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International Symposium Valladolid 2004 1 Dr. Otto Rompelman Faculty Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Computer Science Delft University of Technology.

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Presentation on theme: "International Symposium Valladolid 2004 1 Dr. Otto Rompelman Faculty Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Computer Science Delft University of Technology."— Presentation transcript:

1 International Symposium Valladolid Dr. Otto Rompelman Faculty Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Computer Science Delft University of Technology Netherlands The Engineering of Engineering Education: Curriculum Development from the Designers’ Point of View

2 International Symposium Valladolid Contents 1The systems paradigm 2Systems approach in education 2.1 Possible views 2.2 Input versus output oriented curricula 2.3 Feedback: assessment 3The design paradigm 3.1 Design methodology 3.2 Curriculum development as a design process 4Conclusions

3 International Symposium Valladolid The systems paradigm system inputoutput

4 International Symposium Valladolid system “input”“output” Usual representation of a system

5 International Symposium Valladolid system input“output” unintended interactions

6 International Symposium Valladolid education process student attributes graduate attributes student learning process teaching 2. The systems approach in education 2.1. Possible views student learning process education 1: 2: attributes = knowledge, skills, understanding graduate attributes

7 International Symposium Valladolid student learning process Course contents abilities knowledge skills competences input descriptors: mainly course contents output descriptors: characteristics of the graduates 2.2 Input versus output oriented curricula

8 International Symposium Valladolid Knowledge of.. Understanding... Output oriented Input oriented Ability to... Details (e.g.: Kirchhoff’s law) Topics (e.g.: circuits) Areas (e.g.: el. eng.) Relation between input and output oriented description

9 International Symposium Valladolid Arguments for introducing output descriptors 1: Internationalisation of education: student migration between universities e.g.: between Bachelor and Master programs 2: Internationalisation of labour market both employers and graduates need clarity about qualifications

10 International Symposium Valladolid Importance of output descriptors Case of successive courses Student learning Statement of teacher of course 2: “ They should know ‘xxx’, because they followed course 1 “ Statement about the output, based on 1- the input descriptors of course 1 2- an assumption of the student learning process course 1course 2

11 International Symposium Valladolid Student mobility from BSc to MSc programmes Other university Local university no problems (implicit transition) Problems !! due to mismatch between programmes BachelorMaster

12 International Symposium Valladolid assessment results education process objectives: envisaged features student output: acquired features 2.3 Feedback: assessment

13 International Symposium Valladolid assessment results teacher student objectives 1234 Education process student output Feed back Feedback structures can be used for quality control

14 International Symposium Valladolid The design paradigm 3.1Design methodology (aspect of) reality: environment observations ideal image of reality comparison creation of ‘product’ which interacts with environment

15 International Symposium Valladolid real world image of real world comparison designproduct observations problem !! ` Expanded version of the paradigm: design as solving a problem Problem definition is the key issue in design

16 International Symposium Valladolid The life cycle of technical systems Design phase Develop- ment of Concept System Produc- tion Usage Manage- ment Mainte- nance Disposal Renewal Can it be properly disposed ? Can it be properly used ? Can it be produced ?

17 International Symposium Valladolid The design phase in more detail Problem analysis Creating concept systems Simulation of concept systems Evaluation of concept systems: identifying favourable concept Design phase Definition of Product Requirements Plan (PRP) Key issue: There are more sulutions to a problem than just one

18 International Symposium Valladolid : Define the problem 2: Define criteria to be met by the solution: leads to “Product Requirements Plan” (PRP) 3: Find solutions (concepts); usually, a problem has more solutions than just one! 4: Simulate concept solutions 5: Select the best solution according to criteria (see 2 ) Five essential steps in design

19 International Symposium Valladolid The Product Requirements Plan plays a key role in the design process Important observation:

20 International Symposium Valladolid The Product Requirements Plan A well structured set of criteria that should be met by the final product Constraints Final goals Boundary conditions (Primairy) Function(s) Two types of criteria:  Functioning criteria: describing the (primary) function(s)  Boundary conditions

21 International Symposium Valladolid  Functioning criteria: describing the (primary) functions transform The transform is accomplished by a function, hence …………. undesired state of the world desired state of the world Elements of the Product Requirements Plan

22 International Symposium Valladolid FUNCTION undesired state of the world desired state of the world First step in the design process: Defining this function  the basic function of the system to be designed

23 International Symposium Valladolid  Boundary conditions Two types of boundary conditions: - ‘hard’ conditions: these criteria are either or not met (yes – no) - ‘soft’ conditions: these criteria are met ‘to a certain extent’ Elements of the Product Requirements Plan (cont.)

24 International Symposium Valladolid Any valid conceivable solution must meet - Functioning criteria: describing (primary) function(s) - ‘hard’ boundary conditions: The conceivable solutions may meet the ‘soft’ conditions in different ways: This leads to options for choice !! Conclusion:

25 International Symposium Valladolid How do we apply this in education ? This may be interesting, but:

26 International Symposium Valladolid ) Define educational problem (main function) 2) Define criteria [incl. 1) ] to be met by the solution: leads to “Course Requirements Plan” (CRP) (PRP) 3) Find solutions (concept courses) 4) Contemplate about how the solutions will work out if put into practice (simulation) 5) Select the best solution according to criteria [see 2) ] Five essential steps in design of education 3.2 Curriculum development as a design process

27 International Symposium Valladolid I: What is the educational problem? the students need a module after which they have acquired the following skills, knowledge, competencies: Not:input oriented we (=school) need a course in mathematics But:output oriented: “Course Requirements Plan” (CRP)

28 International Symposium Valladolid II: Criteria to be met by the solution 1.About the learning outcomes * the outcomes should be realistic given the attributes of the target group (prior knowledge, skills) and the time available for the students (credit points!) * the outcomes should be testable; if not, they should be left out or reformulated.

29 International Symposium Valladolid About the preparation and production - staff time (costs!) - course material - assessment structure Criteria to be met by the solution (cont.)

30 International Symposium Valladolid About running the module/course/programme - Staff time - Infrastructure: rooms, laboratories, equipment, Communication: office hours, web-support, , Assessment, in the wide sense Criteria to be met by the solution (cont.)

31 International Symposium Valladolid : About the life cycle - Life span of the module/course/programme - Reuse of (parts) of the module/course/programme Criteria to be met by the solution (cont.)

32 International Symposium Valladolid it provides the framework for designing an educational system 2.it is a frame of reference to test different concept solutions (concept systems) in order to find the most promising solution 3.it is a framework for verifying the resultant educational system 4.it provides the basis (reference criteria) for the quality management of the education Four functions of the CRP

33 International Symposium Valladolid : Conclusions  The development of curricula/courses can be approached as a design problem  As with technical systems, a detailed and well structured “Course Requirements Plan” (CRP) has to be formulated  The main aspect of the CRP is: envisaged learning outcomes  Other issues to be taken into account are (a.o.): - envisaged life time - required infrastructure (staff, rooms,laboratories, etc.) - assessment procedures, incl. quality control  The systems approach can be enlightening in curriculum development

34 International Symposium Valladolid Thank you for your kind attention

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38 International Symposium Valladolid system inputoutput

39 International Symposium Valladolid The seven-phase model for the integral product life cycle A: investigation of needs D: elaborate blueprint (prototype) B: specification of requirements E: production, putting into use C: development of blueprints, F: usage, management, maintenance final blueprint (design) G: disposal, recycling Requirements imposed by the disposal Requirements imposed by the operation Requirements imposed by the production FGDECAB


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