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Presentation on theme: "BY: DANIEL JUSTICE SOLOMON HEDD-WILLIAMS CHRIS ROSS Understanding the CPU."— Presentation transcript:


2 Agenda Early History Design Methodologies Current CPU’s Future Processor’s Parts of the Processor How CPU’s Work How CPU’s are installed CPU Performance How a CPU is made

3 CPU – Central Processing Unit the portion of a computer system that carries out the instructions of a computer program, and is the primary element carrying out the computer's functions. term has been in use in the computer industry at least since the early 1960s

4 Early History Electronic Numerical Integrator And Computer, [ was the first general-purpose electronic computer Capable of being reprogrammed to solve a full range of computing problems Its first use was in calculations for the hydrogen bomb.

5 ENIAC eature=related eature=related

6 Early History (contd.) The EDVAC (Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer) is the successor of the ENIAC. Made by the same designers: Mauchly and Eckert. This machine is able to hold any program in memory that was fed to it. programs written for EDVAC were stored in high-speed computer memory rather than specified by the physical wiring of the computer.

7 Early History (Contd) Prior to commercial development of the transistor, electrical relays and vacuum tubes (thermionic valves) were commonly used as switching elements. Relays would suffer from contact bounce Contact bounce is a rapidly pulsed electrical current instead of a clean transition from zero to full current. Vacuum tubes suffered no contact bounce but had to warm up before becoming fully functional.

8 Early History (Contd) Tube computers like EDVAC tended to average eight hours between failures, whereas relay computers failed very rarely. In the end, tube based CPUs became dominant because the significant speed advantages afforded generally outweighed the reliability problems.

9 Early History (Contd) The first such improvement came with the advent of the transistor. With this improvement more complex and reliable CPUs were built onto one or several printed circuit boards containing discrete (individual) components.

10 Early History (Contd) The introduction of the microprocessor in the 1970s significantly affected the design and implementation of CPUs. Completely overtook all other central processing unit implementation methods. &feature=related &feature=related

11 Early History (Contd) Combined with the advent and eventual vast success of the now personal computer, the term "CPU" is now applied almost exclusively to microprocessors. Since then, the ability to construct exceedingly small transistors on an integrated circuit has increased, the complexity and number of transistors in a single CPU has increased dramatically.

12 Processors have evolved from being large, bulky, and tailored for specific applications to being miniaturized and placed in almost any device. The Intel 4004 was the first microprocessor to be developed. This CPU could complete 92,000 instructions per second. Which means a single instruction cycle was 10.8 microseconds. This was the first multipurpose processor made available to the public. CPU Architecture/ Brand Differences

13 Instruction Level Parallelism Increase the rate at which instructions are executed within a cpu. Some methods that are used to exploit this method is instruction pipelining, where the execution of multiple cpu’s can be partially overlapped. CPU Design Methodologies

14 Thread Level Parallelism Increase the number of threads (individual programs) that a cpu can execute simultaneously. As a simple example, if we are running code on a 2- processor system (CPUs "a" & "b") in a parallel environment and we wish to do tasks "A" and "B", it is possible to tell CPU "a" to do task "A" and CPU "b" to do task 'B" simultaneously, thereby reducing the runtime of the execution. CPU Design Methodologies

15 corporation/865-4004-intels-first-microprocessor- video.htm corporation/865-4004-intels-first-microprocessor- video.htm


17 Dual core processing – Runs two independent processor cores in one physical unit at the same frequency. Also has 2 MB of shared level cache and 800 MHz front side bus. Intel Pentium

18 Dual core processing just like the Pentium. Also has same amount of front side bus (800 MHz) Only difference is that the Celeron has less L2 Cache (Only 512 KB) Cache is a smaller, faster memory type to accelerate a slower, bigger memory type. So the Celeron is ultimately slower but comes at a lower price. Intel Celeron

19 Maximum clock speed of 2.93 GHz to 3.06 GHz Four processing threads (Two to each core). 4 MB of Cache Bus speed is 2500 MT/s Intel Core Processor

20 Dual core processor like the Pentium. 64 KB L1 instruction Cache per core 64 KB L1 data Cache per core 512 or 1024 KB L2 Cache per core 2000 MHz Bus speed AMD Athlon

21 Only a Single core unlike the Athlon Same 64 KB x2 L1 Cache as the Athlon 128 of 256 KB L2 Cache 1600 MHz Bus speed AMD Sempron

22 Available with triple or quad core 512 KB L2 Cache per core Up to 2MB of L3 Cache that is shared by the cores Bus speed: 3600 MT/s AMD Phenom

23 The Future Processor Cell is a microprocessor architecture jointly developed by Sony Computer Entertainment, Toshiba, and IBM, an alliance known as "STI". Cell combines a general-purpose Power Architecture core of modest performance with streamlined coprocessing elements which greatly accelerate multimedia and vector processing applications, as well as many other forms of dedicated computation.

24 First uses of the Cell Processor The first major commercial application of Cell was in Sony's PlayStation 3 game console.  Toshiba has announced plans to incorporate Cell in high definition television sets  Cell development is clocking it at 4 to 4.6 GHz, and is reported to have clocked it as high as 5.6 GHz.  234 million transistors

25 The Supercomputer

26 Two Most Popular CPU’s Intel AMD

27 Parts of the Processor Control Unit  Controls the sequence of instruction to be executed  Interpret instructions  Regulate time of processing Arithmetic and Logic Unit  Calculation  Logical Comparison and Decision Registers  Instruction Decoder- interprets the instruction to be executed  Programmer Counter- holds the address of next instruction to be executed  Instruction Register- holds the instruction being executed  Process status register- hold processor bit operation done by ALU  Accumulator- stores final result of calculation  General purpose register- stores any temporary information  Memory address register- holds address of the data word to be accessed  Memory data register- holds the data memory to and from main memory  Address decoder- selects appropriate cell to store in the main memory

28 Parts of CPU cont.. Front Side Bus  Consists of two channels  Transferring data  Indicating memory address where the data is to be retrieved Caches  L1-directly integrated into the processor  L2-can be accessed faster than RAM, but less faster than L1  L3-located on the motherboard FPU  Designed to handle any floating point calculations

29 Parts of the Processor cont…

30 How CPU’s work “Heart of the Machine” Processes data and performs actions according to the instructions in the certain program. Travels through electronic passageways from the motherboard to the processor. The bus unit send the information to caches Pre-fetch make sure the instructions are in the proper order Decode breaks the instructions down While processing, the ALU uses the registers as data storage areas ALU also overlooks the entire process How a Computer's CPU Works

31 How CPU is Installed Locate the processor socket  Located on the motherboard  Has pinholes  Lift the lever Mount the CPU  Make sure pinholes match up  Diagonal pin pattern  Do not force  A little resistance is normal Apply the Thermal Compound  Optional; only need this if you are going to install heatsink  Apply the thermal paste to areas of the CPU that will make contact  Make sure complete coverage Install the Heatsink  Mount over top of CPU  Clamp down with levers  Make sure tight otherwise might come loose Install the Heatsink Fan Header and Configure BIOS  Plug power cable from heatsink into the fan header on MB  There will be more than one header, so make sure you pick the right one How to Install CPU

32 CPU Performance Cache  enable the CPU to access recently used information very quickly.  L1 usually runs at 256kb and L2 runs at 1MB  Larger the cache the faster the performance Clock Speed  How fast the processor executes instructions  Processor requires a fixed number of clock tick  The faster the ticks, the better the system performance

33 CPU Performance Slower CPU ClockFaster CPU Clock

34 How a CPU is Made

35 Questions 1) You have a system that periodically locks up. You have ruled out software, and now suspect that it is hardware. What should you do first that could help you narrow it down to the component at fault? Arotate the ram Breplace the ram Creplace the level 2 cache simm Ddisable the CPU cache in cmos Ereplace the CPU ANSWER: D 2) The POST routine, which counts system board ram first, is stored in: Aram Bmicroprocessor Crom bios Dcmos E8259 POST controller ANSWER:C 3) A device which supports DMA is able to i/o with memory by and large bypassing the CPU. Bus mastering takes this a step further by allowing a bus-master device to take charge of the data bus and send data to other devices, including memory, and also allows two bus master devices to talk to each other without requiring the services of the CPU. Does ISA support bus mastering? Ano Byes Cyes, but only one device Dyes, but only in a Pentium ANSWER: B

36 Questions cont… 4) Pick the correct choice for the 8088 CPU. A16 bit word size, 8 bit data path B8 bit word size, 8 bit data path C16 bit word size, 16 bit data path D4 bit word size, 8 bit data path E8 bit word size, 16 bit data path ANSWER: A 5) Pick the correct choice for the 80386SX CPU. A16 bit word size, 16 bit data path B32 bit word size, 16 bit data path C8 bit word size, 32 bit data path D32 bit word size, 8 bit data path E32 bit word size, 32 bit data path ANSWER: B 6) Pick the correct choice for the 80486DX CPU. A32 bit word size, 16 bit data path B64 bit word size, 32 bit data path C32 bit word size, 32 bit data path D32 bit word size, 16 bit data path E32 bit word size, 64 bit data path ANSWER: C

37 Questions cont… 7) What is the first CPU to include an internal math coprocessor? A386DX B486SX C486DX DPentium EPentium Pro ANSWER: C 8) What are the two main components of the CPU? AThe Control Unit and ALU BThe Registers and Output/Input management CThe ALU and FPU ANSWER: A 9) What are the two main desktop CPU manufacturers? AIntel and AMD BVia and Power PC CMarek and Sun UltraSparc ANSWER: A 10) Transistors make it easier for a CPU to manage electrical signals? ATrue BFalse ANSWER: A

38 References


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