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SOCIOLOGY’S THREE BIG QUESTIONS THREE SMALL DUTCH QUESTIONS Wout Ultee Interuniversity Center for Sociology (ICS) at Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen, Netherlands.

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Presentation on theme: "SOCIOLOGY’S THREE BIG QUESTIONS THREE SMALL DUTCH QUESTIONS Wout Ultee Interuniversity Center for Sociology (ICS) at Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen, Netherlands."— Presentation transcript:

1 SOCIOLOGY’S THREE BIG QUESTIONS THREE SMALL DUTCH QUESTIONS Wout Ultee Interuniversity Center for Sociology (ICS) at Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen, Netherlands Presentation at the Danish Institute for Social Research Copenhagen, Denmark December 11-12, 2003 and

2 THE ‘OLDER’ POPPER SURPASSED THE DILEMMA OF THE PRIMACY OF THEORY OR THE PRIMACY OF RESEARCH BY STATING THAT ANY SCIENCE, INCLUDING SOCIOLOGY, STARTS WITH QUESTIONS WHICH ARE TENTATIVELY ANSWERED BY THEORIES, THESE PROPOSITIONS ARE TESTABLE AND THE MORE INFORMATION THEY CONVEY THE BETTER; AND THESE PROPOSITIONS SHOULD BE TESTED

3 THAT IS: QUESTIONS INSTEAD OF TOPICS PROPOSITIONS RATHER THAN CONCEPTS APPROACHES ARE TO ARRIVE SOMEWHERE BY DEVELOPING INTO INFORMATIVE PROPOSITIONS NO ILUSTRATIONS BUT TESTS (COUNTEREXAMPLES INSTEAD OF EXAMPLES)

4 THE BEST QUESTIONS ARE CONTRADICTIONS BETWEEN THEORIES AND RESEARCH FINDINGS APART FROM THEORY-GUIDED RESEARCH THERE SHOULD BE QUESTION-DRIVEN THEORIZING MORE SOUND BITES

5 THE SUPPOSEDLY SORRY STATE OF SOCIOLOGY: IS SOCIOLOGY NOTHING BUT AN APPROACH, DOES IT ADDRESS AT BEST A LONG LIST OF HETEROGENEOUS TOPICS? THE HISTORY OF SOCIOLOGY MAKES CLEAR THAT SOCIOLOGY ADDRESSES THREE BIG QUESTIONS THESE BIG QUESTIONS COMPRISE AN EXPANDING ARRAY OF SMALL SIMILAR QUESTIONS

6 SOCIOLOGY’S HOLY TRINITY RAISED QUESTIONS ABOUT SOCIETIES, BUT DIFFERENT CHARACTERISTICS OF THEM: MARXINEQUALITY DURKHEIMCOHESION WEBERRATIONALIZATION THESE QUESTIONS ARE BIG ONES, THEY FORM AN ARRAY OF SIMILAR SUBQUESTIONS

7 WEBER’S PROBLEM OF RATIONALIZATION

8 RISE OF SCIENCE

9 WEBER’S PROBLEM OF RATIONALIZATION RISE OF SCIENCE TECHNICAL ARTS

10 WEBER’S PROBLEM OF RATIONALIZATION RISE OF SCIENCE TECHNICAL ARTS FORMAL STATE

11 WEBER’S PROBLEM OF RATIONALIZATION RISE OF SCIENCE TECHNICAL ARTS FORMAL STATE RISE OF CAPITALISM

12 WEBER’S PROBLEM OF RATIONALIZATION RISE OF SCIENCE TECHNICAL ARTS FORMAL STATE RISE OF CAPITALISM BANK CAPITALISM

13 WEBER’S PROBLEM OF RATIONALIZATION RISE OF SCIENCE TECHNICAL ARTS FORMAL STATE RISE OF CAPITALISM BANK CAPITALISM ENTREPRENEURIAL CAPITALISM

14 WEBER’S PROBLEM OF RATIONALIZATION RATIONALIZATION AS WESTERN UNIQUENESS RISE OF SCIENCE TECHNICAL ARTS FORMAL STATE RISE OF CAPITALISM BANK CAPITALISM ENTERPRENEURIAL CAPITALISM

15 THE EMERGENCE OF THE PROBLEM OF COHESION

16 HOBBES ON THE WAR OF ALL AGAINST ALL AND THE WAR OF ALL RULERS AGAINST ALL RULERS

17 THE EMERGENCE OF THE PROBLEM OF COHESION HOBBESON THE WAR OF ALL AGAINST ALL AND ON THE WAR OF ALL RULERS AGAINST ALL RULERS LOCKE ON THE REBELLION OF SUBJECTS AGAINST RULERS

18 THE EMERGENCE OF THE PROBLEM OF COHESION HOBBES ON THE WAR OF ALL AGAINST ALL AND ON THE WAR OF ALL RULERS AGAINST ALL RULERS LOCKE ON THE REBELLION OF SUBJECTS AGAINST RULERS BENTHAM ON SWIFT, SEVERE AND CERTAIN SENTENCING

19 THE EMERGENCE OF THE PROBLEM OF COHESION HOBBES ON THE WAR OF ALL AGAINST ALL AND ON THE WAR OF ALL RULERS AGAINST ALL RULERS LOCKE ON THE REBELLION OF SUBJECTS AGAINST RULERS BENTHAM ON SWIFT, SEVERE AND CERTAIN SENTENCING COHESION

20 THE EMERGENCE OF THE PROBLEM OF COHESION HOBBES ON THE WAR OF ALL AGAINST ALL AND ON RULERS AGAINST RULERS LOCKE ON THE REBELLION OF SUBJECTS AGAINST RULERS BENTHAM ON SWIFT, SEVERE AND CERTAIN SENTENCING COHESION DURKHEIM ON SUICIDE

21 ONCE MORE DURKHEIM ON COHESION

22 COHESION

23 ONCE MORE DURKHEIM ON COHESION COHESION VIOLENCE AGAINST OTHERS

24 ONCE MORE DURKHEIM ON COHESION COHESION VIOLENCE AGAINST OTHERSISOLATION / TIES

25 ONCE MORE DURKHEIM ON COHESION COHESION ECONOMIC TIES THROUGH THE DIVISION OF LABOUR VIOLENCE AGAINST OTHERSISOLATION / TIES

26 ONCE MORE DURKHEIM ON COHESION COHESION ECONOMIC TIES THROUGH THE DIVISION OF LABOUR SUICIDE AS CUTTING THE LAST TIE TO SOCIETY VIOLENCE AGAINST OTHERSISOLATION / TIES

27 ONCE MORE DURKHEIM ON COHESION COHESION ECONOMIC TIES THROUGH THE DIVISION OF LABOUR SUICIDE AS CUTTING THE LAST TIE TO SOCIETY PARTAKING IN RELIGIOUS RITES VIOLENCE AGAINST OTHERSISOLATION / TIES

28 ONCE MORE DURKHEIM ON COHESION COHESION ECONOMIC TIES THROUGH THE DIVISION OF LABOUR SUICIDE AS CUTTING THE LAST TIE TO SOCIETY PARTAKING IN RELIGIOUS RITES MARRIAGE AND DIVORCE VIOLENCE AGAINST OTHERSISOLATION / TIES

29 THE PROBLEM OF INEQUALITY BEFORE MARX

30 FERGUSON’S UNEQUAL LIVING CONDITIONS

31 THE PROBLEM OF INEQUALITY BEFORE MARX FERGUSON’S UNEQUAL LIVING CONDITIONS INEQUALITY

32 THE PROBLEM OF INEQUALITY BEFORE MARX FERGUSON ON UNEQUAL LIVING CONDITIONS INEQUALITY MILLAR ON LAWS STIPULATING UNEQUAL RELATIONS BETWEEN TWO TYPES OF PERSONS

33 THE PROBLEM OF INEQUALITY BEFORE MARX FERGUSON ON UNEQUAL LIVING CONDITIONS INEQUALITY MILLAR ON LAWS STIPULATING UNEQUAL RELATIONS BETWEEN TWO TYPES OF PERSONS

34 THE PROBLEM OF INEQUALITY BEFORE MARX FERGUSON ON UNEQUAL LIVING CONDITIONS INEQUALITY MILLAR ON LAWS STIPULATING UNEQUAL RELATIONS BETWEEN TWO TYPES OF PERSONS MEN AND WOMEN

35 THE PROBLEM OF INEQUALITY BEFORE MARX FERGUSON ON UNEQUAL LIVING CONDITIONS INEQUALITY MILLAR ON LAWS STIPULATING UNEQUAL RELATIONS BETWEEN TWO TYPES OF PERSONS MEN AND WOMEN PARENTS AND CHILDREN

36 THE PROBLEM OF INEQUALITY BEFORE MARX FERGUSON ON UNEQUAL LIVING CONDITIONS INEQUALITY MILLAR ON LAWS STIPULATING UNEQUAL RELATIONS BETWEEN TWO TYPES OF PERSONS MEN AND WOMEN PARENTS AND CHILDREN MASTERS AND SERVANTS

37 THE PROBLEM OF INEQUALITY BEFORE MARX FERGUSON ON UNEQUAL LIVING CONDITIONS INEQUALITY MILLAR ON LAWS STIPULATING UNEQUAL RELATIONS BETWEEN TWO TYPES OF PERSONS MEN AND WOMEN PARENTS AND CHILDREN MASTERS AND SERVANTS RULERS AND SUBJECTS

38 THE PROBLEM OF INEQUALITY WITH MARX INEQUALITY FERGUSON’S UNEQUAL LIVING CONDITIONS MILLAR’S UNEQUAL LAWS

39 THE PROBLEM OF INEQUALITY WITH MARX INEQUALITY FERGUSON’S UNEQUAL LIVING CONDITIONS MILLAR’S UNEQUAL LAWS MARX ON DE JURE AND DE FACTO INEQUALITY

40 THE PROBLEM OF INEQUALITY WITH MARX INEQUALITY FERGUSON’S UNEQUAL LIVING CONDITIONS MILLAR’S UNEQUAL LAWS HUNGER WAGES MARX ON DE JURE AND DE FACTO INEQUALITY

41 THE PROBLEM OF INEQUALITY SINCE MARX INEQUALITY FERGUSON’S UNEQUAL LIVING CONDITIONS MILLAR’S UNEQUAL LAWS UNEM- PLOY- MENT AND HUNGER WAGES MARX ON DE JURE AND DE FACTO INEQUALITY

42 THE PROBLEM OF INEQUALITY SINCE MARX INEQUALITY FERGUSON’S UNEQUAL LIVING CONDITIONS MILLAR’S UNEQUAL LAWS UNEM- PLOY- MENT AND HUNGER WAGES BERNSTEIN ON WAGES RELATIVE TO PROFITS MARX ON DE JURE AND DE FACTO INEQUALITY

43 THE PROBLEM OF INEQUALITY SINCE MARX INEQUALITY FERGUSON’S UNEQUAL LIVING CONDITIONS MILLAR’S UNEQUAL LAWS UNEM- PLOY- MENT AND HUNGER WAGES BERNSTEIN ON WAGES RELATIVE TO PROFITS SOMBART ON MOBILITY MARX ON DE JURE AND DE FACTO INEQUALITY

44 THE PROBLEM OF INEQUALITY SINCE MARX INEQUALITY FERGUSON’S UNEQUAL LIVING CONDITIONS MILLAR’S UNEQUAL LAWS UNEM- PLOY- MENT AND HUNGER WAGES BERNSTEIN ON WAGES RELATIVE TO PROFITS WEBER ON CLOSURE SOMBART ON MOBILITY MARX ON DE JURE AND DE FACTO INEQUALITY

45 THE PROBLEM OF INEQUALITY SINCE MARX INEQUALITY FERGUSON’S UNEQUAL LIVING CONDITIONS MILLAR’S UNEQUAL LAWS UNEM- PLOY- MENT AND HUNGER WAGES BERNSTEIN ON WAGES RELATIVE TO PROFITS WEBER ON CLOSURE SOMBART ON MOBILITY CONNU- BIUM MARX ON DE JURE AND DE FACTO INEQUALITY

46 THE PROBLEM OF INEQUALITY SINCE MARX INEQUALITY FERGUSON’S UNEQUAL LIVING CONDITIONS MILLAR’S UNEQUAL LAWS UNEM- PLOY- MENT AND HUNGER WAGES BERNSTEIN ON WAGES RELATIVE TO PROFITS WEBER ON CLOSURE SOMBART ON MOBILITY CONNU- BIUM CONVI -VIUM MARX ON DE JURE AND DE FACTO INEQUALITY

47 THE PROBLEM OF INEQUALITY SINCE MARX INEQUALITY FERGUSON’S UNEQUAL LIVING CONDITIONS MILLAR’S UNEQUAL LAWS UNEM- PLOT- MENT AND HUNGER WAGES BERNSTEIN ON WAGES RELATIVE TO PROFITS WEBER ON CLOSURE SOMBART ON MOBILITY CONNU- BIUM CONVI -VIUM GOLDTHORPE ON ABSOLUTE RATES MARX ON DE JURE AND DE FACTO INEQUALITY

48 THE PROBLEM OF INEQUALITY SINCE MARX INEQUALITY FERGUSON’S UNEQUAL LIVING CONDITIONS MILLAR’S UNEQUAL LAWS UNEM- PLOY- MENT AND HUNGER WAGES BERNSTEIN ON WAGES RELATIVE TO PROFITS WEBER ON CLOSURE SOMBART ON MOBILITY CONNU- BIUM CONVI -VIUM GOLDTHORPE ON ABSOLUTE RATES GOLDTHORPE ON RELATIVE CHANCES MARX ON DE JURE AND DE FACTO INEQUALITY

49 IS NOT ALL THIS QUITE STERILE? NO! NEW SMALL QUESTIONS CAN BE ADDED AND HAVE BEEN ADDED IN SOCIOLOGY’S HISTORY ALSO, NEW EVEN BIGGER QUESTIONS ARE POSSIBLE

50 SOCIOLOGY’S FOUR BIG THEORETICAL TRADITIONS CAN BE WRITTEN AS APPROACHES THAT DEVELOPED INTO INFORMATIVE PROPOSITIONS YIELDING TESTABLE DERIVATIONS HOBBESIAN UTILITARIAN INDIVIDUALISM DURKHEIMIAN STRUCTURAL FUNCTIONALISM MARXIAN HISTORICAL MATERIALISM WEBERIAN INTERPRETATIVE INDIVIDUALISM

51 SINCE BIG QUESTIONS TURN OUT AS NOT TRADITION-SPECIFIC, THE NEED FOR A THEORETICAL SYNTHESIS MY OWN SYNTHESIS FOLLOWS LENSKI, POWER AND PRVILEGE, 1966 AND LENSKI, HUMAN SOCIETIES, 1998 TECHNOLOGICAL-IDEOLOGICAL EVOLUTIONISM COMPRISING A RESOURCES-HYPOTHESIS (INCLUDING SOCIAL RESOURCES) A TECHNOLOGY-HYPOTHESIS AN IDEOLOGY-HYPOTHESIS A NEIGBOURING-COUNTRIES HYPOTHESIS A PAST-PERFORMANCE HYPOTHESIS

52 TESTING HYPOTHESES ANSWERING VARIOUS SMALL QUESTIONS SIMPLE COUNTRY DATA FROM THE WORLD BANK AND OTHER SUPRANATIONAL INSTITUTIONS COMPARATIVE SURVEYS: EUROBAROMETER, EUROPEAN SOCIAL SURVEY AND WORLD VALUES SURVEY STACKING COMPARABLE VARIABLES FROM VARIOUS DATA-SETS IN NATIONAL DIGITAL ARCHIVES INTO ONE SUPER-FILE SIMPLE TIME SERIES FROM STATISTICS NETHERLANDS

53 ADVANCED WAYS OF TESTING HYPOTHESES ANSWERING SMALL QUESTIONS MAYER-BLOSSFELD / MAX PLANCK BERLIN 1982 MULTI-MOMENT DATA SETS FOR INDIVIDUALS ANALYSED BY EVENT HISTORY TECHNIQUES MULTI-MOMENT MULTI-ACTOR AND MULTI-CONTEXT DATA-SETS NIJMEGEN-GROUP 1993, 1998, 2000, 2003 EVENT HISTORY PLUS MULTI-LEVEL TECHNIQUES APPLIED TO

54 DUTCH MULTI-MOMENT INDIVIDUAL DATA-SETS: EDUCATIONAL HISTORY HISTORY OF (NON)EMPLOYMENT FULL- AND PART-TIME JOB HISTORY OCCUPATIONAL TITLES HISTORY HOUSING HISTORY MARRIAGES HISTORY HISTORY OF SMOKING AGE LEAVING CHURCH LEISURE NOW AND AT AGE 18 YEARS

55 DUTCH MULTI-ACTOR DATA-SETS SAMPLE AND INTERVIEW PRIMARY RESPONDENT INTERVIEW SPOUSE SEND A QUESTIONNAIRE TO A PARENT SEND A QUESTIONNAIRE TO A SIBLING SEND A QUESTIONNAIRE TO AN ADULT CHILD

56 DUTCH MULTI-CONTEXT DATA-SETS ASCERTAIN POSTAL CODE OF PRIMARY RESPONDENT RECODE POSTAL CODE INTO LOCAL UNEMPLOYMENT RATE AND OTHER LOCAL CHARACTERISTICS ASK ADDRESS EMPLOYER AND SEND QUESTIONNAIRE ASK ADDRESS SPORT CLUB AND SEND QUESTIONNAIRE

57 WHY 3M-MAC DATA-SETS? THREE OBJECTIONS AGAINST STANDARD QUANTITATIVE QUESTIONNAIRES ON RANDOM SAMPLES CROSS-SECTIONAL, NO INDIVIDUAL HISTORY ISOLATED INDIVIDUALS, NO CONTEXT ISOLATED INDIVIDUALS, NO RELATIONS

58 HOW TO OVERCOME THESE OBJECTIONS WITHOUT LOOSING ADVANTAGES OF QUANTIFICATION? EVEN LIFE HISTORIES OBTAINED BY QUALITATIVE INTERVIEWS CAN BE QUANTIFIED START A SNOWBALL SAMPLE AND APPLY THE SAME QUESTIONNAIRE CONTEXTS CAN BE MEASURED BY BRINGING IN ADMINISTRATIVE DATA THE COLLECTION OF QUANTITATIVE DATA ON VARIOUS TYPES OF ORGANISATIONS IS QUITE POSSIBLE

59 ONE SMALL DUTCH WARM-UP QUESTION WHY WAS SUICIDE SO HIGH IN THE NETHERLANDS IN 1940 AND 1945?

60 BUT ADMINISTRATIVE STATISTICS TELL OTHERWISE: WHY WAS DUTCH SUICIDE SO HIGH IN 1940 AND 1945? DURKHEIMIAN STRUCTURAL FUNCTIONALISM: WHEN NATIONS ARE AT WAR, SUICIDE DROPS EXPLAINED BY INFORMATIVE HYPOTHESIS: MORE (POLITICAL) INTEGRATION, LESS SUICIDE AND AUXILIARY ASSUMPTION: IN TIMES OF WAR, MORE POLITICAL INTEGRATION

61 DURKHEIMS’ SYLLOGISM IN TIMES OF WAR, LESS SUICIDE

62 DURKHEIMS’ SYLLOGISM IN TIMES OF WAR, LESS SUICIDE

63 DURKHEIMS’ SYLLOGISM IN TIMES OF WAR, LESS SUICIDE MORE (POLITICAL) INTEGRATION, LESS SUICIDE

64 DURKHEIMS’ SYLLOGISM IN TIMES OF WAR, LESS SUICIDE MORE (POLITICAL) INTEGRATION, LESS SUICIDE IN TIMES OF WAR, MORE INTEGRATION

65 SILLY CRITICISM BY HALBWACHS IN DENMARK DURING WORLD WAR I, IN WHICH DENMARK REMAINED NEUTRAL, LESS SUICIDE WHY NOT TO THE POINT? A CONTRIDICTION OF A DURHEIMIAN EMPIRICAL REGULARITY IS NOT A CONTRADICTION OF A DURKHEIMIAN INFORMATIVE HYPOTHESIS ALTHOUGH DENMARK WAS NEUTRAL IN WORLD WAR I, EXTERNAL THREAT MADE DANISH POLITICAL INTEGRATION RISE

66 BETTER CRITICISM SUICIDE IN THE NETHERLANDS WAS LOW IN 1941, 1942, 1943 AND 1944, BUT HIGH IN 1940 AND 1945; RATES PER 100, M11.7V

67 L. DE JONG, THE OFFICIAL HISTORY OF THE DUTCH KINGDOM DURING WORLD WAR II MENTIONS THAT DUTCH COLLABORATORS WITH THE GERMAN OCCUPATION KILLED THEMSELVES IN 1945, BUT DOES NOT GIVE NUMBERS DE JONG ALSO STATES THAT JEWS COMMITTED SUICIDE IN MAY 1940, ADDING THAT THE NUMBERS ARE UNKNOWN

68 IT SO HAPPENED THAT THE ‘COUNTING CARD’ FOR EVERY SUICIDE IN THE NETHERLANDS BETWEEN 1936 AND 1952 THAT WAS COMPLETED BY THE RESPONSIBLE OFFICER OF JUSTICE IS STILL AVAILABLE IN THE ARCHIVES OF STATISTICS NETHERLANDS WE HAD THESE COUNTING CARDS DIGITALISED AND ANALYZED THOSE DATA

69 HISTORIANS HUNTED FOR NAMES OF DUTCH PERSONS WHO COLLABORATED WITH THE GERMAN OCCUPATION AND FOR NAMES OF GERMANS WHO COMMITTED WAR CRIMES IN THE NETHERLANDS HISTORIANS WERE NOT INTERESTED IN NUMBERS

70 SO HOW ABOUT SUICIDE IN THE NETHERLANDS IN 1945? THE NETHERLANDS WAS FULLY LIBERATED IN MAY 1945, WITH THE SOUTH BECOMING FREE IN SEPTEMBER 1944; THERE WAS A HUNT FOR DUTCH COLLABORATORS

71 OF THE 1009 SUICIDES IN 1945, AT LEAST 88 WERE BY POLITICAL DELINQUENTS OF THEM 17 WERE IN MARCH 19 IN APRIL 18 IN MAY 5 POLITICAL SUICIDES IN SEPTEMBER 1944

72 A SIMILAR DURKHEIMIAN EXPLANATION: JEWS WERE PLACED OUTSIDE SOCIETY, CONSEQUENTLY JEWISH SUICIDE ROSE AND WHY HIGHER SUICIDE IN 1940?

73 HOW TO PUT THIS EXPLANATION IN A MORE GENERAL FORM? DURKHEIMIAN HYPOTHESIS: THE HIGHER THE INTEGRATION OF PERSONS IN A COUNTRY’S POLITICS, THE LOWER THEIR CHANCES OF SUICIDE AND COLLABORATORS IN 1945 BECAME OUTCASTS

74 ULTEE’S FIRST SYLLOGISM

75 DUTCH SUICIDE RISES IN 1940

76 ULTEE’S FIRST SYLLOGISM DUTCH SUICIDE RISES IN

77 ULTEE’S FIRST SYLLOGISM DUTCH SUICIDE RISES IN MORE (POLITICAL) INTEGRATION, LESS SUICIDE; LESS INTEGRATION, MORE SUICIDE

78 ULTEE’S FIRST SYLLOGISM DUTCH SUICIDE RISES IN MORE (POLITICAL) INTEGRATION, LESS SUICIDE; LESS INTEGRATION, MORE SUICIDE DUTCH JEWS IN 1940 OUTSIDE POLITICS, ECONOMY, SOCIETY

79 ULTEE’S SECOND SYLLOGISM

80 LESS (POLITICAL) INTEGRATION, MORE SUICIDE DUTCH JEWS IN 1940 OUTSIDE POLITICS, ECONOMY, SOCIETY

81 ULTEE’S SECOND SYLLOGISM DUTCH JEWISH SUICIDE RISES IN LESS (POLITICAL) INTEGRATION, MORE SUICIDE DUTCH JEWS IN 1940 OUTSIDE POLITICS, ECONOMY, SOCIETY

82 BUT DID JEWISH SUICIDE ONLY RISE IN 1940? JEWS WERE DEPORTED FROM THE NETHERLANDS IN 1942 AND 1943 DID JEWISH SUICIDE ALSO RISE IN 1942 AND 1943?

83 JEWSNON-JEWS ABSOLUTE NUMBERS OF NON-JEWISH AND JEWISH SUICIDES

84 ULTEE’S THIRD SYLLOGISM LESS INTEGRATION, MORE SUICIDE

85 ULTEE’S THIRD SYLLOGISM LESS INTEGRATION, MORE SUICIDE JEWS ALSO OUTSIDE SOCIETY IN 1942 AND 1943 BECAUSE OF DEPORTATIONS

86 ULTEE’S THIRD SYLLOGISM LESS INTEGRATION, MORE SUICIDE JEWS ALSO OUTSIDE SOCIETY IN 1942 AND 1943 BECAUSE OF DEPORTATIONS

87 ULTEE’S THIRD SYLLOGISM LESS INTEGRATION, MORE SUICIDE JEWS ALSO OUTSIDE SOCIETY IN 1942 AND 1943 BECAUSE OF DEPORTATIONS JEWISH SUICIDE HIGHER IN 1942 AND

88 NUMBER OF JEWISH SUICIDES PER 100,000 CONPUTED BY TAKING THE MONTHLY NUMBER OF JEWS PRESENT IN THE NETHERLANDS AS BASIS AND ADDING UP

89 ULTEE’S FOURTH SYLLOGISM LESS INTEGRATION, MORE SUICIDE

90 GERMANY OCCUPIED NETHERLANDS IN MAY 1940; JEWISH DEPORTATIONS STARTED JULY 1942 ULTEE’S FOURTH SYLLOGISM LESS INTEGRATION, MORE SUICIDE

91 GERMANY OCCUPIED NETHERLANDS IN MAY 1940; JEWISH DEPORTATIONS STARTED JULY 1942 ULTEE’S FOURTH SYLLOGISM LESS INTEGRATION, MORE SUICIDE

92 GERMANY OCCUPIED NETHERLANDS IN MAY 1940; JEWISH DEPORTATIONS STARTED JULY 1942 ULTEE’S FOURTH SYLLOGISM LESS INTEGRATION, MORE SUICIDE IN 1940, JEWISH SUICIDE ROSE IN MAY, IN 1942 JEWISH SUICIDE ROSE IN JULY

93 JAN FEB 2 8 MAR 0 2 APR 5 6 MAY JUN 6 6 JUL 1443 AUG 531 SEPT 844 OCT 151 NOV 133 DEC 215 ABSOLUTE NUMBER OF JEWISH SUICIDES BY MONTH

94 THEORY-GUIDED RESEARCH AND QUESTION-DRIVEN THEORIZING IS POSSIBLE WITH DIGITALLY AVAILABLE ADMINISTRATIVE STATISTICS


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