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Online Counseling Resource YCMOU ELearning Drive… School of Architecture, Science and Technology Yashwantrao Chavan Maharashtra Open University, Nashik.

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Presentation on theme: "Online Counseling Resource YCMOU ELearning Drive… School of Architecture, Science and Technology Yashwantrao Chavan Maharashtra Open University, Nashik."— Presentation transcript:

1 Online Counseling Resource YCMOU ELearning Drive… School of Architecture, Science and Technology Yashwantrao Chavan Maharashtra Open University, Nashik – , India

2 SEP-S08071-CP1-01 Introduction Programmes and Courses SEP-S CP1-UN1 2© 2008, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.

3 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… Credits  Academic Inputs by Sonali Alkari Faculty YCMOU Nagpur Centre, Faculty LAD college P.G. D of Biotechnology Research officer Ankur Seeds Pvt Ltd 3© 2008, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.

4 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… © 2008, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.4 How to Use This Resource  Counselor at each study center should use this presentation to deliver lecture of minutes during Face-To-Face counseling.  Discussion about students difficulties or tutorial with assignments should follow the lecture for about minutes.  Handouts (with 6 slides on each A4 size page) of this presentation should be provided to each student.  Each student should discuss on the discussion forum all the terms which could not be understood. This will improve his writing skills and enhance knowledge level about topics, which shall be immensely useful for end exam.  Appear several times, for all the Self-Tests, available for this course.  Student can use handouts for last minutes preparation just before end exam. 4© 2008, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.

5 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… © 2008, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.5 Learning Objectives  After studying this module, you should be able to: Describe what is computer Describe Architecture of computer Describe components of computer 5© 2008, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.

6 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… Computers-1  Man has invented many electronic devices but the computer has made a greater impact on society than any other single device.  Computer have become indispensable to engineers, scientists, business executives, managers, administrators, accountants, teachers and students.  Computers are electronic devices which can input, store and manipulate data and output information in a desired form.  The present era is called as computer era., therefore it is necessary to have knowledge on various computer related aspects like, component or architecture. © 2008, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.66

7 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… Computers-2  The most obvious question you should ask is, What is a computer? A computer is an electronic device that operates under the control of a set of instructions that is stored in its memory unit.  A computer accepts data from an input device and processes it into useful information which it displays on its output device.  Actually, a computer is a collection of hardware and software components that help you accomplish many different tasks.  Hardware consists of the computer itself, and any equipment connected to it.  Software is the set of instructions that the computer follows in performing a task. © 2008, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.77

8 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… Architecture of Computers  The major component of computers are Microprocessor input Output Memory Removable media devices Others  These component are organized around a common communication path called as bus.  The entire group of component is called system or microcomputer system, while component are called sub-systems. © 2008, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.88

9 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… Computer Component © 2008, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.99

10 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… Microprocessor  The microprocessor is semiconductor device consisting of electronic logic circuits manufactured by using either large or very large integration technique.  The microprocessor is capable of performing computer functions and making decisions to change sequence of program execution.  In large computers, central processing unit (CPU) performs these computing functions.  Central processing unit (CPU) - Performs most of the calculations which enable a computer to function, sometimes referred to as the "brain" of the computer. © 2008, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.10

11 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… Microprocessor  The microprocessor consists of three units: arithmetic logic unit (ALU), register unit and control unit. © 2008, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.11 System Bus InputOutput ROM R/WM Memory 11

12 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… Microprocessor  Arithmetic Logic Unit: The ALU performs arithmetic operations such as addition and subtraction and logic operations. results are stored either in registers or in memory or sent to output devices.  Register unit: this area of microprocessor consists of various registers. These registers are used primarily to store data temporarily during the execution of program.  Control unit: the control unit provides necessary timing and control signals to all the operations in the computer. It controls the flow of data between the microprocessor and periperals. © 2008, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.12

13 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… Memory-1  This is a medium that stores binary information such as instructions and data and provides that information to the microprocessors whenever necessary.  To execute programs, the microprocessor reads instructions and data from memory and performs the computing operations in its ALU section.  The memory block has two section as Read only memory and Random access memory. © 2008, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.13

14 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… Memory-2  Read only memory (ROM):These are random access memories in which data words are permanently written during fabrication. It is used to store programs that do not need alteration. programs stored in ROM can only be read, they cannot be altered.  Random Access Memory (RAM): It is also known as the physical memory of the computer. Fast-access memory that is cleared when the computer is powered-down. RAM attaches directly to the motherboard, and is used to store programs that are currently running. © 2008, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.14

15 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… Computer Hardware-1  Hardware is a general term that refers to the physical artifacts of a technology. It may also mean the physical components of a computer system, in the form of computer hardware.  The history of computer hardware encompasses the hardware, its architecture, and its impact on software.  The elements of computing hardware have undergone significant improvement over their history.  This improvement has triggered worldwide use of the technology, performance has improved and the price has declined. © 2008, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.15

16 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… Computer Hardware-2  The term computer hardware refers to the physical components of a computer,namely Keyboard, Monitor, Mouse, and Printer, including the digital circuitry.  Computer hardware is an integral part embedded in all modern day automobiles,microwave ovens, electrocardiograph machines, compact disc players, and other devices.  The hardware of a computer is not changed frequently, in contrast with software and data.  The present computers are much advanced in terms of processing speed and have an efficient memory structure. © 2008, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.16

17 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… Input Devices-1  Input devices : it is a device that transfers information from outside world to the computer. It include Text, pointing, gaming, image and video input devices Text Input device  Keyboard - a device to input text and characters by depressing buttons (referred to as keys), similar to a typewriter. The most common English-language key layout is the QWERTY layout. © 2008, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.17

18 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… Input Devices-2  Pointing devices Mouse - a pointing device that detects two dimensional motion relative to its supporting surface. Trackball - a pointing device consisting of an exposed protruding ball housed in a socket that detects rotation about two axes. Xbox 360 Controller - A controller used for Xbox 360, which can be used as an additional pointing device with the left or right thumbstick with the use of the application Switchblade(tm). © 2008, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.18

19 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… Input Devices-3  Gaming devices Joystick - a general control device that consists of a handheld stick that pivots around one end, to detect angles in two or three dimensions. Gamepad - a general handheld game controller that relies on the digits (especially thumbs) to provide input. Game controller - a specific type of controller specialized for certain gaming purposes. © 2008, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.19

20 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… Input Devices-4  Image, Video input devices Image scanner - a device that provides input by analyzing images, printed text, handwriting, or an object. Webcam - a low resolution video camera used to provide visual input that can be easily transferred over the internet.  Audio input devices  Microphone - an acoustic sensor that provides input by converting sound into electrical signals © 2008, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.20

21 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… Output Devices  The output section transfers information from the computer to outside world and the devices that are used for display of results are known as output devices.  Image, Video output devices Printer Monitor  Audio output devices Speakers Headset © 2008, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.21

22 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… Removable Media Devices-1  CD (compact disc) - the most common type of removable media, inexpensive but has a short life-span. CD-ROM Drive - a device used for reading data from a CD. CD Writer- a device used for both reading and writing data to and from a CD.  Blu-ray - a high-density optical disc format for the storage of digital information, including high-definition video. BD-ROM Drive - a device used for reading data from a Blu-ray disc. BD Writer - a device used for both reading and writing data to and from a Blu-ray disc. © 2008, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.22

23 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… Removable Media Devices-2  DVD (digital versatile disc) - a popular type of removable media that is the same dimensions as a CD but stores up to 6 times as much information. It is the most common way of transferring digital video. DVD-ROM Drive - a device used for reading data from a DVD. DVD Writer - a device used for both reading and writing data to and from a DVD. DVD-RAM Drive - a device used for rapid writing and reading of data from a special type of DVD. © 2008, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.23

24 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… Removable Media Devices-3  HD DVD - a high-density optical disc format and successor to the standard DVD. It was a discontinued competitor to the Blu-ray format.  Floppy disk - an outdated storage device consisting of a thin disk of a flexible magnetic storage medium.  Zip drive - an outdated medium-capacity removable disk storage system, first introduced by Iomega in  USB flash drive - a flash memory data storage device integrated with a USB interface, typically small, lightweight, removable, and rewritable.  Tape drive - a device that reads and writes data on a magnetic tape,used for long term storage © 2008, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.24

25 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… Others-1  Motherboard - It is the "body" or mainframe of the computer, through which all other components interface.  Computer fan -Used to lower the temperature of the computer; a fan is almost always attached to the CPU, and the computer case will generally have several fans to maintain a constant airflow. Liquid cooling can also be used to cool a computer.  Firmware is loaded from the Read only memory ROM run from the Basic Input-Output System (BIOS) or in newer systems Extensible Firmware Interface (EFI) compliant. © 2008, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.25

26 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… Others-2  Internal Buses - Connections to various internal components. PCI (being phased out for graphic cards but still used for other uses) PCI-E ISA (obsolete in PCs, but still used in industrial computers) USB HyperTransport CSI (expected in 2008) AGP (being phased out) VLB (outdated) © 2008, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.26

27 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… Others-3  External Bus Controllers - used to connect to external peripherals, such as printers and input devices. These ports may also be based upon expansion cards, attached to the internal buses.  Power supply: A case control, a cooling fan, and supplies power to run the rest of the computer, the most common types of power supplies are AT and BabyAT but the standard for PCs actually are ATX and Micro ATX.  Video display controller:Produces the output for the visual display unit. This will either be built into the motherboard or attached in its own separate slot (PCI, PCI-E, PCI-E 2.0, or AGP), in the form of a Graphics Card. © 2008, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.27

28 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… Computer Component © 2008, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.28

29 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… Others-4  Storage controllers: Controllers for hard disk, CD-ROM internal Zip and Jaz conventionally for a PC are IDE/ATA. The controllers sit directly on the motherboard or on expansion cards, such as a Disk array controller. IDE is usually integrated, unlike SCSI Small Computer System Interface which can be found in some servers. The floppy drive interface is a legacy MFM interface which is disappearing. All these interfaces are gradually being phased out to be replaced by SATA and SAS. © 2008, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.29

30 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… Others-5  Internal storage: Hardware that keeps data inside the computer for later use and remains persistent even when the computer has no power.  Hard disk - for medium-term storage of data.  Solid-state drive - a device similar to hard disk, but containing no moving parts.  Disk array controller - a device to manage several hard disks, to achieve performance or reliability improvement. © 2008, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.30

31 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… Others-6  Sound card: Enables the computer to output sound to audio devices, as well as accept input from a microphone.  Most modern computers have sound cards built-in to the motherboard, though it is common for a user to install a separate sound card as an upgrade. © 2008, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.31

32 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… What You Learn-1…  Computers are electronic devices which can input, store and manipulate data and output information in a desired form.  The major component of computers are Microprocessor, input, Output, Memory Removable media devices and Others.  The microprocessor is capable of performing computer functions and making decisions to change sequence of program execution.  The microprocessor consists of three units: arithmetic logic unit (ALU), register unit and control unit. 32© 2008, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.

33 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… What You Learn-2…  Memory is a medium that stores binary information such as instructions and data and provides that information to the microprocessors whenever necessary.  ROM are random access memories in which data words are permanently written during fabrication.  RAM is also known as the physical memory of the computer. Fast-access memory that is cleared when the computer is powered-down.  Input devices : it is a device that transfers information from outside world to the computer.  The output section transfers information from the computer to outside world 33© 2008, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.

34 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… Critical Thinking Questions oDescribe in details architecture of computer. oDescribe removable media device in details. © 2008, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.34

35 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… Hints For Critical Thinking Question oComponents of computers oThe devices which can be removed and installed when needed are removable device and give examples like CD, DVD etc in details © 2008, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.35

36 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… Study Tips:1  Book1 Title: Security Warrior Author: Cyrus Peikari, Anton Chuvakin Publisher: O'Reilly Media, Inc.  Book2 Title: Fundamentals of computers Author: V. Rajaraman Publisher: Prentice~Hall of India 36© 2008, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.

37 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… Study Tips:2  Book3 Title: Fundamental of computers Hardware Author: M.S.Bhatia Publishers: Khanna book publishing  Book4 Title: Bioinformatics Author: C.V. Murthy. Publishers: Himalaya PublishingHouse, India 37© 2008, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.

38 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… Study Tips Microsoft Encarta Encyclopedia Wikipedia the free encyclopedia 38© 2008, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.

39 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… End of the Presentation Thank You 39© 2008, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.


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