I NPUT D EVICES Input Devices: devices that input information into the computer such as a keyboard, mouse, scanner, and digital camera.
O UTPUT D EVICES Output: devices that output information from the computer such as a printer and monitor.
C ENTRAL P ROCESSING U NIT CPU (Central Processing Unit) also called the Microprocessor or “The Brain” of the Computer. Processor speed: The speed at which a microprocessor executes instructions. This is usually measured in megahertz (MHz). Brands of Processors include: Pentium Celeron MAC AMD Cyrix
C ENTRAL P ROCESSING U NIT Computer chip: also called the microprocessor may contain an entire processing unit. Computer chips contain millions of transistors. They are small pieces of semi-conducting material (silicon). An integrated circuit is embedded in the silicon. Computers are made of many chips on a circuit board.
D ATA S TORAGE D EVICES The hard-drive is a mechanical storage device typically located internally. Fast recording and recovery of data Large storage capacity Magnetic Primary storage device for data and programs Speed is measured in R.P.M.’s
D ATA S TORAGE D EVICES ( CONT ’ D ) CD-ROM (compact disk read only memory) Approximately 600 to 700 megabyte of storage An optical device read by a diode laser
S OFTWARE Instructions and associated data, stored in electronic format, that direct the computer to accomplish a task. System software helps the computer carry out its basic operating tasks. Operating systems Utilities
S YSTEM S OFTWARE An Operating System (OS) is the master controller within a computer. EX: Windows, MacOS, DOS, UNIX, Linux An operating system interacts with: All hardware installed in or connected to a computer system. All software installed or running from a storage device on a computer system.
S YSTEM S OFTWARE Microsoft Windows Most popular operating system. Supports a vast array of application software and peripheral devices. MacOS For Macintosh computers. Proprietary system. Does not have same functionality and support for software and peripheral devices.
S YSTEM S OFTWARE Utilities Utilities augment functionality of operating systems. Utilities includes device drivers and Troubleshooting capabilities. Utilities provide file management capabilities such as copying, moving or renaming a file. Norton Utilities includes an undelete function that can recover deleted files. Symantec and McAfee Virus checkers add protection for all system and data files.
A PPLICATION S OFTWARE Graphics Creation and Manipulation Animation and 3D Graphics Video Editing Internet Connectivity Website Creation and Management Groupware Financial Management Educational Games and Tutorials
P ROVIDING A U SER I NTERFACE Graphical user interface (GUI) Most common interface Windows, OS X, Gnome, KDE Uses a mouse to control objects Uses a desktop metaphor Shortcuts open programs or documents Open documents have additional objects Task switching Dialog boxes allow directed input
M ICROPROCESSOR G ENERATIONS First generation: 1971-78 Behind the power curve (16-bit, <50k transistors) Second Generation: 1979-85 Becoming “real” computers (32-bit, >50k transistors) Third Generation: 1985-89 Challenging the “establishment” (Reduced Instruction Set Computer/RISC, >100k transistors) Fourth Generation: 1990- Architectural and performance leadership (64-bit, > 1M transistors, Intel/AMD translate into RISC internally)
I N THE BEGINNING (8- BIT ) I NTEL 4004 First general-purpose, single- chip microprocessor Shipped in 1971 8-bit architecture, 4-bit implementation 2,300 transistors Performance < 0.1 MIPS (Million Instructions Per Sec) 8008: 8-bit implementation in 1972 3,500 transistors First microprocessor-based computer (Micral) Targeted at laboratory instrumentation Mostly sold in Europe All chip photos in this talk courtesy of Michael W. Davidson and The Florida State University
1 ST G ENERATION (16- BIT ) I NTEL 8086 Introduced in 1978 Performance < 0.5 MIPS New 16-bit architecture “Assembly language” compatible with 8080 29,000 transistors Includes memory protection, support for Floating Point coprocessor In 1981, IBM introduces PC Based on 8088--8-bit bus version of 8086
2 ND G ENERATION (32- BIT ) M OTOROLA 68000 Major architectural step in microprocessors: First 32-bit architecture initial 16-bit implementation First flat 32-bit address Support for paging General-purpose register architecture Loosely based on PDP-11 minicomputer First implementation in 1979 68,000 transistors < 1 MIPS (Million Instructions Per Second) Used in Apple Mac Sun, Silicon Graphics, & Apollo workstations
3 RD G ENERATION : MIPS R2000 Several firsts: First (commercial) RISC microprocessor First microprocessor to provide integrated support for instruction & data cache First pipelined microprocessor (sustains 1 instruction/clock) Implemented in 1985 125,000 transistors 5-8 MIPS (Million Instructions per Second)
4 TH G ENERATION (64 BIT ) MIPS R4000 First 64-bit architecture Integrated caches On-chip Support for off-chip, secondary cache Integrated floating point Implemented in 1991: Deep pipeline 1.4M transistors Initially 100MHz > 50 MIPS Intel translates 80x86/ Pentium X instructions into RISC internally