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Computer Hardware Chapter 2. 2 Chapter 2: Computer Hardware2 Chapter Contents  Section A: Personal Computer Basics  Section B: Microprocessors and Memory.

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Presentation on theme: "Computer Hardware Chapter 2. 2 Chapter 2: Computer Hardware2 Chapter Contents  Section A: Personal Computer Basics  Section B: Microprocessors and Memory."— Presentation transcript:

1 Computer Hardware Chapter 2

2 2 Chapter 2: Computer Hardware2 Chapter Contents  Section A: Personal Computer Basics  Section B: Microprocessors and Memory  Section C: Storage Devices  Section D: Input and Output Devices  Section E: Hardware Security

3 2 SECTION A Chapter 2: Computer Hardware3 Personal Computer Basics  Personal Computer Systems  Desktop and Portable Computers  Home, Media, Game, and Small Business Systems  Buying Computer System Components

4 2 Chapter 2: Computer Hardware4 Personal Computer Systems

5 2 Chapter 2: Computer Hardware5 Desktop and Portable Computers  The term form factor refers to the size and dimensions of a component, such as a system board or system unit  A desktop computer fits on a desk and runs on power from an electrical wall outlet

6 2 Chapter 2: Computer Hardware6 Desktop and Portable Computers  A portable computer is a small, lightweight personal computer  A notebook computer (also referred to as a laptop), is a small, lightweight portable computer that opens like a clamshell to reveal a screen and keyboard  A tablet computer is a portable computing device featuring a touch-sensitive screen that can be used as a writing or drawing pad  An ultra-mobile PC (UMPC) is a small form factor tablet computer designed to run most of the software available for larger portable computers

7 2 Chapter 2: Computer Hardware7 Desktop and Portable Computers

8 2 Chapter 2: Computer Hardware8 Home, Media, Game, and Small Business Systems  A home computer system offers a hardware platform with adequate, but not super-charged support for most computer applications  A Media Center PC officially uses Windows Media Center Edition operating system  Some of the most cutting-edge computers are designed for gaming  Computers marketed for small business applications tend to be middle-of-the-line models pared down to essentials

9 2 Chapter 2: Computer Hardware9 Buying Computer System Components  Decide how your computer will be used, and how much you want to spend  Decide on a platform (Mac, PC, Linux)  Look at ads in computer magazines and at computer/electronic stores  Understand the computer jargon  Expect to pay anywhere from a few hundred to several thousand dollars

10 2 Chapter 2: Computer Hardware10 Buying Computer System Components  Instead of buying a new computer, you might consider upgrading

11 2 SECTION B Chapter 2: Computer Hardware11 Microprocessors and Memory  Microprocessor Basics  Today’s Microprocessors  Random Access Memory  Read-only Memory  EEPROM

12 2 Chapter 2: Computer Hardware12 Microprocessor Basics  A microprocessor is an integrated circuit designed to process instructions –ALU –Registers –Control unit –Instruction set

13 2 Chapter 2: Computer Hardware13 Microprocessor Basics  Front side bus –HyperTransport  Microprocessor clock –Megahertz –Gigahertz  Word size  Cache –Level 1 cache (L1) –Level 2 cache (L2)  CISC vs. RISC technology

14 2 Chapter 2: Computer Hardware14 Microprocessor Basics  Serial processing –Pipelining  Parallel processing  Dual core processor  Hyper-Threading Technology

15 2 Chapter 2: Computer Hardware15 Today’s Microprocessors

16 2 Chapter 2: Computer Hardware16 Random Access Memory  Random Access Memory is a temporary holding area for data, application program instructions, and the operating system

17 2 Chapter 2: Computer Hardware17 Random Access Memory  Microscopic capacitors hold the bits that represent data  Most RAM is volatile –Requires electrical power to hold data

18 2 Chapter 2: Computer Hardware18 Random Access Memory  RAM capacity is expressed in megabytes or gigabytes  Personal computers typically feature between 256MB and 2GB of RAM  An area of the hard disk, called virtual memory, can be used if an application runs out of allocated RAM

19 2 Chapter 2: Computer Hardware19 Random Access Memory  RAM speed is often expressed in nanoseconds or megahertz  SDRAM is fast and relatively inexpensive –DDR  RDRAM is more expensive, and usually found in high-performance workstations

20 2 Chapter 2: Computer Hardware20 Read-Only Memory  ROM is a type of memory circuitry that holds the computer’s startup routine –Permanent and non-volatile  The ROM BIOS tells the computer how to access the hard disk, find the operating system, and load it into RAM

21 2 Chapter 2: Computer Hardware21 EEPROM  Electrically Erasable Programmable Read- Only Memory  More permanent than RAM, and less permanent than ROM  Requires no power to hold data

22 2 SECTION C Chapter 2: Computer Hardware22 Storage Devices  Storage Basics  Magnetic Disk and Tape Technology  CD and DVD Technology  Solid State Storage  Storage Wrap-up

23 2 Chapter 2: Computer Hardware23 Storage Basics  A storage medium contains data  A storage device records and retrieves data from a storage medium –Data gets copied from a storage device into RAM, where it waits to be processed –Processed data is held temporarily in RAM before it is copied to a storage medium

24 2 Chapter 2: Computer Hardware24 Magnetic Disk and Tape Technology  Magnetic storage stores data by magnetizing microscopic particles on the disk or tape surface

25 2 Chapter 2: Computer Hardware25 Magnetic Disk and Tape Technology Hard disk platters and read- write heads are sealed inside the drive case or cartridge to screen out dust and other contaminants.

26 2 Chapter 2: Computer Hardware26  A controller positions the disk and read-write heads to locate data –SATA –Ultra ATA –EIDE –SCSI  Not as durable as many other storage technologies –Head crash Magnetic Disk and Tape Technology

27 2 Chapter 2: Computer Hardware27 Magnetic Disk and Tape Technology  A floppy disk is a round piece of flexible Mylar plastic covered with a thin layer of magnetic oxide and sealed inside a protective casing  A tape drive is a device that reads data from and writes data to a long stream of recordable media similar to the tapes used in audio cassettes  A tape is a sequential storage medium

28 2 Chapter 2: Computer Hardware28 CD and DVD Technology  Optical storage stores data as microscopic light and dark spots on the disk surface –CD and DVD storage technologies

29 2 Chapter 2: Computer Hardware29 CD and DVD Technology  Today’s DVD drives typically have 16X speeds for a data transfer rate of Mbps  Three categories of optical technologies –Read-only (ROM) –Recordable (R) –Rewritable (RW)

30 2 Chapter 2: Computer Hardware30 CD and DVD Technology  CD-DA  DVD-Video  CD-ROM  DVD-ROM  CD-R  DVD+R or DVD-R  CD-RW  DVD+RW or DVD-RW

31 2 Chapter 2: Computer Hardware31 CD and DVD Technology

32 2 Chapter 2: Computer Hardware32 Solid State Storage  Solid state storage technology stores data in an erasable, rewritable circuitry  Non-volatile  Card reader may be required to read data on solid state storage

33 2 Chapter 2: Computer Hardware33 Solid State Storage  A USB flash drive is a portable storage device that plugs directly into a computer’s USB port using a built-in connector  A U3 drive is a special type of USB flash drive that is preconfigured to autoplay when it is inserted into a computer

34 2 Chapter 2: Computer Hardware34 Storage Wrap-up Most desktop computers have several drive bays, some accessible from outside the case, and others—designed for hard disk drives—without any external access. Empty drive bays are typically hidden from view with a face plate.

35 2 Chapter 2: Computer Hardware35 Storage Wrap-up

36 2 SECTION D Chapter 2: Computer Hardware36 Input and Output Devices  Basic Input Devices  Display Devices  Printers  Installing Peripheral Devices

37 2 Chapter 2: Computer Hardware37 Basic Input Devices  Keyboard  Pointing device –Pointing stick –Trackpad –Trackball –Joystick  Touch screen

38 2 Chapter 2: Computer Hardware38 Display Devices  A CRT display device uses a bulky glass tube  An LCD manipulates light within a layer of liquid crystal cells  Plasma screen technology illuminates lights arranged in a panel-like screen

39 2 Chapter 2: Computer Hardware39 Display Devices  Viewable image size  Dot pitch  Viewing angle width  Refresh rate  Color depth  Resolution –VGA, SVGA, XGA, SXGA, UXGA, and WUXGA

40 2 Chapter 2: Computer Hardware40 Display Devices

41 2 Chapter 2: Computer Hardware41 Display Devices  Graphics circuitry generates the signals for displaying an image on the screen –Integrated graphics –Graphics card –Graphics processing unit (GPU)

42 2 Chapter 2: Computer Hardware42 Printers  An ink-jet printer has a nozzle-like print head that sprays ink onto paper  A laser printer works like a photocopier

43 2 Chapter 2: Computer Hardware43 Printers Laser printers are a popular technology when high-volume output or good-quality printouts are required.

44 2 Chapter 2: Computer Hardware44 Printers  Dot matrix printers produce characters and graphics by using a grid of fine wires –The wires strike a ribbon and the paper

45 2 Chapter 2: Computer Hardware45 Printers  Printer features –Resolution –Print speed –Duty cycle –Operating costs –Duplex capability –Memory –Networkability

46 2 Chapter 2: Computer Hardware46 Installing Peripheral Devices  The data bus moves data within the computer  Expansion cards are small circuit boards that give the computer additional capabilities –Expansion slot ISA PCI AGP –PCMCIA slot PC card

47 2 Chapter 2: Computer Hardware47 Installing Peripheral Devices An expansion card simply slides into an expansion slot and is secured with a small screw. Before you open the case, make sure you unplug the computer and ground yourself—that’s technical jargon for releasing static electricity by using a special grounding wristband or by touching both hands to a metal object.

48 2 Chapter 2: Computer Hardware48 Installing Peripheral Devices  An expansion port passes data in and out of a computer or peripheral device  Peripheral device may include the Plug and Play feature, or require a device driver

49 2 Chapter 2: Computer Hardware49 Installing Peripheral Devices

50 2 SECTION E Chapter 2: Computer Hardware50 Hardware Security  Anti-theft Devices  Surge Protection and Battery Backup  Basic Maintenance  Troubleshooting and Repair

51 2 Chapter 2: Computer Hardware51 Anti-Theft Devices

52 2 Chapter 2: Computer Hardware52 Surge Protection and Battery Backup  A power surge is a sudden increase or spike in electrical energy, affecting the current that flows to electrical outlets  A surge strip is a device that contains electrical outlets protected by circuitry that blocks surges and spikes  A UPS is a device that not only provides surge protection, but also furnishes your computer with battery backup power during a power outage

53 2 Chapter 2: Computer Hardware53 Surge Protection and Battery Backup

54 2 Chapter 2: Computer Hardware54 Basic Maintenance  Computer component failures can be caused by manufacturing defects and other circumstances beyond your control  Keep the keyboard clean  Clean your computer screen on a regular basis  Keep the area clean around your computer  Make sure fans are free of dust

55 2 Chapter 2: Computer Hardware55 Basic Maintenance Carefully use a Q-tip and a can of compressed air or a vacuum cleaner to remove dust and debris from your keyboard.

56 2 Chapter 2: Computer Hardware56 Troubleshooting and Repair  There are several telltale signs that your computer is in trouble –Failure to power up –Loud beep –Blue screen of death  Help and Support Center  Safe Mode

57 2 Chapter 2: Computer Hardware57 Troubleshooting and Repair

58 Chapter 2 Complete Computer Hardware


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