2Section 1.1 Microcontrollers and Embedded Processors
3General-purpose microprocessor 2017/4/13General-purpose microprocessorCPU for ComputersNo RAM, ROM, I/O on CPU chip itselfExample：Intel’s x86, Motorola’s 680x0Many chips on mother’s boardIntel’s x86: 8086,8088,80386,80486, PentiumMotorola’s 680x0: 68000, 68010, 68020,68030,6040Data BusCPUGeneral-Purpose Micro-processorSerial COM PortI/O PortRAMROMTimerAddress BusFigure 1-1 (a) General-Purpose Microprocessor System
4Microcontroller A smaller computer On-chip RAM, ROM, I/O ports... Example：Motorola’s 6811, Intel’s 8051, Zilog’s Z8 and PIC 16XCPURAMROMA single chipSerial COM PortI/O PortTimerFigure 1-1 (b) Microcontroller
5Microprocessor v.s. Microcontroller 2017/4/13Microprocessor v.s. MicrocontrollerMicroprocessorCPU is stand-alone, RAM, ROM, I/O, timer are separatedesigner can decide on the amount of ROM, RAM and I/O ports.expansiveversatilitygeneral-purposeMicrocontrollerCPU, RAM, ROM, I/O and timer are all on a single chipfix amount of on-chip ROM, RAM, I/O portsfor applications in which cost, power and space are criticalsingle-purposeversatility 多用途的: any number of applications for PC
6Embedded System（嵌入式系統） 2017/4/13Embedded System（嵌入式系統）Embedded system means the processor is embedded into that application.An embedded product uses a microprocessor or microcontroller to do one task only.In an embedded system, there is only one application software that is typically burned into ROM.Example：printer, keyboard, video game playerExample：Table 1-1, some embedded products using microconrollersprocessor 整合到整個系統中, 你只看到此系統的外觀, 應用, 感覺不到有 processor 在其中.Embedded system 通常只有一項應用, 而 PC 有許多 applications (game, accounting, fax, mail...)A printer is an example of embedded system since the processor inside it performs one task only.
7Processors in Embedded Systems 2017/4/13Processors in Embedded SystemsWhich is your choice for an embedded product？microcontrollercost downembedded processor ＝ microcontrollermicroprocessorIn future, an entire computer on a chiphigh-end embedded systems use microprocessors殺雞用牛刀！advantage：soon software development, all (appliances) in one.
8Three criteria in Choosing a Microcontroller meeting the computing needs of the task efficiently and cost effectivelyspeed, the amount of ROM and RAM, the number of I/O ports and timers, size, packaging, power consumptioneasy to upgradecost per unitavailability of software development toolsassemblers, debuggers, C compilers, emulator, simulator, technical supportwide availability and reliable sources of the microcontrollers.
102017/4/13History of 80511981, Intel MCS-51The 8051 became popular after Intel allowed other manufacturers to make and market an flavor of the 8051.different speed, amount of o-chip ROMcode-compatible with the original 8051form a 8051 family在 Intel 允許廠商設計相容的 8051 IC 後, 8051 才真正的 popular.
11Table 1-3：Features of the 8051 Feature Quantity NotesROM K bytes a fixed programRAM bytes temporary dataTimers Timer/counter 0,1I/O pins P0,P1,P2,P3Serial port TxD, RxDInterrupt sources
13Inside Architecture of 8051 2017/4/13Inside Architecture of 8051External interruptsOn-chip ROM for program codeTimer/CounterInterrupt ControlOn-chip RAMTimer 1Counter InputsTimer 0CPUSerial PortBus Control4 I/O PortsOSCP0 P1 P2 P3TxD RxDAddress/DataFigure 1-2. Inside the 8051 Microcontroller Block Diagram
14Other 8051 family Table 1-4：Comparison of the 8051 Family Members FeatureROM (program space in bytes) 4K K KRAM (bytes)TimersI/O pinsSerial portInterrupt sources
15Various 8051 Microcontrollers 2017/4/13Various 8051 Microcontrollers8751 microcontrollerAT89C51 from Atmel CorporationDS5000 from Dallas SemiconductorOTP (one-time-programmable) version of the 80518051 family from PhilipsNote：Memory is the most difference between them. Please reference to Chapter 14 and Chapter 15.You ignore this part until your really design.8751 microcontroller (UV-EPROM)AT89C51 from Atmel Corporation (flash memory) Table 1-5, Table 1-6DS5000 from Dallas Semiconductor (NV-RAM) Table 1-7, Table 1-8OTP version of the 80518051 family from Philips (add A-to-D converters, D-to-A converters)
16You are able toCompare and contrast microprocessors and microcontrollersDescribe the advantages of microcontrollers for some applicationsExplain the concept of embedded systemsDiscuss criteria to consider in choosing a microcontrollerExplain the variations of speed, packaging, memory, and cost per unit and how these affect choosing a microcontrollerCompare and contrast the various members of the 8051 familyCompare 8051 microcontrollers offered by various manufacturers