Ido Tov & Matan Raveh Parallel Processing (361-1-3621) January 2014 Electrical and Computer Engineering DPT. Ben-Gurion University
Early 2000’s – Iraqi government bought 1000’s of PS2 NCSA (National Center for Supercomputing Applications) built an 8 and a 32 node PS2 cluster. Following the PlayStation 3 release: 2007 – NC State Uni. 2007 – Dartmouth Uni. (“Gravity Grid”) 2010 – USAF Research Lab for satellite imagery (500 TFLOPS, 1760 units)
Developed by Sony, Toshiba and IBM Originally developed for high performance applications. Each Cell Chip has: One PowerPC core(PPE) 8 compute cores (SPEs) On-chip Memory controller On-chip I/O On-chip network to connect them all A PS3 has: 1 Cell Chips (6 usable SPEs) 256MB of XDR DRAM Memory Gigabit Ethernet
Power Processing Element (PPE) Synergistic Processing Element (SPE) Element Interconnection Bus (EIB) Memory System Network Card & Graphics Card
Power Processing Element (PPE) The PPE is a 64 bit, "POWER Architecture“ (Performance Optimization With Enhanced RISC) Synergistic Processing Elements (SPE) An SPE is a self contained vector processor (SIMD) which acts as a co-processor Each SPE consists of: 128 x 128 register Local Store (SRAM) DMA unit FP, LD/ST, Permute, Branch Unit (each pipelined)
Parallel processing on the PS3 was enabled with the Terra Soft Solutions version of “Yellow Dog” Linux for the PlayStation 3 (2007). This gave us the ability to work with parallel processing programing tools such as OpenMPI (for use with cluster).
Bruteforce MD5 (single PS3 cell) “Gravity Grid” – 2007 by Dr. Khanna, made for simulating black hole’s gravity. “Folding@Home” – joined research by Sony and Stanford Uni. for protein folding diseases (Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, Huntington's) Performing the SUMMA algorithm (matrix multiplication)
Advantages and Limitations Pricing: ▪ 200GF server ~ 6000$ ▪ 150GF PS3 unit ~ 300$ Use of Cell Chip technology Ease of use – hardware and software (Linux and OpenMPI) installation Advantages
Advantages and Limitations Main memory size: 256MB only (288MB optimal by SUMMA) Main memory speed / access rate: causing 12.5% efficiency Gigabit Ethernet – BOTTLENECK (compared to Cell speed) Double Precision speed slower by factor of 14 than Single Precision Programming Paradigm Limitations
On March 28 th 2010, Sony announced they’re disabling the ability to run other operating systems on Ps3 consoles – eliminating the option of installing Linux OS on PS consoles….
“PlayStation 3 Cluster” - Wikipedia.com http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/PlayStation_3_cluster http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/PlayStation_3_cluster SCOP3 - A Rough Guide to Scientific Computing On the PlayStation 3 (Buttari, Luszczek, Kurzak, Dongarra, Bosilca, University of Tennessee, Knoxville 2007) - http://www.netlib.org/utk/people/JackDongarra/PAPERS/scop3.pdf http://www.netlib.org/utk/people/JackDongarra/PAPERS/scop3.pdf Beyond Gaming: Programming the PS3 Cell Architecture for Cost-Effective Parallel Processing (Rabbah, IBM Watson Center, Austria 2007) http://impact.asu.edu/cse520fa07/lec19-PS3-cell-tutorial.pdf