# Introduction to Computing CS 101 Autumn 2004. Chapter 1 Introduction to Computing.

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Introduction to Computing CS 101 Autumn 2004

Chapter 1 Introduction to Computing

Power of 2 oPrize request for inventing Chess One grain of rice on the first box of chessboard and keep on doubling in successive boxes One grain of rice on the first box of chessboard and keep on doubling in successive boxes oMoney Game I pay you Rs 10,000 everyday for 30 days. You start with 1 paisa on the 1 st day but will double the amount every day for 30 days. I pay you Rs 10,000 everyday for 30 days. You start with 1 paisa on the 1 st day but will double the amount every day for 30 days. o10,000 x 30 = 300,000 rupees = Rs 0.3 M o2 30 -1 ~ 10.7 x 10 8 paisas = RS 10.7 M

Computer Architecture Arithmetic Logic Unit ALU Control Unit CU Datapath Memory Input/Output CPU

Memory Organization AddressData/Instructions 0 1 2 65536 65534 65535 00011111 8 bits = 1 byte 64 Kilo byte RAM = 64 x 1024 = 65,536 bytes of RAM Needs 16 address lines

Memory Addresses =4 M4194304 22 =2 M209715221 =1 M104857620 =512 K52428819 =256 K26214418 =128 K13107217 =64 K6553616 =32 K3276815 =16 K1638414 =8 K819213 =4 K409612 =2 K204811 =1 K102410 5129 2568 1287 646 32 5 164 83 42 2 1 Memory LocationsAddress Lines

Address & Data Bus CPU Address Bus Memory Data Bus 16 lines for 64K memory 8 lines for a byte of data transfer

Software oSet of instructions for the computer. A = 5 B = 3 C = A+B Print C on the terminal oExecution A, B, and C are mapped into 3 memory locations A, B, and C are mapped into 3 memory locations Contents of A & B are set to 5 & 3 respectively Contents of A & B are set to 5 & 3 respectively Contents of A & B are brought into CPU & addedContents of A & B are brought into CPU & added Result is saved in C Result is saved in C Content of C are displayed on the terminalContent of C are displayed on the terminal

Program Execution AddressContent 0000 0000 0000 0000 xxxx xxxx 0000 0000 0000 0001 …… 0000 0010 0000 0010 0000 0101 …… 0000 1100 0000 1000 0000 1000 …… 0110 0000 0000 0011 0000 0011 …… 1111 1111 1111 1111 A B C 0000 0010 0000 0101 0000 1100 0000 10000110 0000 0000 0011 0000 0011 0000 1000 0000 0011 CPU Memory C = A + B 01 Address Bus Data Bus

What is right with B=B+A? AddressContent 0000 0000 0000 0000 xxxx xxxx 0000 0000 0000 0001 …… 0000 0010 0000 0010 0000 0101 …… 0000 1100 0000 1000 … …… 0110 0000 0000 0011 0000 0011 …… 1111 1111 1111 1111 A B 0000 0010 0000 0101 0110 0000 0000 0011 0000 0011 0000 1000 CPU Memory B = A + B 01

Computer Languages oMACHINE CODE oASSEMBLY oADA, FORTRAN, BASIC oPASCAL, LISP oC, C++Must for CS/CE/EE oVisual BASIC CS 101

Operating System oSoftware that  efficiently utilizes computer resources  resolves issues among various computer processes Competing processes Competing processes Cooperating processes Cooperating processes

Microprocessor History: 8080 oDesignerIntel oIntroduction dateApril 1974 oIntroduction speed2 MHz oMaximum speed3 MHz oCache- oTransistor count6000 oManufacturing process6 micron http://www.cpu-info.com

Microprocessor History: Pentium III oDesignerIntel oIntroduction dateAug. 1999 oIntroduction speed450 MHz oMaximum speed1400 MHz oCache512 Kb oTransistor count9,500,000 oManufacturing process0.25 & 0.18 micron http://www.cpu-info.com

CPU http://www.theregister.co.uk/2000/06/30/pentium_4_in_pictures/ Motherboard

http://www.theregister.co.uk/2000/06/30/pentium_4_in_pictures/ Pin outlay of Pentium

Pentium 4: From Inside

Pentium 4 o90, 130 nm Technology o2.8 – 3.8 GHz 1/2000 th of human hair ftp://download.intel.com/research/silicon/Josh_Fab_24_061404.pdf