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Regents Review Day 1 Unit 1: Scientific Method Unit 2: Biochemistry.

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Presentation on theme: "Regents Review Day 1 Unit 1: Scientific Method Unit 2: Biochemistry."— Presentation transcript:

1 Regents Review Day 1 Unit 1: Scientific Method Unit 2: Biochemistry

2 1.In the Scientific Method the problem is what is being investigated, and is written as a question 2.The hypothesis is a testable, educated guess about the answer to the problem a statement written in sentence form b.Makes a prediction c.Must be able to be tested 3.A conclusion is determined from the data in an experiment and is stated as a complete sentence 4.An inference is an idea that is supported by the conclusion in an experiment

3 5.An experiment must be repeated several times before results are considered valid 6.The independent variable is the things you change or control during the experiment a.Information that you control – “I” change b.Ex. Time, temperature, day c.Independent data is labeled on the X-axis of the graph 7.The dependent variable is the numerical data obtained during the experiment a.“Data” you collect b.Ex. Number of heartbeats, amount of oxygen consumed c.Dependent variable is labeled on Y-axis of the graph

4 8.Every experiment must have a control group a.The group that does not change b.The experimental group is compared to the control group 9.Conditions in an experiment must be the same for all test subjects. a.There should be only one variable (thing that is different) I.Ex. Sunlight or no sunlight

5 10.Data tables are used for organizing scientific data 11.A line graph has 2 sets of numerical data a.Independent variable is known before the experiment and is written on the horizontal (side by side) b.Dependent variable is what we measure in the experiment and goes on the vertical line (up and down) c.Do not connect the line to (0,0), unless there is a point located there.

6 12.pH paper can be used to determine the acidity or basicity of a solution a.Acid 0 – 6.9, Neutral is 7, Base 7.1 – 14

7 13.Energy is stored in the chemical bonds between molecules a.When bonds are broken = energy is Released b.When bonds are created = energy is Stored

8 14.Monosaccharides are the building blocks that bond together to form a Carbohydrates. a.Monosaccharides are simple sugars, like glucose b.Carbohydrates are used for making energy during Cellular Respiration 15.3 Fatty Acids and Glycerol are the building blocks of Lipids a.Lipids store large amounts of energy b.Useful for insulation and maintaining homeostasis

9 16.Nucleotides are the building blocks of Nucleic Acids a.Nucleic Acids play a role in Heredity and Genetic Material 17.Amino Acids are the building blocks that bond together to form Proteins. 18.Proteins make up enzymes, hormones, cell surface receptors, skin, hair, and nails

10 19.Enzymes are protein molecules that catalyze (speed up) chemical reactions. a.Speed up chemical reactions by reducing activation energy b.Synthesis means to build something c.Digestion means to break down something

11 20.The 3-dimensional shape of a molecule is important in how it bonds to other molecules a.Molecules have specific shapes, and if you change that shape they do not work as well b.Heat, pH, and salt concentration can change the shape of the molecules c.When the shape of an enzyme changes, the enzyme will not work, it is denatured

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