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Main sampling principles Edited by: Dr. Anastasios K. Anestis.

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Presentation on theme: "Main sampling principles Edited by: Dr. Anastasios K. Anestis."— Presentation transcript:

1 Main sampling principles Edited by: Dr. Anastasios K. Anestis

2 Sampling collection planning What are we going to sample-what is field work Why do we need to go sampling Where are we going to sample What do we need to be aware of when we take, store and carry samples Data collection and processing techniques- results, discussion and limitations Is it worth it?

3 Data collection protocols in oceanographic sampling Chemistry, Βiology, Physics, Geology in a blender (Biogeochemistry)

4 Why? (the need for continuous monitoring Recent advances in technical equipment in the last years Attempts to answer general cosmic questions related to our planet Necessity for preventive measures and management Ομαλή λειτουργία φυσικών συστημάτων Legislation in local, national, international and global level

5 How Seawater Organisms Suspended matter Sediment Interstitial Porewaters Biogenic particles-colloids Atmosphere ErosionErosion S e d i m e n t a ti o n Dissolution Absorption Adsoprtion Ingestion Release RedoxRedox ΔιαπήδησηΔιαπήδηση RemovalRemoval ResuspensionResuspension ResuspensionResuspension S e d i m e n t a ti o n P r e c i p it a ti o n E v a p o r a ti o n

6 Methodology Careful selection of study area-special features Research topic, selection of sampling stations In situ measurements and observations Sample processing Conclusions

7 Environmental sampling An biogeochemist should be able to carry out all stages of field work Planning Data collection Sampling storage Analysis Calculations and producing of graphs and tables

8 What is a water sample? The part of an aquatic system that can be detached for chemical anaysis Sample collection is the procedure that a sample is obtained Monitoring e.g. nutrients-easy common Continuous sampling e.g. oxygen

9 Planning The need for a representative sample requires: When and where sampling will take place How many samples will be obtained How much sample is required for each analytical step Factors affecting the analyst and the field researcher Practical issues: approchability, time, expenses, dynamics of a system (e.g. tides length etc.) Clearly state a hypothesis in a testable form

10 Conservation-storage Collection-transfer-analysis. Each container must have clearly attached on: The title of the project (e.g. Comenius) The name of the station The water depth Date and time The name of the person who carried out sampling Brief weather report Tabulation of in situ measurements

11 Sample storage Ice-box to reduce chances for: Chemical reactions (e.g. nitrification) Biological alterations (e.g. stress-related urea production by zooplankton) Photochemical alterations (photoammonification) Interactions with the inner walls of the sampling container

12 Sampling protocol Clean aged sampling containers Specific types of containers Pure chemical reagents Application of conservation techniques Avoid touching with bare hands the inner walls of the containers and lids Sample storage in ice and in shade Immediate transport of samples in the lab

13 Sampling site Saronikos Bay In situ: Temperature, salinity, pH, dissolved oxygen In the lab: Nutrients: ammonium, nitrites/nitrates phosphates Photometetry… for good cooks

14 Why do we need to monitor Temperature: main parameters for the calculation of water density, prediction of movement water bodies-thermocline Salinity= the total mass of solid substances contained in one ml of seawater. Salinity is related to rivers, springs, and population size and distribution Dissolved Ο 2 is a variable that determines water quality i.e. lack of Ο 2 =death of intertidal organisms from asphyxia

15 Now the best part: Nutrients! Ammonium (NH 4 + ) indication of urban waste and agricultural leachin Nitrites (ΝΟ 2 - ) indicative of urban and industrial waste Nitrates (ΝΟ 3 - ) plenty in treated urban waste due to oxygenation Phosphates (PΟ 4 3- ) abundant in detergents and industrial waste Silicates (SiΟ 2 ) essential for diatoms sponges etc. All the above in increased concentrations are indicative of pollution But they represent important sources of food for phytoplankton

16 Phytoplankton pigments Essential for photosynthesis (conversion of light energy to chemical), Provide information for the population and type of phytoplankton of a system (quantity of primary producers affect the flow of energy in marine ecosystems) Chlorophylls (a, b, c): photosynthetic bacteria, green algae and macroscopic plants Xanthophylls: Carotenoids: Billiproteins

17 What is required? Reliability: the sample must remain unaltered Compatibility: analysis must be within reaches of school’s lab Accuracy: satisfying reproducibility Simplicity: quick methods including simple stages Security: chemical analysis should avoid toxic and flammable reagents Overall, we use the best piece of advice available i.e. let COMMON SENSE prevail

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