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1What is a computer?MonitorFloppy Disk DriveSystem UnitCD-ROM /DVD-ROM DriveKeyboardMouseA computer is an electronic machine that accepts information (Data), processes it according to specific instructions, and provides the results as new information.
2Chapter:o1 Computer overview => Computer: A computer is an electronic device that can perform a different types of operations in accordance with set of instructions is called program.=> Data: Data are raw facts.=>Information: Information is meaningful data.
4CENTRAL PROCESSING UNIT => Input-Process-Output(IPO Cycle) : Certain input is needed to accomplished a task , a process is carried out on the input to obtain the output.Functional Components of a computer:In IPO Cycle, First stage is performed in computer by input unit, Second stage is performed by its central processing unit and the Third stage is performed by output unit.The main memory holds the input and intermediate output during the processing.INPUT UNITCENTRAL PROCESSING UNITOUTPUTMAIN MEMORY
5=>INPUT UNIT: The input unit is performed by the input devices attached to the computer. Input unit is responsible for taking input and converting it into computer understandable form(the binary code).EXAMPLES:KEYBOARD,MOUSE MICR, OMR, OCR, JOYSTICK.=> Central Processing Unit: The CPU is the control Centre for a computer .it guides , directs, governs, its performance. It is brain of computer.
6=> The CPU divided into two parts: (a).Arithmetic Logic UNIT(ALU): The ALU performs all four arithmetical (+, -,*,/) and some logical operations(<, >,<=,>=,<>).(B) CONTROL UNIT(CU): The CU control and guides the interpretation , flow and manipulation of all data and information. The CU sends control signals until the required operation are done properly by ALU and memory. It also responsible for execute the program. The CU gets program instruction from memory and executes the one after the other. After getting the instructions from memory in CU, the instruction is decoded and interpreted.
7=>OUTPUT UNIT: The output unit is performed by the output devices attached to the computer. the output coming from CPU is in the form of electrical binary signals which needs conversion in some form which can be easily understood by human beings i.e. characters, graphical or audio visual.Examples: Monitor, printer , plotter, speaker.=> MEMORY: The memory is a device which can store the data and information.=> MEMORY CELL: It is a device which can store a symbol selected from set of symbols.bitcell 0cell 11
8=> BYTE OR NIBBLE: A group of 8 bits is called byte and a group of 4 bits is know as nibble. UnitShort NameFull Name1 BitBitBinary Digit8 Bits1 ByteByte2 10 i.e bytes1 KBKilo Byte2 10 i.e KB1 MBMega Byte2 10 i.e MB1GBGiga Byte2 10 i.e GB1TBTerra Byte2 10 i.e TB1PBPeta Byte2 10 i.e PB1EBExa Byte2 10 i.e EB1ZBZetta Byte2 10 i.e ZB1YBYotta Byte2 10 i.e YB1 BRONTO BYTEBronto Byte2 10 i.e Bronto Bytes1 GEOP BYTEGeop Byte
9=> There are two types of memory (a). Primary (Main ) Memory: It is also know as temporary Memory. Ram and Rom(b). Secondary Memory: To store the data and information permanently. CD, Hard disk.=> Hardware : The physical and tangible parts of the computer. i.e. The components that can seen and touched. Monitor ,mouse etc.=> peripherals: The peripherals are devices that surround the system unit. Examples: keyboard, mouse, speaker, printer, monitor.=> Software: The set of program that govern the operation of a computer system.
10Types of SoftwareThere are two types of software1.System software2. Application SoftwareSystem software: The software that controls internal computer operations is called system softwaresystem software Divided into two partsOperating systemLanguage system.
11Operating system(os): An operating system is a program which acts as an interface between a user and the hardware(i.e. all computer resources)Functions of operating system:(i).It provide the instructions to prepare user interface.i.e, way to interact with user whether through typed commands or through graphical symbols.(ii). Loads necessary programs (into the computer memory) which are required for proper compute functioning.(iii). Coordinates how programs work with the CPU , keyboard, Mouse, Printer, and other Hardware as well as with other software(iv). Manages way information is stored on and retrieved from disks
12Major Component of Computer System are: A set of software instructions that tells the computer what to do is called a computer program.Major Component of Computer System are:
13TYPES OF OS:1.Single Program OS. As the name suggests , this OS is single user operating system , so only one user program can be supported and executed by it at any point.2.MultiProgram OS. It supports multiprogramming.i.e., more than one user can be supported by it, therefore ,more than one user programs are loaded and active in the main store at he same time.3.Time Sharing OS. This OS uses the time sharing technique. Each active user program is given a fair share of CPU time(δ),if the time elapses or an I/O operation is requested, CPU shifts over to the next jobs waiting and the previous program.4.Real Time os: The jobs have fixed deadlines and the jobs have to be completed within their deadlines. the system performance is measured by its ability to complete its jobs within specified deadlines. If a job cannot be complete within its deadline, its situation is called deadline overrun.5. Multiprocessing os: The Multiprocessing os is capable of handling more than one processors as the have to be executed on more than one processor(CPU)
14Examples of operating systems are: Unix, Windows NT, Windows XP, MS-DOS, Linux, Solaris, VMS, OS/2 and System=>Language processors: It is a collection of program that convert high level language program into machine level language program.High-level language: A high-level language consists of instructions, or statements, that are closer to English and common mathematical notation.When programming in a high-level language, you do not have to concern yourself with the specific machine language of the CPU.Assembler: It translates(converts) the assembly language program into an equivalent machine language program..
15Interpreter: IT Converts a High level Language program into machine language by converting and executing it line by line. if there is any error in any line, it reports it at the same time and program execution cannot resume until the error is rectified.Once a given instruction has been executed, then it translates and executes the next, and so on.Compiler: It Translate(convert) the Entire HLL program into machine language program in one go, and reports all errors of the program along with the line numbers.All instructions are compiled before any are executed by the CPU.
16=> Application software Categories into two types: Application Software: It is a set of programs necessary to carry out operations for a specified application.=> Application software Categories into two types:(a). Customized Application software : This type of software is tailor –made software according to a user’s requirements. The software is developed to meet all the requirements specified by the user.(b). General Application software : This type of software is developed keeping in mind the general requirements for carrying out specific task
17Strength and Weakness of a computer: => Computer Strengths:(i). Speed: Computer are much faster as compared to human beings. A computer can perform a task in a minute that may take day if performed manually.(ii). High storage Capacity: Computers can store a large amount of information in very small space.(iii). Accuracy: Computer s can perform all tha calculations and comparisons accurately provided the hardware does not malfunction.(iv). Reliability: Computers can immune(protect) to tiredness and boredom or fatigue(mental exhaustion) .(v). Versatility: Computers can perform repetitive jobs efficiently. They even can work in the area where human brain can err.
18Computer Weakness:(i). Lack of Decision Making Power: Computer cannot decide on their own.(ii). IQ Zero: Computers are dumb machines with zero IQ=> FIRMWARE: It is prewritten program that is permanently stored in read only memory (ROM). It configures the computer and not easily modifiable by the user. Example: BIOS(BASIC INPUT OUTPUT SERVICE)=> Liveware: The people associated with and benefited from the computer system.
19The History of Computers The origin of computers can be traced back to inventors who were interested in processing information and developing devices to simply tedious arithmetic calculations.
20Calculation in Early Times Abacus(3000BC)allowed the user to manipulate dataBabylon, 3000 BCStill in use todaybeads on rods to count and calculate
21I- Ancient Counting Machines 2- The Roman NumeralsI II III IV V VI VII VIII IX X3- The Arabic Numerals (base 10)Ancient Time
22Napier’s Log’s and Bones(1550-1617) Slide RuleSlide Rule 1962based on Napier’s rules for logarithmsused until 1970sIt simplified and used logs to transform multiplication problem to addition problem and division to subtraction
23Pascal’s Adding Machine 1642The Pascaline is a mechanical calculating(adding) device invented by the French philosopher and mathematician Blaise Pascal in It capable of addition and subtraction .it worked on clock work mechanism principle.
24Leibnitz’s calculator 1671The Leibniz Wheel was invented by the famous mathematician Leibniz in It perform ( + , - , * , / ) . this machine performed multiplication through repeated addition of number.
25JACQUARD’S LOOM1801=>Punched Cards were used by the French weaver Joseph Jacquard in The cards carried weaving instructions for the looms, later this idea offered a great use for storing info.
26CHARLES BABBAGE’S DIFFERENCE ENGINE =>In 1822 Charles Babbage (English mathematician, philosopher), sometimes called the “father of computing” built the Difference Engine.=>Machine designed to automate the computation (tabulation) of polynomial functions (which are known to be good approximations of many useful functions)18221852=>Based on the “method of finite difference”=>Implements some storage
27Analytical EngineAs designed, it would have been programmed using punch-cards and would have included features such as sequential control, loops, conditionals and branching. If constructed, it would have been the first “computer” as we think of them today.Difference Engine c.1822huge calculator, never finishedAnalytical Engine 1833could store numberscalculating “mill” used punched metal cards for instructionspowered by steam!accurate to six decimal places
28The Tabulating Machine Herman Hollerith, American inventor, worked at the Census Bureau & later taught at MITA machine which used punch cards and did the mechanical work of tabulating the populationWon the Census Bureau contest and contract; selling 56 of his Tabulating MachinesOrganized his own company and continued to produce the machines for the censusMerged with other companies eventually becoming known as International Business Machines – IBM
291943 – Howard Aiken & Grace Hopper – Harvard Mark I Computer The IBM Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator (ASCC) Computer was created by IBM for Harvard University, which called it the Mark I. First universal calculator.
30Mark-I It used electro magnetic signals It was slow machine took 3-5 seconds to perform a calculationIt was inflexibleIt could perform basic arithmetic as well as complex calculations
31(GENERATION OF COMPUTER) Modern age of computers is divided into five generations of computersFirst Generation ( )Second Generation ( )Third Generation ( )Fourth Generation (1976-Present)Fifth Generation (Present and Beyond)
32The First Generation of Computers The first computers used vacuum tubes for circuitry and magnetic drums for memory, and were often enormous, taking up entire rooms. They were expensive to operate and in addition to using a great deal of electricity, generated a lot of heat, which was often the cause of malfunctions. First generation computers relied on machine language, the lowest-level programming language understood by computers, to perform operations, and they could only solve one problem at a time. Input was based on punched cards and paper tape, and output was displayed on printouts. The UNIVAC and ENIAC computers are examples of first-generation computing devices. The UNIVAC was the first commercial computer delivered to a business client, the U.S. Census Bureau in 1951.
33Air conditioning required CHARACTERISTICS First generation computers were based on vacuum tubes.The operating systems of the first generation computers were very slow.They were very large in size.Production of the heat was in large amount in first generation computers.Air conditioning requiredMachine language was used for programming.First generation computers were unreliable.They were difficult to program and use.Frequent hardware failureApplications: These computers were used for record keeping and payroll processing
34ENIAC ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator And Calculator) Developed by John Presper Eckert ( ) and John W. Mauchley ( )Developed in 1946Space requirement 30 X 50 sq. ft.30 ton weight and vacuum tubes70000 registers, capacitors6000 switches and 150,000 watts electicitycosr $
35ENIACWhen ENIAC completed calculations it inform the users by turning on a sequence of lightsIt was used until 1955Only one system of ENIAC was developedWhen operated the lights of near by area were dimmed
36EDSAC (Electronic Delay Storage Automatic Calculator) EDVAC (Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Calculator)Developed by John Von Neuman ( )It contain a memory to store data and programs as wellEDSAC (Electronic Delay Storage Automatic Calculator)Developed in 1949 by Britishes Prop.M.V.Wilkes .IT uses mercury delay lines for storage.
37UNIVAC UNIVAC (UNIVersal Automatic Computer) Developed by John Presper Eckert, Jr., and John MauchlyDeveloped in 1951First commercial computerCould manipulate numeric as well as textual data
39SECOND GENERATION TIME PERIOD : 1956s- 1965s TECHNOLOGY USED : TransistorsSIZE AND SPEED :Lesser size and increased speedLANGUAGE USED : Assembly language and languages likeCOBOL and FORTRANCOST : Cost decreasedOTHER FEATURES : More efficient and reliable.Though the transistors still generated a great deal of heat that subjected the computer to damage, it was a vast improvement over the vacuum tube.Second-generation computers still relied on punched cards for input and printouts for output.EXAMPLE : UNIVAC 1108, IBM 1401, CDC 1604TRANSISITORSUNIVAC 1108IBM 1401
40THIRD GENERATION TIME PERIOD : late 1966s-1975's TECHNOLOGY USED : Integrated CircuitSIZE AND SPEED : Size Lesser and speed further increasedLANGUAGE USED : Operating System was developed.COST : Cost decreased furtherOTHER FEATURES : Instead of punched cards and printouts, users interacted with third generation computers through keyboards and monitors and interfaced with an operating system, which allowed the device to run many different applications at one time with a central program that monitored the memory.Computers for the first time became accessible to a mass audience because they were smaller and cheaper than their predecessors.EXAMPLE : IBM-360 series, Honeywell Model 316, Honeywell – series, CDC – 1700.IBM 360/50
41Intel 4004D microprocessor FOURTH GENERATIONTIME PERIOD : 1976s-today TECHNOLOGY USED : Microprocessor SIZE AND SPEED : Reduced size and tremendous speed LANGUAGE USED : High Level Languages like PASCAL,COBOL, C, C++, JAVA COST : Reduced Cost OTHER FEATURES : Microprocessors also moved out of the realm of desktop computers and into many areas of life as more and more everyday products began to use microprocessors.As these small computers became more powerful, they could be linked together to form networks, which eventually led to the development of the Internet.Fourth generation computers also saw the development of GUIs, the mouse and handheld devices. EXAMPLE : Intel 4004, Apple MacintoshThe Macintosh 128K, the first Macintosh, was the first commercially successful personal computer to use images, rather than text, to communicate.Intel 4004D microprocessor
42FIFTH GENERATIONTIME PERIOD : today--beyond TECHNOLOGY USED : Microprocessor SIZE AND SPEED : Reduced size and tremendous speed LANGUAGE USED : Based on Artificial intelligence COST : Reduced Cost OTHER FEATURES : Fifth generation computing devices, based on artificial intelligence, are still in development, though there are some applications, such as voice recognition, that are being used today.The goal of fifth-generation computing is to develop devices that respond to natural language input and are capable of learning and self-organization. The use of parallel processing and superconductors is helping to make artificial intelligence a reality.The goal of fifth-generation computing is to develop devices that respond to natural language input and are capable of learning and self-organization. EXAMPLE : Parallel Inference Machine Note: Artificial Intelligence is the branch of computer science concerned with making computers behave like humans.Voice Recognition is the field of computer science that deals with designing computer systems that can recognize spoken words.
43Classification of Computers of On the basis of How It FunctionsThe current classifications of computers place them into Three categories:Analog ComputerDigital ComputerHybrid Computers
44Classification of Computers of On the basis of How It FunctionsDigital ComputersAnalogComputersDigitalComputersOperate on continuous data, like measuring temp. changesFasterAccuracy of an analog computer is restricted to the accuracy with which physical quantities can be sensed and displayed.Specific Purpose computersDigital computers work on discrete data.digital computer can process data with greater accuracyWe generally use digital computers for business and scientific data processing.
45Hybrid ComputersHybrid computers are computers that comprise features of analog computers and digital computers.The digital component normally serves as the controller and provides logical operations, while the analog component normally serves as a solver of differential equations.
46Digital Computer classified into two types (i). Purpose –wise(ii). Size and Performance wise(i). Purpose –wise digital computer are classified into two types.(a). Special-purpose computer: It is designed to performed a specific task. the instructions to carry out the task are permanently stored in the machine.(b). General-purpose computer: it can work on different types of programs input to it and be used in countless applications. The program are not permanently stored .
47Size and Speed Based Classification of digital Computer SystemsThe current classifications of computers place them into five categories:Embedded computer,,Microcomputers (Personal Computers) Minicomputers,Mainframes,Super Computers,
48=> Embedded computers: These computers are typically preprogrammed for a specific task, such as tuning to a particular television frequency. Examples: television, washing machine.etc.
49PERSONAL COMPUTER developed in 1980 designed for single user The term microcomputer, also known as personal computer (PC), or a computer that depends on a microprocessor A microcomputer contains a central processing unit (CPU) on a microchip (the microprocessor), a memory system (read-only memory and random access memory), placed on a motherboard. Example: desktop, notebook, laptop, handheld devices. Charcteristics:developed in 1980 designed for single user not very powerful or expensive found in homes
50Micro computer also divided into three types PDA(Personal digital assistants)Laptops and desktop personal computer.Workstations:Between minicomputer and microcomputer- in terms of processing power.Looks like PC and used by one person.
51MINICOMPUTERAnother term rarely used anymore, minicomputers fall in between microcomputers (PCs) and mainframes (enterprise servers).Minicomputers are normally referred to as mid-range servers now. Characteristics: Smaller than mainframe Can do several jobs at once Can be used by many people at one time Used by small companies
52MAINFRAMEIn the early days of computing, mainframes were huge computers that could fill an entire room or even a whole floor.As the size of computers has decreased while the power has increased, the term mainframe has fallen out of use in favor of enterprise server. You'll still hear the term used, particularly in large companies to describe the huge machines processing millions of transactions every day. Characteristics: Expensive Powerful and fast Is not limited to one job Used by business and small governmentorganizationsThe main difference between a supercomputer and a mainframe is that a supercomputer channels all its power into executing a few programs as fast as possible, whereas a mainframe uses its power to execute many programs simultaneously.
53SUPER COMPUTER The fastest type of computer. Supercomputers are very expensive and are employed for specialized applications that require immense amounts of mathematical calculations.For example, weather forecasting requires a supercomputer.Other uses of supercomputers include animated graphics, , nuclear energy research, and petroleum exploration.Characteristics Powerful Expensive Dedicated to one purpose - weather, satellites, military Used by large governments or very large companies Can be used by thousands of people at the same time Very large - fill rooms
54Sixteen racks of IBM's Blue Gene/L supercomputer can perform 70 Sixteen racks of IBM's Blue Gene/L supercomputer can perform 70.7 trillion calculations per second, making it the fastest machine known so far.