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November 6 th 2012.  Final project is worth either 40, 50 or 60 % of your final mark. It is up to you!  State how much you want it to be worth on your.

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Presentation on theme: "November 6 th 2012.  Final project is worth either 40, 50 or 60 % of your final mark. It is up to you!  State how much you want it to be worth on your."— Presentation transcript:

1 November 6 th 2012

2  Final project is worth either 40, 50 or 60 % of your final mark. It is up to you!  State how much you want it to be worth on your project  Final Project will be marked by me (with the help of Dr. Phil Stooke)  Dropping worst of three quizzes  No grades will be corrected DOWNWARDS  If class average is below 75% it will be raised

3  November 6 (TODAY)  Life in Space (Lecture 10)  November 8  Life in Space Cont… (Lecture 10)  TEST #3  November 13  UFO’s and SETI (Lecture 11)  November 15  UFO’s and SETI (Lecture 11)  November 20  Current Planetary Exploration (Lecture 12)  November 22  Current Planetary Exploration (Lecture 12)  Current Planetary Exploration ( at Western)  November 27  Where do we go from here? (Lecture 13)  November 29  Where do we go from here? (Lecture 13)  Danny’s Project (?)  Project Questions  December 4  Hand in Project

4  This Thursday 8:30  60 minutes  20 Questions 1 mark each (half marks possible)

5  Lectures 8, 9 and 10  Space Business and Law, Military and Space, Space and Popular Culture, Life in Space  Anything written (black font) in the “lectures” section of the official course website  Any thing written (black font) in the PowerPoint presentations for Space and Popular Culture, and (Human) Life in Space (found on website)  Certain Links from website and power points (see next slide)  Anything discussed by DANNY BEDNAR in pertinent classes (see further slides)

6  The following links are testable (10 total)  Lecture 8 Webpage (3)  “Institute of Air and Space Law, McGill”, “GeoEye”, “Space Adventures”  Lecture 9 Webpage (2)  “ISC Komotras”, “…and Canada”  Lecutre 9b Webpage (2)  “Le Voyage Dans La Lune”, “Debunking the bunk” (Apollo Moan Hoax)  Space and Popular Culture PowerPoint (4)  space-photography/earth-full-view/ space-photography/earth-full-view/  Lecture 10 Webpage (2)  “The Case Against Human Spaceflight”, “Medical Problems of Long Distance Spaceflight”  None of the Links from the Life in Space PowerPoint will be on Test 3

7  In order to reward attendance, 4 Questions will begin “As discussed in class…”  Anything discussed in classes of:  Oct 30 (Lecture 9 – Military and Space)  Nov 1 (Lecture 9b – Popular Culture and Space)  Nov 6 (Lecture 10 - Life in Space)  These will not be the most difficult questions on the test


9  Obama and Romney on Science Obama and Romney on Science  Obama and Romney on Space Exploration Obama and Romney on Space Exploration  SPACE AND POLITICAL DISCOURSE SPACE AND POLITICAL DISCOURSE  Differences between Mitt and Barack Differences between Mitt and Barack



12  Yuri Gagarin  April 12, 1961  Vostok Spacecraft

13  One fundamental argument that has arisen in the past few decades has been whether there is justification for human spaceflight as the primary goal of space exploration  Most commonly this centers around issues of cost and danger  James Van Allen argues not only that human spaceflight is expensive but also that it is dangerous and that robots, probes or orbiters provide just as much, or more, scientific value  Van Allen’s ARTICLEARTICLE  Schmidt & Hawes DisagreeDisagree

14  Unfortunately space exploration has faced a number of safety concerns.  Three Apollo 1 astronauts were killed when their spacecraft ignited at the Cape Kennedy Launch Complex in January 1967 during a ground based testApollo 1 astronauts were killed  Tragically, both the Challenger and Columbia space shuttles experienced catastrophic failures leading to the deaths of the 13 astronauts and 1 civilian onboard the two craftsChallengerColumbia

15  Removing humans from their natural habitat of Earth presents NUMEROUS HEALTH RISKSNUMEROUS HEALTH RISKS  Anyone planning a long duration mission needs to take into account the health of their crew  In the event of injury, how will zero gravity affect surgery or treatment? How will the limited diet afforded by space travel affect the recovery process?  Research exists which has begun addressing these questions:  Space medicine encyclopedia entry Space medicine encyclopedia entry  National Space Society list of resources on space medicine National Space Society list of resources on space medicine  Canadian Space Agency space medicine research Canadian Space Agency space medicine research

16  It is likely that the most cost-efficient manner to spend long periods of time in space will be to use local natural resources (such as from the Moon, Mars, Phobos, Deimos, or Asteroids)to use local natural resources  The Mars Rovers use solar energy The Mars Rovers  Spacecrafts such as Voyager or Cassini use mini nuclear generators  Lunar regolith could be a source of oxygen, iron, aluminum, or titanium; it could also be processed to create fiberglass Lunar regolith  Water on Mars or even the Moon provides the potential for hydrogen being available as an energy source

17  Concerns exist regarding who owns the natural resources found on other worldswho owns  If they are decided to ‘belong’ to Earth, how will we work this out between nations and private companies? First come first serve?  Does natural resource extraction on other worlds face the same issues of site degradation as here on Earth?

18  Radiation is a significant issue for engineers designing spacecrafts meant to carry humans Radiation  NOAA has a ranking system for radiation storms similar to rankings for hurricanes and tornadoesranking system  Future space tourism may be affected by radiation forecastingspace tourism  However, radiation, even when in space, can be managed, such as it was on the Apollo missionsApollo missions  the potential long exposure facing an astronaut travelling to Mars has engineers considering a sort of ‘safe room’

19  ‘Meteoroids’ are tiny rocks traveling at extremely high speeds, they present serious dangers to astronauts conducting EVAs  Agencies have various means to avoid collisions between space debris and structures like the ISS or space shuttles in the pastvarious meansspace debris  The radiation and dust present on the Moon and Mars may present dangers to machinery and humans who stay for long periodsdustMoon Mars

20  “forward contamination” in which human’s ‘infect’ another planet with living materialforward contamination  “back contamination” in which we bring something dangerous back to Earthback contaminationback to Earth  “panspermia” is a theory that suggests life is abundant in the universe and commonly travels between planetspanspermia  Some Lichens and the “Tardigrade” have been shown to be able to survive the vacuum conditions of spaceLichensTardigrade

21  Some researchers suggest that it is possible that Earth organisms may have already contaminated Mars Some researchersMars  Others have suggested that if we find Martian life we may have to abandon exploration of the planet Others  Finding evidence of past life is perhaps the most likely in out solar system and also provides the least ethical dilemmas for researchers, but concerns about authenticity will remainauthenticity  Finding potential living organisms provides a myriad of ethical and scientific issues  If verified, alien life will have immense cultural, scientific, and philosophical implications and is likely to be debated immediately in regards to its meaning and origins and the ethics of interacting with itscientific

22  Where are we going to find life?  The “habitable zone” was once generally considered the most likely to harbor life (Venus, Earth, Mars)habitable zone  Earth’s watery composition is likely rarerare  Even beyond our own solar system and planet, some suggest that our galaxy is a unique situation for fostering lifesome suggest  But “extremophiles” have shown that the most common conditions for life aren’t necessary and the habitable zone needs re-thinkinghabitable zone needs re-thinking  As a result the list of potential homes to life within our solar system is growinglist of potential homesgrowing

23  Mars (likely below the surface)  Jupiter’s moon Europa (massive oceans)  Jupiter’s moon Io (atmosphere and volcanic warming)  Saturn’s moon Enceladus (hot water vents)  Saturn’s moon Titan (thick atmosphere)

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