Presentation on theme: "MIS 315 - Bsharah Digital Data Representation Class Handout."— Presentation transcript:
MIS Bsharah Digital Data Representation Class Handout
MIS Bsharah 2 Digital Data Representation Data Representation Basics Representing Numbers, Text, and Pictures Quantifying Bits and Bytes Circuits and Chips
MIS Bsharah 3 Data Representation Data representation refers to the form in which data is stored, processed, and transmitted. Digital devices work with distinct and separate data. Analog devices work with continuous data. Digitizing is the process of converting analog data into a digital format. Digital=Distinct On / Off Analog=Continuous
MIS Bsharah 4 Representing Numbers, Characters (Text), Pictures, and Sound Numeric data –Composed of numbers that might be used in arithmetic operations. –Decimal number system has 10 symbols. –Binary number system has only two symbols (0, 1). Character data –Composed of letters, symbols, and numerals that are not used in arithmetic operations. –ASCII, Extended ASCII, EBCDIC, and Unicode. Picture Data –Composed of a series of dots. –Each dot is assigned a binary number for color. Sound Data –Is characterized by the properties of a sound wave. –The wave can be represented digitally by sampling it a various points and converting those points into digital numbers.
MIS Bsharah 5 Memory Capacity Bit: –Short for binary digit (0s and 1s), the only data that a CPU can process. Byte: –An 8-bit string of data, needed to represent any one alphanumeric character or simple mathematical operation. 5 In this picture, one byte, , represents the letter H
MIS Bsharah 6 Numeric and Character Data Representation
MIS Bsharah 7 Hierarchy of Memory Capacity -Quantifying Bits and Bytes Bit –One binary digit Byte –8 bits Kilobyte (KB) –Approximately one thousand bytes, (1024 or 2 10 bytes) Megabyte (MB) –Approximately one million bytes (1,048,576 bytes, or 1,024 x 1,024 or 2 20 bytes). Gigabyte (GB) –Actually 1,073,741,824 bytes (1,024 x 1,024 x 1,024 or 2 30 bytes). Terabyte –One trillion bytes, or 2 40 bytes. Petabyte –One thousand terabytes, or 2 50 bytes. Exabyte –One thousand petabytes, or 2 60 bytes. Zettabyte –One thousand exabytes. 7
MIS Bsharah 8 Circuits and Chips An integrated circuit (computer chip) is a super-thin slice of semiconducting material packed with microscopic circuit elements. –DIP=Dual In-line Package PGA=Pin Grid Array
MIS Bsharah 9 How do bits and bytes fit together with chips and circuits? Bits take the form of electrical pulses that can travel over circuits. –The 1 bit might represent an elevated voltage, such as 5 volts, whereas a 0 bit is represented by a low voltage, such as 0. The system board is a circuit board to which a multitude of electronic components are mounted. –Motherboard
MIS Bsharah 10 Digital Processing Programs and Instruction Sets Processor Logic
MIS Bsharah 11 Programs and Instruction Sets Computers, portable media players, handheld computers, and smart phones all work with digital data. Computer programmers create programs that control digital devices. These programs are usually written in a high-level programming language. –The human-readable version of a program created in a high- level language is called the source code.
MIS Bsharah 12 Programs and Instruction Sets The procedure for translating source code into 0’s and 1’s can be accomplished by a compiler or an interpreter.
MIS Bsharah 13 Programs and Instruction Sets A collection of preprogrammed activities a microprocessor is hardwired to perform is called an instruction set. –Additions, subtractions, counting, comparisons, etc Each instruction has a corresponding sequence of 0s and 1s might = Add. The list of codes for a microprocessor’s instruction set, called machine language, can be directly executed by the processor’s circuitry. This end product, the 1s and 0s, is called machine code.
MIS Bsharah 14 Programs and Instruction Sets A machine code instruction has two parts. –The op code and the operand. An op code (short for operation code) is a command word for an operation such as add, compare, or jump. The operand for an instruction specifies the data (or the address of the data) for the operation Op CodeOperand
MIS Bsharah 15 Programs and Instruction Sets Many machine language instructions might be needed to equal a simple high-level program that counts to 100.
MIS Bsharah 16 Processor Logic-What happens inside a computer chip The arithmetic logic unit (ALU) is the part of the microprocessor that performs arithmetic operations. The ALU uses registers to hold data that is being processed. The microprocessor’s control unit fetches each instruction, just as you get each ingredient out of a cupboard or the refrigerator. The term instruction cycle refers to the process in which a computer executes a single instruction.
MIS Bsharah 17 Processor Logic-What happens inside a computer chip
MIS Bsharah 18 Processor Logic-What role does the Control Unit play