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SEE 3223: Microprocessors Dr. Izzeldin Ibrahim Mohamed P08-117/ VeCAD LAB Ext.: 36117, HP: 0127363635 Department.

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Presentation on theme: "SEE 3223: Microprocessors Dr. Izzeldin Ibrahim Mohamed P08-117/ VeCAD LAB Ext.: 36117, HP: 0127363635 Department."— Presentation transcript:

1 SEE 3223: Microprocessors Dr. Izzeldin Ibrahim Mohamed P08-117/ VeCAD LAB Ext.: 36117, HP: Department of Microelectronics and Computer Engineering (MiCE) Faculty of Electrical Engineering Universiti Teknologi Malaysia Consultation: Tuesday 11:00 – 12:55 a.m. Thursday 11:00 – 12:55 a.m.

2 Introduction

3 Microprocessor SEE3223 Aim This subject introduces the principle and the usage of microprocessor. Few topics that are emphasized are processor architecture, assembly language and basic interfacing in a microprocessor-based systems. Learning Outcomes At the end of this course, students will be able to :  Describe and differentiate all the component of microprocessor- based systems.  Analyze and design AVR Atmega32 assembly language programs.  Analyze and design AVR Atmega32 microprocessor systems.  Work with AVR Studio and communicate effectively in a team to solve complex AVR Atmega32 design problems.

4 SEE3223 Microprocessor Systems  What’s in this course: – Assembly language programming – Microprocessor concepts – Hardware interfacing  Pre-Requisites – Number representation, coding, registers, state machines – Realization of simple logic circuits – Integrated circuit technologies – Designing with MSI components – Flip-Flops – Counters and sequential MSI components – Register transfer logic

5 Course Policy  Attendance is compulsory.  You are responsible for whatever is taught in the lecture. If you miss a class, it is your responsibility to find out about assignment, quizzes and exam from elearning.  Punctuality is expected.  Makeup quizzes will not be given except in the case of actual emergencies with written evidence.  You are encouraged to collaborate (not copy) on assignment problems with your "study buddies.”

6 Grading Policy Assessment Breakdown: – 4 Quizzes x 10% = 30% – 1 Group Assignment = 20% – Final = 50%

7 Material  Lecture notes Will be posted  Textbooks Muhammad Ali Mazidi and, Sarmad Naimi and Sepehr Naimi (2010), The AVR Microcontroller and Embedded Systems: Using Assembly and C, 1 st Ed., Prentice Hall.

8 Microprocessor-Based Systems

9  Aims – To review the main elements of a microprocessor system.  Intended Learning Outcomes – At the end of this module, students should be able to: Define and explain important terms associated with both hardware and software elements of a microprocessor system Tell the difference between general purpose computing and embedded computing List down the major components inside a computer & processor Tell the difference between computer, processor, microprocessor and microcontroller Explain instruction execution cycles of a generic microprocessor

10 Computer Data Processing Data Storage What is Computer ?

11 Basic Functions of Computer Data Processing Data Storage Data Movement Control

12 Microprocessor-Based Systems I12 Whenever the word microprocessor is mentioned, it conjures up a picture of a desktop or laptop PC running an application such as a word processor or a spreadsheet. While this is a popular application for microprocessors, it is not the only one and the fact is most people use them indirectly in common objects and appliances without realizing it. Without the microprocessor, these products would not be as sophisticated or cheap as they are today.

13 Microprocessor-Based Systems I13 Computing systems are everywhere. Its probably no surprise that millions of computing systems are built every year destined for desktop computers (Personal Computers, or PCs), workstations, mainframes and servers. What may be surprising is that billions of computing systems are built every year for a very different purpose: they are embedded within larger electronic devices, repeatedly carrying out a particular function, often going completely unrecognized by the devices user. Creating a precise definition of such embedded computing systems, or simply embedded systems, is not an easy task.

14 Computer Classifications Classification of computers: – Servers: Big, expensive, available 24x7 (read “24 by 7” or 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. Mainframes are old servers made by IBM. – Desktops: computers on your desk – Laptops: computers you carry in your bag – PDA (personal digital assistants): computers you carry in your pocket – Embedded systems: computers that don’t look like computers! An embedded system is a type of computer

15 What is an Embedded System? I15 An embedded system is a microprocessor-based system that is built to control a function or range of functions and is not designed to be programmed by the end user in the same way that a PC is. An embedded system is a special-purpose computer system designed to perform certain dedicated functions. It is usually embedded as part of a complete device including hardware and mechanical parts

16 Embedded System: Example I16 Embedded microprocessors are more deeply ingrained into everyday life than any other electronic circuit that is made. A car may have over 50 microprocessors controlling functions such as the engine through engine management systems, brakes with electronic anti-lock brakes, transmission with traction control and electronically controlled gearboxes, safety with airbag systems, electric windows, air-conditioning and so on.

17 Other Processors in Embedded Systems Embedded Controllers: – More powerful (32 bits) than microcontrollers (8 bits) – Normally contains only processor and input/output, memory is external Digital Signal Processors: – Embedded processors optimized for digital signal processing – Commonly found in hand-phones, modems, communications systems Graphics Processors: – Very powerful processors found in graphics cards of workstations Programmable Logic Controllers: – Microprocessor boards usually found in industrial applications

18 General Purpose Computing vs Embedded Systems General PurposeEmbedded Intended to run a fully general set of applications Runs a few applications often known at design time End-user programmableNot end-user programmable Faster is always betterOperates in fixed run-time constraints, additional performance may not be useful/valuable Differentiating features: Speed (need not be fully predictable) Software compatibility Cost (eg RM3k vs RM5k per laptop) Differentiating features: Power Cost (eg RM2 vs RM2.50) Size Speed (must be predictable)

19 To design a µP System, we must know… Fundamentals: – What’s inside a computer – What’s inside a processor Programming: – What happens in the processor when it’s running a program – What do we need to write a program – How to create a program – How to run a program – How to fix a program error Hardware design: – Timing diagrams – Interfacing with other chips

20 I20/Module 1 A Computer System – Simplified View

21 Control bus A Computer System – Simplified View Address bus Data bus An embedded system also has the same structure but at a smaller size CPUMemoryInput/Output Stores and retrieves data Controls the operation of the computer Performs its data processing functions Provides communication among CPU, main memory and I/O Moves data between the computer and its external environment

22 What is Microprocessor ? CPU Central Processing Unit (CPU): Control the operation of the computer and performs its data processing functions; often simply referred to as PROCESSPR

23 Processor or Central Processing Unit (CPU)

24 Control Unit & Instruction Decoder Arithmetic/Logic Unit Registers To synchronize and control the overall operation of the  P system To decode instruction and pass the necessary control signals to CU Processor (CPU): Control Unit (CU) The Central Processing Unit (or  P) To perform the arithmetic and logical operations within the CPU A set of internal storage locations within the CPU

25 Control & Instruction Registers Program Counter User-Visible Registers Instruction Register... General-Purpose Reg. Address Register Data Register Flag Register... Processor (CPU): Registers

26 Microprocessor – Basic concept Microprocessor, by-itself, completely useless – must have external peripherals to Interact with outside world CPU Control bus 16-bit / 32-bit / 64-bit wide Timing signals, ready signals, interrupts etc bidirectional 8-bit / 16-bit / 32-bit / 128-bit Data bus Address bus

27 Microprocessor – Basic concept Boot ROM Used at startup Instruction (program) ROM Data RAM Trans- ducers Keyboard Screen UART Parallel interface etc CPU Address Control Data Microprocessor, by-itself, completely useless – must have external peripherals to Interact with outside world

28 Memory Memory Address-1  Memory Address-2  Memory Location-n Memory Address-n  Memory Location-1 Memory Location byte = 8-bit data 1 word= 2 bytes 1 double = 2 words Number of addresses 2 N (where N is an integer)

29 Memory Devices Read-Only Memory – Non-volatile memory: contents is retained even without power – In embedded systems, used to store application programs and test routines – Contents can be set by fixing it during manufacturing or “burning” it using a programming device – Common types include MROM, PROM, EPROM and flash memory – Erasable types can only be rewritten a fixed number of times Random Access Memory – Contents lost without power (volatile memory) – Used to store temporary data. In embedded system, very little RAM is required. Some systems don’t even have RAM at all! – No limit to number of writes the device can handle – Fast writes (unlike EPROM/EEPROM) – Two major types are SRAM and DRAM

30 Data & Address Buses = 8M locations Address bus 24 bits 0x xFFFFFF 24-bit address bus 16-bit data bus Data bus 16 bits CPUMemory 1.Smallest transferable amount of data from memory to CPU (and vice versa) is one byte. 2.Each byte has a unique location or address. 3.The address of each byte is written in hexadecimal (hex). For AVR, the prefix ‘0x’ means a hex value. 4.The range of addresses accessible by the processor is the memory space. (Limited by the size of the address bus). 5.The Atmega32 (and many other AVR models) does not have direct support for an external memory interface.

31 I31/Module 1 Microcontroller – Basic concept

32 Microcontroller - put a limited amount of most commonly used resources inside one chip Boot ROM Program ROM Data RAM Trans- ducers Some I/O CPU Address Control Data

33 Microprocessor vs Microcontroller Microcontroller: – A chip that contains all the components of a computer – processor, memory and input/output – Less flexibility – Less component count in system – Less powerful Microprocessor: – A chip that contains only the processor – Need other chips to make a working system – More flexible – Can have very few I/O or many I/O devices using the same processor chip No matter what is the system size, the most important component is still the processor.

34 Software Computer software – Computer programs are known as software Program: – Sequence of instructions that perform a task Instruction: – The simplest operation performed by the processor – Think of it as a note coming from a musical instrument How the computer works: – Fetch an instruction from memory – Decode the instruction – Execute the instruction – Repeat

35 Machine & Assembly Language Machine instruction – A sequence of binary digits which can be executed by the processor, e.g – Hard to understand for human being Assembly language – An assembly program consists of assembly instructions – An assembly instruction is a mnemonic representation of a machine instruction e.g. MUL may stand for “multiply” – Assembly programs must be translated into object code before it can be executed -- translated by an assembler. – Assemblers can be of two types: cross assembler and native assembler. – Cross assembler runs on one computer and generates machine instructions that will be executed by another computer that has different instruction set, e.g. freeware ASM68K. – Native assembler runs and generates instructions for the same computer. – Drawbacks of assembly programs are: dependent on hardware organization, difficult to understand long programs, low programmer productivity

36 High-level language (HLL) High-Level Language – Syntax of a high-level language is similar to English – A translator is required to translate the program written in a high-level language into object code -- done by a compiler. – There are cross compilers that run on one computer but translate programs into machine instructions to be executed on a computer with a different instruction set. – Main drawback is slower execution speed of the machine code obtained after compiling an HLL program. – However, C language has been extensively used in microcontroller programming in industry.

37 Instruction Cycle (Fetch-Execute) The processor executes instructions one-by-one according to the sequence found in memory Everything is controlled by, what else, the control unit in the CPU. To execute an instruction, the processor must fetch it from memory. The complete steps the processor takes to execute one instruction is the instruction cycle or the fetch-execute cycle FetchExecute

38 Instruction Cycle Details On program start: 0.Load the program counter (PC) with the address of the first instruction Fetch phase: 1.Read the instruction and put it into the instruction register (IR) 2.Control unit decodes the instruction; updates the PC for the next instruction Execute phase: 3.Find the data required by the instruction. 4.Perform the required operation. 5.Store the results. 6.Repeat from Step 1.

39 Instruction Cycle 1-39

40 How computers work CPU ALU B A D C registers Inst. Dec. I/O 16 I/O 17 I/O 18 I/O n Logic circuit PC: 0 1 Address bus Data bus Control bus Write Read h C4h 26h 81h EAh 0h 5h A  [17] B  A A  [6] A  A+B [7]  A

41 How computers work CPU ALU B A D C registers Inst. Dec. I/O 16 I/O 17 I/O 18 I/O n Logic circuit PC: 1 Address bus Data bus Control bus Write Read h C4h 26h 81h EAh 0h 5h 31 A  [17] B  A A  [6] A  A+B [7]  A 17 9

42 How computers work CPU ALU B A D C registers Inst. Dec. I/O 16 I/O 17 I/O 18 I/O n Logic circuit PC: 1 2 Address bus Data bus Control bus Write Read h C4h 26h 81h EAh 0h 5h C4 A  [17] B  A A  [6] A  A+B [7]  A

43 How computers work CPU ALU B A D C registers Inst. Dec. I/O 16 I/O 17 I/O 18 I/O n Logic circuit PC: Address bus Data bus Control bus Write Read h C4h 26h 81h EAh 0h 5h A  [17] B  A A  [6] A  A+B [7]  A E 4 EA E 7 Eh 5

44 Review Questions 1

45 Review Questions 2

46 Review Questions 2 (Cont’d)

47 Selecting a Microprocessor Choose the right one for your application – Primary criteria: Cost, Power, Size, Speed – Others: package options, integrated peripherals, potential for future growth Choose one with good software development support – development environment - good compiler and debugger availability – evaluation boards – in-circuit emulators for those with deep pockets – Operating system availability Other considerations – Code density: affects power consumption, performance and system cost – Hardware availability: make sure you can actually purchase the microcontroller before designing it in – Prior expertise, licensing, etc

48 Summary Microprocessors and embedded controllers are a ubiquitous part of life today Concept of a microprocessor & microcontroller Understand how a µP works Headhunters report that EEs familiar with µC, µP design are in the highest possible demand Web Resources: – How Microprocessors Work: – Great Microprocessors of the Past and Present: – Great Moments in Microprocessor History:

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