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Writing Science –IEP 2012 showing your process communicating your results Nancy Lea Eik-Nes Dept. of Language and Communication Studies.

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Presentation on theme: "Writing Science –IEP 2012 showing your process communicating your results Nancy Lea Eik-Nes Dept. of Language and Communication Studies."— Presentation transcript:

1 Writing Science –IEP 2012 showing your process communicating your results Nancy Lea Eik-Nes Dept. of Language and Communication Studies

2 Contents and Structure paragraphs sentences words spelling. ? “ ” Fra: T. L. Hoel, 1995 Tanke blir tekst: Skrivehjelp for Studentar. Oslo: Det Norske Samlaget.

3 I M R A D Introduction (CARS) Material and methods Results And Discussion (Swales, 1990)

4 I M R A D ? Title Authors Abstract Key words Introduction (CARS) Material and methods Results And Discussion Conclusion Acknowledgements Literature list

5 Titles - tell the reader The topic of the study The nature of the study (experiment, survey, case study) The scope of the study (indicate delimitations)

6 Titles Causing a stir in welding circles Preliminary Modeling of the Friction Stir Welding Process

7 A good title makes your article searchable makes your article interesting it is the “face” you present follows the guidelines (constraints – number of words)

8 Headings highlight the logic of your study keep the readers on the right track reflect the contents of each section provide “signposts” for your reader to navigate through your paper

9 Abstract – two main kinds Indicative abstract Proposal for presentation at conference Review article Informative abstract – summary abstract Research article

10 Abstract – perhaps all the reader sees Summary of the article/report Mini IMRaD Introduction (why, what) Method Results Discussion (implications)

11 Abstract Must be clear/informative enough so that the search engine picks it up the reader can find it the reader can understand what it is about the reader can see if it is worth purchasing

12 Abstract – informative/summary The abstract must be accurate as a reflection of what is in your report. The abstract must be self-contained, without abbreviations, footnotes, or incomplete references. It must make sense on its own.

13 Abstract Summary of the article Mini IMRaD Introduction (why, what) Method Results Discussion (implications)

14 References & Citations Information prominent citation Redundancy exists on two levels: with respect to (a) applied wrenches and (b) joint motions. Problems relating to the former have been fairly well addressed [7, 10] Author prominent citation Goold and Fish (1998) measured the high- frequency signal of a 2120 inch (35L) air-gun array at a distance of 750 m and found high-frequency amplitude levels…. Later, Breitzke et al. (2008) measured the high frequency….

15 Introduction Rationale – why is there a problem? (often with references) Purpose – what what you offer the reader

16 Headings highlight the logic of your study keep the readers on the right track reflect the contents of each section provide “signposts” for your reader to navigate through your paper

17 Headingsshould reflect the content or structure (“method” “procedure” “models to be tested”) follow the guidelines generic? author’s choice? (questions or statements or generic headings) be balanced – not too many, not too few

18 So your reader can find your source To show respect for those who have helped you To show that you know your field To avoid plagiarizing (it’s illegal) Why use references?

19 When quoting someone else’s text (word for word) When paraphrasing someone else’s text When using a term that or expression that is not your own When you use someone else’s idea It is better to use too many references than not enough When to use references?

20 The author is recognized in the field The topic is significant in your work The writer/publisher is recognized The web site is reliable (ownership?) Choosing references/sources

21 References - names As Smith (2001), Wesson (2001), and Williams (2002) demonstrate, the natural course of microprocessor evolution will likely lead to computers with.... As several studies have demonstrated (Smith 2001, Wesson 2001, and Williams 2002), the natural course of microprocessor evolution will likely lead to computers with….

22 Reference – Names (APA) The major difference between IEEE and other styles is that IEEE style encloses citation numbers within the text of a paper in square brackets [1] rather than as superscripts 1 or in bracketed form (Jones, 1998).

23 References - names According to one technical writing expert, even though IEEE is the most difficult style to learn, it is still the most valuable style for aspiring engineers to pick up (Jones, 1998).

24 References - numbers According to one technical writing expert, even though IEEE is the most difficult style to learn, it is still the most valuable style for aspiring engineers to pick up 1.

25 References - numbers As Smith 1, Wesson 2, and Williams 3 demonstrate, the natural course of microprocessor evolution will likely lead to computers with.... As Smith, Wesson, and Williams demonstrate 1,2,3, the natural course of microprocessor evolution will likely lead to computers with.... As demonstrated in several studies 1-3, the natural course of microprocessor evolution will likely lead to computers with....

26 References – IEEE According to one technical writing expert, even though IEEE is the most difficult style to learn, it is still the most valuable style for aspiring engineers to pick up [1].

27 References - IEEE As [1], [2], and [3] demonstrate, the natural course of microprocessor evolution will likely lead to computers with... " According to [2], current Internet technology is still years behind industry projections... "


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