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& Microelectronics and Embedded Systems M 2 μP - Multithreading Microprocessor Thesis Presentation Embedded Systems Research Group Department of Industrial.

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Presentation on theme: "& Microelectronics and Embedded Systems M 2 μP - Multithreading Microprocessor Thesis Presentation Embedded Systems Research Group Department of Industrial."— Presentation transcript:

1 & Microelectronics and Embedded Systems M 2 μP - Multithreading Microprocessor Thesis Presentation Embedded Systems Research Group Department of Industrial Electronics School of Engineering, University of Minho, Guimarães - Portugal Microelectronics and Embedded Systems Industrial Systems Engineering, Asian Institute of Technology, Pathum Thani - Thailand Filipe Salgado

2 & Microelectronics and Embedded Systems Summary 1.Objectives of Study 2.Processor’s characteristics 3.Methodology 4.Customizable features 1.Front-end 2.Execution engine 3.Caches 5.Conclusions 6.Future perspectives

3 & Microelectronics and Embedded Systems 1. Objectives of Study Horizontal design goals (long-term): Design a processor template suitable for integration on a Design Space Exploration (DSE) tool High level of customization to fit application’s specifications constraints (high-performance vs low power, etc)

4 & Microelectronics and Embedded Systems 1. Objectives of Study Vertical design goals (short-term): Low power microprocessor Multi-thread processing Flexible Instruction Set Architecture (ISA) Easilly Customizable

5 & Microelectronics and Embedded Systems 2. Processor’s characteristics bit RISC architecture 2. Three stage pipeline 3. Load/store architecture 4. Multi-threading execution 5. Eight general purpose registers

6 & Microelectronics and Embedded Systems 2. Processor’s characteristics 6. Two operational modes 1.Privileged 2.Protected 7. Twelve external interrupts 8.Four interrupt priority levels

7 & Microelectronics and Embedded Systems 2. Processor’s characteristics KB addressable code space KB addressable data space 11.Separate Instruction and Data caches

8 & Microelectronics and Embedded Systems 2. Processor’s characteristics

9 & Microelectronics and Embedded Systems 3. Methodology This implementation requires a great design and implementation effort Workload divided in three parts Front-end, by Paulo Garcia Execution engine, by Tiago Gomes Memory hierarchy, by Filipe Salgado

10 & Microelectronics and Embedded Systems 3. Methodology High customization level Making the processor proper to the specific purpose Allows savings in: Area Fabrication costs Power consumption

11 & Microelectronics and Embedded Systems 3. Methodology High customization level Front-end customizations Number of hardware supported threads Controllable thread scheduling policy Easy addition of new instructions

12 & Microelectronics and Embedded Systems 3. Methodology High customization level Execution Engine customizations Reconfigurable ALU to target: –Performance –Low power consumption

13 & Microelectronics and Embedded Systems 3. Methodology High customization level Execution Memory Hierarchy Easy Instruction and Data cache modification –Three different organizational architectures –Storage capacity

14 & Microelectronics and Embedded Systems 4. Customizable features Front-end customization To add a new instruction the following steps must be performed: 1 - Define the opcode so it won’t cause an “illegal instruction” exception 2 - Define the operand format 3 - Add control codes generation

15 & Microelectronics and Embedded Systems 4. Customizable features 1-Define the opcode so it won’t cause an “illegal instruction” exception

16 & Microelectronics and Embedded Systems 4. Customizable features 2 - Define the operand format

17 & Microelectronics and Embedded Systems 4. Customizable features 2 - Define the operand format

18 & Microelectronics and Embedded Systems 4. Customizable features 3 – Add control codes generation

19 & Microelectronics and Embedded Systems 4. Customizable features ALU customization ALU can be modified to target performance or low power consumption Also further techniques can be applied to reduce power consumption

20 & Microelectronics and Embedded Systems 4. Customizable features The ALU’s output (defined by a pre- processor directive) Tree structured Depending on the operation the correct Functional Unit’s output is selected

21 & Microelectronics and Embedded Systems 4. Customizable features Chain structured Normally used for low power applications Occupies less area than tree structure

22 & Microelectronics and Embedded Systems 4. Customizable features ALU power consumption reduction techniques Gating logic Gating all the input signals of each Functional Unit with transmission gates When a Functional Unit is not being used, its input will be in a High Z state

23 & Microelectronics and Embedded Systems 4. Customizable features ALU power consumption reduction techniques Repositioning functional units in the chain Application profiling Place the FUs most frequently used closest to the output Reducing the signal switching

24 & Microelectronics and Embedded Systems 4. Customizable features Repositioning functional units in the chain It’s easy to change the position of a FU assign M0_out = (op == `ADD_ALU || op==`SUB_ALU)? adder_out: M1_out; assign M1_out = (op == `AND_ALU) ? and_out: M2_out; assign M2_out = (op == `RR_ALU )? rotR_out: M3_out; assign M3_out = (op == `OR_ALU ) ? or_out : M4_out; assign M4_out = (op == `XOR_ALU) ? xor_out: M5_out; assign M5_out = (op == `NOT_ALU) ? not_out: M6_out; assign M6_out = (op == `RRC_ALU) ? rotRC_out: M7_out; assign M7_out = (op == `RL_ALU ) ? rotL_out:rotLC_out; assign out1 = M0_out;

25 & Microelectronics and Embedded Systems 4. Customizable features Caches customization 5 different organizational models are available to fit the application specific requirements. 2 Instruction cache models 3 Data cache models The cache size of each model is defined during compile time

26 & Microelectronics and Embedded Systems 4. Customizable features The Storage capacity of the models is modified by simply changing 3 code lines. Using define and parameter Verilog features

27 & Microelectronics and Embedded Systems 4. Customizable features Cache Multi-threading support The five previous models were blocking The cache gets blocked in the rd_wait state after a miss If a cache miss occurs, all the next threads accessing the memory are stalled until the miss is solved. rd wait stand by

28 & Microelectronics and Embedded Systems 4. Customizable features To obtain a non-blocking cache was introduced a Fill Buffer module (MSHR – Miss Status Holding Register) Cache Memory Controller Fill Buffer Wr_address Rd_wr_command Wr_data Rr_data Rr_address Rr_data Data_ready Pop_data Fill_buffer_full

29 & Microelectronics and Embedded Systems 4. Customizable features The Fill Buffer temporarily stores data coming from the memory controller if the Cache is busy (performing write operation to the core) Later, Fill Buffer provides the data and its address to the cache. The cache sends a pop signal after being free and stores the pending data.

30 & Microelectronics and Embedded Systems 5. Conclusions Front-end provides Simple addition of instructions Multi-threading capabilities with small area impact The ALU implementation provides: Easy configurability of its structure (tree or chain) Can be target to high performance or low power The Hazard Unit implements a scoreboard algorithm to reduce the pipeline stalls and improve the processor’s performance

31 & Microelectronics and Embedded Systems 5. Conclusions Were developed and presented seven cache models to be used in the M 2 μP processor. The different models are easy to be resized, considering the application specific needs. The microprocessor’s prototype fabrication is being discussed with NECTEC

32 & Microelectronics and Embedded Systems 6. Future perspectives Finish the compiler Assembler is completed Add new instructions as an automatic process Develop a customization tool to interface a DSE application to automatically render the customization process

33 & Microelectronics and Embedded Systems 6. Future perspectives Define the placement of the ALU modules according to the application profiling Implement a Memory Management Unit to extend the memory access possibilities Perform power measurements and apply low power consumption techniques to the caches’ implementation


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