why?How did it feel to have someone accept your suggestions?How did it feel to have someone complement you?What can you do next time to make your group work more successfully?What learning can you take from their experience to use in the future?What were some encouraging things you saw or heard?
28 Working with Limited-English Proficient Students LEP = limited English ProficientSDAIE = specially designed academic instruction in EnglishFour methods for working with LEP students:create a supportive learning environmentUse a variety of instructional strategies, including cooperative learningMake sure information is comprehensible to studentsInclude a technique called total physical response
29 1. Supportive Environment Ask them to share their experiencesIncorporate some of their background into the classEstablish consistent routines so they know what is happening nextAvoid forcing them to speak (takes 6 mo. To a year at least)When they do speak, correct their errors only through verbal mirroring
30 2. Variety of Strategies, Including Cooperative Learning All of your students learn in unique ways – including the LEP studentsTechnology is helpfulNice to have a bi-lingual student in group with LEP
31 3. Comprehensible Input Use simple terms Reinforce key concepts over and over againCheck often for student understandingSlow down speech patternPause frequentlyEnunciate clearlyEmphasize key words of phrasesKeep information in context
32 3. Comprehensible Input (Cont.) Use visual aids, gestures, organizers, and other real objectsDemonstrate conceptsSimplify informationExpand on student’s ideas by asking additional questionsProvide definitionsMake comparisonsProvide lots of examplesAvoid idiomsSummarize oftenIncrease wait time
33 4. Total Physical Response There is a definite link between physical activity and language acquisition.TPR = demonstrate something physically and have the student respond with a physical movement
34 SummaryYou will work with 20 – 60 different learning styles during one instructional periodMake sure learning is hands-on, relevant, and student centered.