Presentation on theme: "The Scientific Method Adapted from The Research Methods Knowledge Base, William Trochim (2006). & Methods for Social Researchers in Developing Counries,"— Presentation transcript:
1 The Scientific MethodAdapted from The Research Methods Knowledge Base, William Trochim (2006). &Methods for Social Researchers in Developing Counries, The Ahfad University for Women &Online Statistics Education: A Multimedia Course of Study, David M. Lane, Rice University.
2 AgendaIntroductionStructure of ResearchDeduction & Induction22
3 Introduction Scientific method Scientific theories must depends on empirical data which must be collected systematicallydoes not require explicit experimentationScientific theories mustBe potentially disconfirmableLead to a testable hypothesesTheory hypotheses through deductive or inductive reasoning33
4 Structure of Research Research Problem Research Question Program (Cause)UnitsOutcomesDesign44
5 Structure of Research: An example Research ProblemWhat programs might help the poor start businesses?Research QuestionDoes the provision of microcredit help the poor to start businesses?Program (Cause)MicrocreditUnitsThe poor people that we provide microcredit toOutcomesIncreased entrepreneurship?DesignWhich village to receive microcredit and which not to receive55
6 Deduction & Induction Deductive Reasoning Inductive Reasoning From more general tomore specificTop-down approachInductive ReasoningFrom specific observationsto broader generalizationsBottom-up approach66