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INF550/NZDB550. Objectives To understand the processing and storage components in computers with relation to business use of computers.

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Presentation on theme: "INF550/NZDB550. Objectives To understand the processing and storage components in computers with relation to business use of computers."— Presentation transcript:

1 INF550/NZDB550

2 Objectives To understand the processing and storage components in computers with relation to business use of computers

3 Revision What are the components which make up a Computerised Information System?

4 Components And of course, the Users

5 Question Why do business students need to know about computer hardware? Surely the IT people will worry about this?

6 Why knowledge of Hardware is Important You will be using it in your careers You should have input into what type of hardware you need to perform your job efficiently and effectively as you are the user

7 Question What is hardware?

8 Hardware Devices which accept, process, and display data and information Central Processing Unit (CPU) Primary Storage Secondary Storage Input Technologies – next week Output Technologies – next week Communication Technologies – later in the course

9 Strategic Hardware Issues Hardware keeps improving As soon as hardware is purchased, it is obsolete!! It is becoming smaller, cheaper, faster and more powerful all the time For tax purposes most is depreciated over 4 years A balance is needed between waiting for new technology and buying now Is the price of waiting for new improved technology tomorrow outweighed by using less efficient technology today

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11 Computer Hierarchy Supercomputers Fastest computers available at a given time used by large organisations to manipulate very large sets of data Mainframe Computers Used where thousands of users are accessing the computer simultaneously Eg airline reservation system, large ecommerce websites like Amazon Midrange C0mputers Also known as minicomputers Type of server that supports computer networks and enable users to share files etc

12 Server Computers which provide a variety of services to the client Run the network Process web sites and Client – the user of the system Computers which users preform tasks on eg Word Processing, Spreadsheets etc

13 Microcomputers – the PC Smallest and least expensive Desktop PCs Thin-Client Systems Laptop and Notebook Computers Netbooks Tablet Computers This is the type of computer assignment 1 is based around

14 Desktop PCs Everyday computer used in homes and businesses Includes CPU Separate but connected monitor Separate but connected keyboard Have gigabytes of primary storage Rewriteable CD-ROM and DVD drives Few terabytes of secondary storage

15 Thin-Client Systems Desktop computers which don’t offer the full functionality of a Desktop PC Tend to access software from the server over the network rather than have it installed on the local system Fast to deploy and lower cost of ownership If the network fails, user can not do anything

16 Laptop and Notebook Computers Small lightweight portable microcomputers Provide same type of processing power as desktops Tend to be more expensive than the desktop computer

17 Netbook Very small, lightweight and portable computer Generally optimised for internet bases services like web browsing and .

18 Tablet Computers Complete computer contained in a flat touch screen Can be operated by touch rather than using a separate keyboard and mouse.

19 The CPU

20 Central Processing Unit - CPU The brains of the computer Manipulates the data Controls the tasks performed by the other components Microprocessor made up of millions of microscopic transistors embedded in a circuit on a silicon wafer (or chip) Moore’s Law 1965 prediction made that microprocessor complexity would double about every 2 years

21 Parts of a Microprocessor Input Data Program Instructions Directs flow of data Performs arithmetic and logical operations Using binary data Transformed data

22 How the CPU Works

23 Is the CPU Clock Speed Important? Processor Family CPU Clock speed – how many clock cycles per second can be performed Not really as different processor families perform at different rates so should only compare clock speed for CPUs in the same family Chip Name

24 There are 10 types of people, those who understand binary and those who don’t! Convert text to binary ASCII table What is Unicode? ASCII ALT Codes - Hold ALT down and type 0189 = ½ ASCII ALT Codes

25 Types of Chips 32 bit v 64 bit Processors Amount of RAM computer can use 32 bit limited to 4GB, 64 bit effectively limitless 64 bit allows larger calculations to be made faster Faster input and output speeds Multi-Core Chips A chip with 2 or more CPUs working together Advanced Processor Units (APU’s) Combining multiple CPU and GPU (Graphics Processing Unit) cores in 1 chip for better multimedia functionality

26 Today’s Processors

27 Storage

28 Computer Memory Basics

29 Primary Storage Temporarily stores data and program instructions during processing Data to be processed by the CPU Instructions for the CPU on how to process the data Operating system programs to manage the computer operations Contained in chips on the motherboard Types Register Cache RAM ROM

30 Registers and Cache Register Part of the CPU Holds minimal amounts of instructions and data immediately before and after processing Cache High speed memory storing temporary blocks of frequently used data

31 RAM Random Access Memory Holds software program being used small amounts of data for processing Temporary and volatile Content lost when power is lost

32 ROM Read Only Memory Contains critical instructions – BIOS (Basic Input Output System) Initial start up (boot) instructions Set date and time etc Non-volatile Can not be changed

33 Secondary Storage Stores data and programs for future use Non-volatile Takes longer to retrieve data from it than from RAM

34 Types Magnetic Tape Hard Drive Solid State Drives CD-ROM DVD Blu-Ray Flash Memory Cards Flash Drives

35 Bits, Bytes, Kilobytes bit = 0 or 1 (bit  binary unit) byte = 8 bits Kilobyte (KB) = 1024 bytes (2^10) Average page of text contains 2000 bytes Megabyte (MB) = approx. 1 million bytes Gigabyte (GB) = approx. 1 billion bytes Terabyte (TB) = approx. 1 trillion bytes Petabyte = approx terabytes Exabyte = approx petabytes Zettabyte = approx exabytes

36 Finding Out About Your Computer

37 References Rainer, R. K., & Cegielski, C. G. (2012). Introduction to information systems: supporting and transforming business (4th ed.). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley. Retrieved from / Section 1.2, Figure 1.3 Rainer, R. K., & Cegielski, C. G. (2012). Introduction to information systems: supporting and transforming business (4th ed.). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley. Retrieved from / Section TG1 retrieved 6 February 2014

38 References Continued to-compare-computer-performance/ retrieved 7 February retrieved 7 February retrieved 7 February 2014


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