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Microprocessor Fundamentals Week 5 Mount Druitt College of TAFE Dept. Electrical Engineering 2008
© Mike Stacey 2007 Partial Addressing (p3 sect. 4) Figure 4.4 Partial Address Decoding A13 A14 A15 Partial Address Decoding: is when only some of the address lines are used for selection of ICs, others remaining unused. Simpler PCB design possible but allows a range of addresses to access the same location. Absolute Address Decoding: when ALL of the address lines are used.
© Mike Stacey 2007 Partial Address Problems When is IC1 active? When is IC2 active? A13 – A15 are not connected but they are still used by the CPU Problem is that there will be a number of addresses which will address the same location on each chip.
© Mike Stacey 2007 Partial Address Decoding Problems IC1 selected when A12 low or 0000 or 0FFF or 1000 or 1FFF But 1000 will also select IC1 And so will 2000, 4000, 6000, 7000, 8000, A000, C000, E000. Problem: Each location in IC1 can be addressed using 8 different addresses. And the same for IC2. Range for IC1 Range for IC2
© Mike Stacey 2007 Addressing Modes Transfer of data from source operand to destination operand MOV AX, BX Source operand Destination operand Opcode
© Mike Stacey 2007 Addressing Modes What is an addressing mode? Addressing mode is used to describe the way a particular instruction lets the microprocessor know where the source or the destination is located
© Mike Stacey 2007 Addressing Modes Register Direct Source and destination operands are registers Simplest type of addressing, fastest, shortest instructions MOV AX BX: make a copy of contents of reg BX and place it in AX Immediate Addressing Source is a constant hex value and is written into the destination register MOV AX, 1A3C: 1A goes into AH, 3C goes into AL
© Mike Stacey 2007 Addressing Modes Memory Direct Addressing One of the operands (source or destination) is an address in memory MOV AX,: moves content of memory location 1234 (effective address) to reg AX Simplest type for addressing memory but least efficient Requires at least 3 bytes for the instruction Inflexible: program must always use this memory location – it’s hard coded in and can’t be changed by the program.
© Mike Stacey 2007 Addressing Modes Indirect Addressing Uses a “pointer” to point to the source address MOV AX,[BX]: move the contents of memory at location BX into AX. If BX contains 1234, then memory contents at 1234 are moved. Flexible: address pointer can be changed from within the program Usually only 1 byte instruction length More efficient Faster
© Mike Stacey 2007 Addressing Modes Indexed Addressing Offset added to the base address held in one of the uP internal registers. The offset is in 2s complement format. MOV AX,[BX + F3]: moves data from address pointed to by BX – 13 to reg AX. In the 8086 we use a number of “segment” registers to hold the base address of segments in memory Recall MOV CL,[EA]: moves contents of memory location DS:EA into CL. If DS = 490B and EA = 2456, then memory location = 4B506. MOV AX,[BX + 5F]: If DS = 1850, BX = 123F then PA = F + 5F = 1979E MOV AX,[BX + 9B]: PA = F + FFF9B =196DA Positive offset Negative offset
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